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able and efficient engine, but people must not lean to earnest. Saturday afternoon in Manchester, prior to it; it must not be substituted for individual exertion. this reform, was the busiest half day of the whole Not a town or parish in Scotland should rest without week. The work of the week was driven up into its sending up a petition. Evils have been introduced closing hours, which consequently became very late of late years into Scotland which few are aware of. and unseasonable, and formed a most unsuitable preWill our readers believe, that in some districts, the paration for the rest of the Sabbath. Now all this is letter-carrier is employed nearly the whole of the changed for the better, despite the predictions of Lord's-day in going his round? Will they believe those who said that it could never be carried out, and that Post-office money orders are issued and paid in that those upon whom they were dependent for their many places, the same as on the six days of the week ? | business could never submit to be thus treated. If, We know of one country town where the Post-office for his own pleasure, the half of a day can be so sometimes draws £20 on the Sabbath, in small sums, easily given up, and the post be virtually made no from the railway and other labourers. It is the prin- use of, then surely may the one day in seven, which cipal day for granting money orders. Such a thing God claims for himself, be preserved entire for the is unknown in Edinburgh and Glasgow, and in the ends and purposes for which he set it apart from the large cities in England. Why is it tolerated in the beginning. Many who are friendly to the obsersmaller towns in Scotland ? Why is the Government vance of the Lord's-day, but who have been so accusExchange Bank open on Sabbath, as on other days, tomed to the Sabbath mail that they cannot see how when other banks are shut? This is a national sin and the country can do without it, would, we are perevery man is involved in it, who does not try to put suaded, if once it were abolished, admit, as in the a stop to it. It was high time that an effort be made case of the Manchester half holiday, that they not to arrest this growing evil, and to overthrow this only suffer no inconvenience, but that it has proved " seat of the money.changer,” whereby the Sabbath an invaluable social reform. of the Lord is polluted, in some places at the very We believe that a similar movement to that in door of the house of God.

Manchester has been attempted or contemplated in We might here refer to another movement which some of the towns in Scotland. We wish every was successfully made in Manchester some years success to all such efforts to increase the comfort and ago, which may be found to have had some influ- | happiness of our over-worked population. But we ence on that for closing the Post-office on Sabbath- would suggest that success will depend very much we mean the Saturday's half holiday. A resolution upon taking their stand upon the sacred observance of was at that time come to, which, we believe, was the Sabbath, and using every means for the prevenalmost universal, by which the places of business tion of increased facilities for pleasuring on that day, were closed, and clerks, warehousemen, porters, &c., and for the reformation of abuses, which are already set free at one o'clock. An opportunity was thereby getting established amongst us. If those who are given for health-bringing recreation once a-week, for shut up in towns and busily employed during the the man who had wrought hard during the long week, wish their pleading for a little recreation to hours of the week enjoying a walk into the country tell on their employers, they must use their endeawith his wife and family, or visiting his friends, and vours to remove the counter argument, which masters for the Sabbath-school teacher making the round of who fear not God nor regard man are ready to ada his scholars. The new régime at once removed many duce, that they have the Sabbath to themselves, and abuses by which the Sabbath rest had formerly been may take the railway train or steam-boat that day if encroached upon. The carriers resolved to withdraw

they want to go to the country. Our clerks, and their carts for loading goods after three o'clock, and warehousemen, and shopmen, have a far deeper inte. in cases not a few have they driven off from the rest in the progress of the Sabbath question than warehouses, leaving the boxes and bales to rest till they are aware of. Monday, rather than violate the rule. Consequently their work, which used to stretch far into the Sab.

II. THE RAILWAY MEETINGS. bath morning, was terminated at a reasonable hour on the Saturday evening. Other reforms followed The half-yearly railway meetings have just been upon the observance of the half holiday. The coun- held, and the friends of the Sabbath have reason, try shopkeeper, or foreign merchant, who used to upon the whole, to be satisfied with the results. The wind up his purchases late on the Saturday evening cause is evidently making progress. The tone and (frequently requiring his goods to be dispatched the temper of its opponents have greatly moderated, same night), and then to set off home on the Sabbath while others are awakening to the importance of morning, was now obliged to have them completed the subject, and coming forward to help in the timeously on the Saturday; and, in place of making cause. One of the largest shareholders in the CaledoSabbath the travelling day, returned to the bosom of nian, Mr Eyton from Shropshire, who holds 900 shares, his family the same evening. The letters of Satur- travelled 800 miles in order to give his support to day afternoon, the Liverpool, Yorkshire, and London Sir Andrew Agnew, and to express the feelings of despatches of that day, were only partially received, the English shareholders at the unhandsome and and lay unheeded and unanswered in the Post-office unfair treatment which Sir Andrew had received at till Monday morning. A little inconvenience was the previous meeting. The division at the meeting felt at first from these changes, and there were occa- was twenty-four in favour, and twenty-seven against sional grumblings from unreasonable correspondents the motion; but the directors showed an overwhelmin other towns; but, so soon as the thing was under- ing number of proxies in favour of their policy. Still stood, it righted itself; and, as the men of Manches- the Sabbatarians established some important points, ter had determined that it should not fail, the incon- which should encourage them to persevere. Sir venience and difficulties quickly disappeared.

Andrew Agnew got the minutes of the former meet. This shows how easily important and salutary ing read, which secured his motion being introduced changes may be effected when people are really in | at the proper place, and not set aside, as was attempted at the March meeting. The very unfair report of the head-sanctioned blindly all measures of religious proceedings of that meeting, which had been issued despotism. somehow under the Company's seal, was disclaimed Now, how different! The first word of the citizens by the chairman, who said, that nothing of the kind of Vienna, at the revolution, was this :—“Liberty and should be done again; and Mr Blackadder was as- equality for all modes of worship!” The Catholic Archsured, that a correct return of the Sabbath work would bishop of Vienna, who was notorious for his ultrabe kept, and given at the next meeting. Sir Andrew montane principles, was hooted in the street, and had Agnew and Mr Bridges advocated the stoppage of to affix to the walls of Vienna a handbill to justify all unnecessary work, with their usual ability. himself. The Liguorians (or Jesuits) were forced to

The Edinburgh and Glasgow, Glasgow, Paisley, abandon the convent which they had opened near Greenock, and Ayr lines, continue closed on the the capital. Their property will serve hereafter for Sabbath; and the existing arrangement remains for the public use; and probably, after a while, all the the present undisturbed in the Scottish Central. other monasteries will be suppressed. The new poliBut from the connection of this line with the Cale. | tical constitution has established liberty of worship donian,we understand that an attempt will shortly be and liberty of the press. The Bible and controvermade to carry the mail trains by it northward together sial works can circulate without hindrance in the with the passengers brought by the Caledonian. Our whole extent of Austria. Protestants will have the friends would require to be on the alert, lest they be same rights as Romanists. What a wonderful transtaken by surprise. They must know that if passen- formation, we repeat it, in this empire, which was ger trains be run, the number of passengers cannot considered as the firmest bulwark of intolerance ! be limited to four in and four out, as in the old mail Hungary has experienced the same benefits. It coach, which some vainly imagine. The Act of Par- was subjected to a very heavy yoke in religious matliament requires, that if the Company take passengers ters. We will mention the example of the noble at all, it shall provide accommodation forthe public at Count Casimir Batthyani, belonging to one of the 1d. per mile. The importance of maintaining ground first families of the country, a man as distinguished in the Scottish Central cannot be over-estimated; and by his intelligence as by his fortune, and one of the there is no doubt but that the present position may be political leaders in the Diet. Count Batthyani having

maintained, if the friends of the cause will only re- left Romanism for Protestantism, was disgraced by . solve that it shall be. It is there that the battle is the court of Vienna, and the Archduke-palatine re

now to be fought; and every effort should therefore ceived orders not to show him the usual marks of be made to strengthen the hands of our friends in official courtesy. Prince de Metternich devised this that Company at the present moment. Whoever has punishment to stop the progress of Protestant prothe means at his command, and wishes to preserve selytism. But now every one is free in Hungary, as Scotland's peaceful Sabbaths from being destroyed, elsewhere, to adopt the religion which he prefers

; will buy shares in the Company without loss of time, to and Count Batthyani will probably have numerous which the present value of the stock, we understand, imitators. holds out every inducement. If the Central be open Bohemia has suffered more persecutions than any for passenger traffic on the Lord's-day, through the other kingdom annexed to Austria. The Jesuits supineness of the friends of the Sabbath, they will remembered that it was the native land of John have cause bitterly to regret it ever afterwards. The Huss, and that heretics once formed a large part of tide of Sabbath desecration will then, in all pro- the population. Imprisonments, exile, corporal pubability, roll onwards unbroken to the north of Scot. nishment, they employed all to extirpate the least land. We would remind those who take no interest vestige of opposition. Many inhabitants of Bohemia, in this matter, and think they are beyond the reach not having courage to endure so many sufferings

, of the evil consequences of such an issue, of the refused ali participation in public worship; and as words of a holy man, who by his promptitude and the Society of Loyola prefer infidels to heretics, they importunity saved his people: “ Think not with were left in peace. Now these concealed Protestants thyself that thou shalt escape; for if thou altogether can avow their real sentiments, and Bohemia will holdest thy peace at this time, then shall there en- have perhaps soon a numerous sect of modern Hussites. largement and deliverance arise from another place; The Croatians themselves-still a barbarous racebut thou and thy father's house shall be destroyed.” have profited by their political freedom to send to

the Emperor of Austria an address asking for the abolition of the celibacy of priests. The dissolute

ness of the clergy must have been very great, when CHANGES ON THE CONTINENT.

these barbarous Croatians ask for such a reform in (From a Foreign Letter.)

the constitution of Romanism.

What shall we say of Bavaria? There, last year, To begin with Austria. Austria, every one knows, was was the centre of Popish intolerance in Germany. leagued to the Jesuit system. A triple barrier of cus- The king, the queen, the ministers of state, did notom-houses prevented the entrance of books and jour-thing without first consulting the priests. Protestants nals opposed to Popery. Last summer, a gentleman suffered much injustice. It was with great difficulty was robbed, on the frontiers of Austria, of religious that they could obtain any public office. Lutheran books designed for his own use, and he retained his soldiers must bow before the holy sacrament, and the Bible only by showing his name written on the first earnest remonstrances of consistories were not lispage. The disciples of Rongé could not travel in the tened to. But, thanks to God, all is changed. The interior of the empire. Protestants were harrassed in Protestants of Bavaria are now

on a footing with various ways. The Romish priesthood, in connection Roman Catholics

: they occupy even important

places with Prince de Metternich, exercised a brutal tyranny, in the council of state, and the king of this country The Empress-mother was a narrow-minded bigot, and has promulgated a constitution which is free from all the Emperor Ferdinand-poor, imbecile, crowned sectarian preferences.

And never was there a time when the ministry MINISTERIAL EDUCATION.

stood higher in public estimation. They take the Rev DR SPRING of New York, in his recent book on

first rank of the educated men of the country-are “ The Power of the Pulpit," has a chapter on the foremost in works of benevolent and literary entertraining of young men for the pastoral office, in prise. Their character for purity, sincerity, and which he avows his preference for the private me

devotion, is as high as that of any other equal thod of theological education. His argument is number of ministers in the world. The influence of deducible to these three propositions—that the mi

the Church under their guidance is greater than ever nistry has deteriorated—that this result has come

before. Where is the rampant infidelity of the last in part from theological seminaries—and that the generation ? cause of deterioration in seminaries is, in a great

And if we make the inquiry in detail, we shall measure, that so many of the professors are without find that most Churches have pastors superior to experience in the pastoral office.

those which they had in the last generation. Forty These positions a writer in the Princeton Revier years ago we had a few eminent men; now we have takes up and demolishes with a strong arm. He multitudes of highly respectable talents. Acquisitions says, the whole turns on the question, “ Has the then rare, are now common. Where then was one ministry degenerated ?”. Of this he says Dr Spring Hebrew scholar, there are now hundreds, and the has given no proof. He has only taken it for granted like may be said of well-read theologians. Cases of as an admitted fact; while the assertion of it is as

ministerial delinquency are proportionally more rare. preposterous as it would be to say that agriculture And we may refer to the amount of labour doneand commerce had retrograded in the last fifty years. efforts for extending the Redeemer's kingdom-misHe says this impression comes of a common disposi- sionary work-self-denial endured. Are these the tion to laud the past; and he makes it to be of a

men to be held up as a degenerate race? Are the piece with a disposition in some men to deplore the mass of those ministers who are bearing the Church change in the mode of travelling, and to say, that onward with such wonderful success to be reproached when they were young it was a serious matter to go

as a generation of pigmies ! The clergy as a body to a neighbouring city-weeks were spent in pre

have now a higher character and wider influence; paring

for the journey, and a solemn adieu was given than the clergy of this country ever before had. to wife and children-then the family relation was

From this the reviewer goes on to show, that even cherished—but now all these sentimental advan- admitting that there is such a degeneracy of the tages are displaced by railroads and steam-boats. ministry, there might be other causes of it than

The reviewer enumerates the sources of this habit theological seminaries, and the teaching of professors of over-rating the past, and disparaging the present. who have not been pastors. He alleges that in The leading source he makes to be the habit of judging Scotland and on the Continent, where there have an age by a few conspicuous men. Dr Spring would been theological seminaries ever since the Reforask, “Where are now the men who can compare mation, there have been alternate elevations and with Edwards, Whitefield, and Davies ?” And so depressions of the ministry from causes aside from we may ask, “Where are now the equals of Bacon, the seminaries. He says, “ The danger is not in the Shakespeare, and Milton ?” And the men of Ed system, but in the men—the professors. If they are wards' time would fask, “ Where are the Owens, not of the right kind, their influence on the students Howes, Baxters, and Flavels ?” And the age of must be to the last degree injurious. If Dr Spring these last asked, “ Where are the Luthers, Melanc

had chosen to direct his battery to that quarter, he thons, and Calvins ?” But this does not prove that would have found no disposition to resist - he would society has all the while been going back." What if have called attention to the real point to be some of our preachers are transcendental, or some

guarded.” make too much parade of learning- babble about art and aesthetics, or write poetry for ladies' maga- THE POPE AND LIBERTY OF THE PRESS. zines or albums? So, in a former age there were ministers whose talk was of bullocks, and who made It was reported not long since that the Pope had better butter than sermons. If now the young men granted liberty of the press." The act in question act the Pharisees, make broad their phylacteries, and is so entitled; but upon better acquaintance with the sound a trumpet before them; in other times there numerous articles of the decree, it will be found to be were ministerial publicans, who sat at the receipt of liberty in altogether a Popish sense. The following custom, unobserved and unmolested. And if some are some of the safeguards of the liberty of the press of our young ministers know not what they are in in the Roman States :the pulpit for, it does not follow that, on the whole, Art. 4th threatens with imprisonment, from one the pulpit is less powerful than in the days of our day to a month, and a fine of from thirty to sixty dufathers.

cats, every one who distributes publications printed The reviewer next maintains that Dr Spring's at any press not regularly authorized by the Governassumption is not only without proof, but against ment. very important proofs. Great intellectual progress Art. 6th obliges, under the same penalty, every has been made for the last fifty years—the standard journalist and author to deposit a copy of his publicaof education has advanced in colleges and lower tion in all the public libraries of the place. Thus, in schools. Nor has the ministry in all this progress Rome, ten copies of a work are wrested from an aubeen going back. The Church has made astonishing thor by as clear a violation of the laws of property, progress. As an example, the Presbyterian Church as though every hatter were required to hand in ten has nearly doubled in the last ten years, and the new hats whenever he set a fashion. general standard of piety has been elevated. And Art. 7th prohibits any but subjects of the Pope to such an advance of sthe Church without an equal publish a journal in the Roman States. This si. advance of the ministry is impossible.

lences the Contemporaneo, the ablest of the liberal

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Papers of the country; and the English weekly paper, Frederick II. was continually impressing upon his unless Mr Hemans, in his devotion to the Pope, deny courtiers his wish to lay aside the king among them, his first allegiance to Victoria.

and to be approached merely as a philosopher; a wish Art. 1lth imposes the above imprisonment and of which he gave a striking explanation whenever he fine on every editor who shall still publish his jour. was taken at bis word. It seems to us that his Holinal after he has announced his intention to discon- ness betrays here a similar characteristic of greatness. tinue it! Thus no Roman editor can play the wind.“ My beloved children,” he virtually says, ing-up game on his subscribers to make them pay. own sovereign will and pleasure I grant you the

Art. 12th requires every editor, under the penalty liberty of the press; but if you dare to take it I will of from ten to thirty ducats, to sign a copy of each imprison and fine you.” It may be asked, however, number of his paper, and exhibit it to an authorized did this act originate with Pius IX.! Unfortunately person, before publishing the edition. Sick, or hur- for his fame it did; and that, too, in violation of the ried, or impatient to be off, the proof copy must be late Constitution. According to Art. 33d of the Consigned by him, and the press stop until the liberty stitution, “ All laws shall be discussed in the Assemcan be brought all fresh and sweet from the au- bly; and without such discussion they shall not have thority.

the force of laws." The Assembly met June 5, Art. 16th requires every journal to publish in its but this decree is dated June 3. It is hardly necesensuing number whatever sentence of condemnation sary to say that such articles would never have passed is passed upon it; fine and imprisonment again for the Assembly. It has already produced much dissathe omission. This is the ancient privilege revived, tisfaction, of allowing the victim to carry the instruments of his punishment to the place of execution.

EDUCATION IN AMERICA. Art. 19th threatens imprisonment from six months The Presbyterian Herald states that the action of the to a year, and a fine of from sixty to a hundred dy- General Assembly of the Old School Presbyterian cats, for“ any outrage upon good custom, the church Church upon the subject of religious education has or its ministers.” To show up a foolish ceremony, awakened the public mind, in almost all of the relior certain well-known libertines among the priest-gious denominations, to the importance of connecting hood at Rome, would of course be an outrage on the moral culture with secular learning. At first the church and its ministers.

outcry in many of them was, that it was a scheme for Art. 20th awards from three to six months' impri- the ascendency of one sect over all others, but the sonment, and from thirty to sixty ducats' fine, upon calm and second thoughts of their wisest and most

any who shall impugn the temporal authority of discreet men have led them to admit that the tenthe Pope, the mode of his election, or the present form dency of education as now conducted in most of the of government.” The same also upon

States, is either to total indifferentism towards all shall charge upon the Pope or the Sacred College religion or to downright infidelity. Accordingly, we the blame or responsibility of any act of the Govern

find that an unusually large number of the ecclesiasment." No amendment of the Constitution to be tical bodies, which have lately held their sessions, proposed in the Roman Senate, and if the ministers have agitated the question of providing a remedy for bring a bill to his Holiness, taking off some odious this increasing evil. The Cumberland Presbyterian imposition from the people, and his Holiness say, General Assembly have taken up the subject. The “ Veto!" then the ministers are to be blamed for its convention of Congregational and New School Prescontinuance.

byterian ministers, which met in Buffalo in June disArt. 22d condemns to imprisonment of from one to three months, and a fine of thirty to sixty ducats, mitted the evil, but there was a variety of opinions

cussed the subject at large. All the speakers ad“whoever shall make an apology for actions which the laws pronounce criminal." Woe unto philanthropic tion was the basis of their action:

as to the best remedy for it. The following resolujurists! woe to repealers of all sorts ! Art. 25th punishes with imprisonment of from six

Resolved, That the convention approve and recommend

to the churches generally that immediate and zealous efforts months to a year, and with a fine of sixty to a hun

be made by each to establish, within its bounds, one or more dred ducats," whoever shall publish any work or Primary Schools, under the care of the same, in which not writing whatsoever already condemned by the eccle- only the ordinary branches of secular learning shall be taught, siastical authority.” As his Holiness would not bur- but pastoral influences shall be employed for instructing in the den his exchequer with an edition of the huge cata- great truths and duties of our holy religion.” logue of condemned works, his subjects are left in the The General Association of Massachusetts also dark here. If, however, they adopt, as a generalrule, committed the subject to a committee, which prethe avoidance of their most distinguished writers, they sented an elaborate report. will keep on the safe side.

We notice also that the Episcopal papers are canArt. 28th declares “ the ecclesiastical censorship vassing the subject in their columns. In short, according to the Apostolic Constitution” to be in full nearly all denominations are discussing the subject. force. This ecclesiastical censorship may be said to The result, says the Herald, will be that light will be be the great Drummond-light upon the subject of the elicited, and perhaps some medium course may be liberty of the press; for it not only illuminates all the adopted, by which the difficulties under which edumetes and bounds laid down in the preceding arti- cation, as now conducted, labours may be avoided. cles, but enables a man to pick his way where there is no path at all. To this censorship are subject “all

New Church Opened. those writings which treat of the Holy Scriptures, Methlie..By Professor M‘Laggan of Aberdeen. August 6. sacred theology, ecclesiastical history, canonical law,

Printed by JOHNSTONE, BALLANTYNE, & Co., 104 High Street ; and natural theology, ethics, and, in general, all such as have

published by JOHN JOHNSTONE, 15 Princes Street, Edinburgh, any special relation to religion and morals. Such is “li.

and 26 Paternoster Row, London. And sold by the Booksellers berty of the press” as understood at Rome.

throughout the kingdom.

THE

FREE CHURCH MAGAZINE.

ESSAY ON THE UNION OF CHURCH AND good one;" and his writings, both in prose and verse STATE.*

prove him to have no mean claim to be regarded as a

man of genius. Above all those distinctions of birth, There are few questions of the present day of such acquirement, and native worth, appear the incomurgent and extensive importance as that which treats parably more precious qualifications of true evangeof the relation in which Church and State stand, or

lical faith and personal godliness. Taking a mere ought to stand, to each other. It has attracted, and glance at the position of such a man, one is inclined is attracting very strongly, the attention of philoso, to say, that there is no station in the Church of Eng, phers, statesmen, and divines; and many able and land to which he might not legitimately aspire. elaborate treatises have already been written on the Since elevation to the prelatic dignity raises any man subject. Politicians have to deal with it; revolutions to the rank of a British peer, it must be always very are compelled to grapple with it in their own rude grateful to the pride of English aristocracy when the way; and conscience constrains religious men to prelate is also a man of noble blood. Yet inis man, make it a subject of earnest and anxious thought, the Hon. and Rev. Baptist W. Noc, has not only cast In one point of view it is not strange that this should away every prospect of ecclesiastical preferment, be the case. The interests which it involves are of which lay so fair before him, but has also forsaken paramount importance. It cannot but affect most wholly the wealthy and titled Church of England, seriously the welfare of religion ; and it heais very and published a work containing a statement of his directly on the delicate province of religious liberty. reasons for the step he has taken, of such a nature as Nor can its discussion be averted or delayed, con

must inevitably rouse against him the strong displeanected as it so closely is with both public arrange.

sure of a large proportion of his former friends. Such ments and personal rights and privileges. Yet, not

a step does not indeed prove that he has done right; withstanding the amount of attention which it has but it very amply proves that he has acted according already received, there is little reason to suppose that to the dictates of his conscience, and most directly the essence of the question is yet fully understood contrary to his worldly interests. Men may, and no by many. Even the language employed by various doubt will, doubt the soundness of his judgment; but authors indicates the vagueness of their ideas. Some

no man can doubt his sincerity and self-denying intreat of it as an Alliance between Church and State ; tegrity of heart and action. For that very reason his others, as a Union of the two; and others, more

work cannot but command the most full and fair convaguely, speak of the Connexion between Church and sideration by all parties, friends and foes alike. Both State, or their mutual relations. The question cannot

on this account, and because of its own intrinsic be solved till men conceive more clearly what is re- merits, we feel that the work demands our utmost quired for its solution. But, in the meantime, the attention; and we proceed to give some account of actual condition of the alliance, union, or connexion, it to our readers. can be examined, and thereby most important prepa

There is, however, one additional preliminary rerations made for solving the question rightly in due mark which we think it right to make, before protime. Much, of course, will depend on the position ceeding with our task. It would scarcely be quite from which men view the subject, as well as on their fair to examine very minutely the views which the own diversities of habit and character. We ought Hon. and Rev. Baptist Noel takes of the principles not to expect from any one man a full and unbiassed which lie at the very heart of the inquiry into the view of such a question: it is rather from the con

nature of the connexion between Church and State. vergence of many views that we may expect to see it when he found himself constrained to enter into that in all its magnitude and completeness. Of all the works on this important and engrossing land, having been brought up from his youth in the

inquiry he was a clergyman of the Church of Engsubject which it has been our fortune to peruse, there bosom of that proud and wealthy Church. Viewing is not one which we have read with such deep and the subject from that position he could not well fail painful interest as that newly published by the Hon.

to regard it with the one or the other of the two antaand Rev. Baptist W. Noel. It possesses every

ele

gonist biases which such a position rendered almost ment fitted to attract and arrest our sympathies. Its inevitable. He must either think of it much more author is a man of noble birth, entitled to take his favourably than it deserved, or pass into the opposite place among the ranks of England's high and powerful extreme, and condemn everything connected with it. aristocracy. He is also“ a scholar, and a ripe and No man can estimate the force of early and long con

tinued associations, either in producing extreme * Essay on the Union of Church and State. By Baptist Wriothes. ley Noel, M.A. London.

attachment or in being the occasion of excessive reNo, LXI.

JANUARY, 1849.

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