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which promotes, and to remove the divisions, cor- law of Christ, restricting the support of Christian ruptions, and blasphemies, which obstruct, the righ- teachers to those who are taught by them, and teousness which exalteth a nation; but that pains, about the Erastianism implied in receiving aid froin penalties, and disabilities, except in the case of actual Government, to be withheld at the discretion of crime, are the proper means, the Confession does Government, is equally forcible against all those whose not say, and we do not believe. The only means ministers are partially supported by other Churches, suggested are of a very different kind, namely, the or by the seat-holders (not members) of their own calling of synods.* We do not think that this congregations. This does not prove Dr. Wardlaw's would now be a very expedient plan. But certainly, argument to be false; but he may excuse us for not if the Government of the country should ever think admitting speculatively what is practically denied by that a convocation of Christian ministers would be a out Voluntary brethren themselves. probablemeans of assuaging animosities, and promot- When it is acknowledged that Christ has instituted ing Christian union and usefulness, we think it would a visible Church---a society with laws, and officers, be their daty to obey the call, to state their prin- and government of its own-the question necessarily ciples and theirgrievances, and suggest measures con- arises, In what light ought civil governments to reducive to the welfare of the Church and of the com- gard it? Such an institution pervading a land, whatmunity; and we see not why the magistrate might ever its form may be, is, and must be, an“ imperium not be present, not to force his own conclusions
on in imperio," an object which all Governments naturally them, nor yet implicitly to comply with their sugges- view with jealousy. We see, accordingly, how worldly tions, but to judge of their transactions according to politicians have treated the Church. If endowed, the Word of God, and with a view to the regulation they consider it as the creature of the State, bound of his own measures.
to surrender its intrinsic powers when required, and In the second part of his discourse, Dr. Wardlaw to act according to the laws which the State may quotes from the address of the Convocation a passage prescribe. If unendowed, it is regarded much in in which it is said, “ You have read how your godly the same light as any common society-of Odd-fel. forefathers contended for the crown of Christ, as lows or Free-masons, for example-to be tolerated if King of kings, and as King of saints, maintaining at peaceable, to be coerced if troublesome. But is this once the right and duty of civil magistrates to estab- the light in which the institution of Christ ought to lid, protect, and defend his Church by all means com- be regarded by the subjects of the King of kings ? petent to them, &c., and yet the perfect liberty and Has the Church no higher claim on the forbearance exclusive spiritual jurisdiction of the Church,” &c.; of earthly powers than may be asserted by the most and in commenting on this passage, he observes, that contemptible of human societies? If He has made we may “interpret the duty to establish the Church it the duty of all to whom his gospel comes, to "beas meaning substantially the duty to endow it; and lieve and be baptized”—to join the fellowship of his the duty to protect and defend as expressing the ob- professed followers; and if He has at the same time ligation to guard the Church from the assaults of authorized the Church to judge, to admit or refuse opponents--to maintain truth and suppress error admission, or to exclude when admitted; are not by the enactment of laws, and the execution of ciril the powers of earth bound to make way for the exerpaies and penalties against heretics, and even having re- cise of this power, and to do so because Christ has course to arms to compel conformity to established profes- ordained its existence and exercise? When, for sions and forms, all on the principle that insubordina- | example, an individual has been judicially excluded tion to the Church is rebellion against the State - from the communion of the Church in consequence such a use of the sword being regarded as necessary of some heinous offence, and seeks redress in a to his ' not bearing it in vain.” Now, though there civil court for the injury which he says he has susis a reference in the "address" to the principles of tained, with what plea ought his complaint to be sur forefathers, Dr. Wardlaw must have known that met? It may be said that every society, and therethe language which he is criticising is that of the fore the Church, has the right of excluding its memmembers of the Convocation. With some of them bers; that no civil harm has been inflicted; and that he was well acquainted, and we would ask him the individual, when he joined that society, knew, whether he really believed that Dr. Chalmers, Dr. and voluntarily submitted to the law by which he Brown, or Dr. Macfarlan, when they employed the
has been cut off. This might be said to a power language referred to, meant to employ it in the sense which avowedly denied and scorned Christianity, and he has put upon it; and if he did not, as he could it might be (though but partially) true. But is this not believe any such thing, why did he seek to in all that can be urged in defence of the execution volve them in the odium of such an imputation ?
of Christ's laws, before Christ's creatures? If the We have resolved not to be drawn, in the present solemn act of excommunication be an act of obearticle at least, into the old Voluntary controversy, dience to the authority of Christ, is it not on that and therefore, we will only say, in a single sentence, account entitled to be regarded with reverence by that all that Dr. Wardlaw has urged respecting a those who, though they be the highest of earthly * We believe that it; is not unnecessary to state, that the term
powers, are still subjects of him who is King of "synoda" does not refer to such provincial assemblies as are now re- kings and Lord of lords? We cannot conceive it to gulariy beld in Scotland, but to special convocations of the elders be consistent with the reverence due to the Lord, of Chorches summoned in peculiar emergencies. See the Act of Asembly prefixed to the Confession. We wish Dr. Wardlaw had
that his Church should be merely regarded as one consulted this Act before writing the observations in p. 18 of of the societies existing among men whose acts are his discourse. It would have furnished a sufficient answer to his rencarks-we will not say his cavils. Really it is easy,
allowed because they do no harm. The spiritual teenth century, when all kinds of meetings, short of the monster powers of the Church of Christ (and it has no other meetings of Ireland, are held without hindrance or notice on the part of the State, to deride the respectful but yet independent ac powers) are entitled to have full scope for their exerteowledgment of the sovereign, made by our ancestors. cise, because it is his Church. te repernber the history of the Aberdeen Assembly, for example, I 1605, we trust the Congregational Union may never be put
But this implies that the State shall recognise the to such a trial, or if it be, that its members may behave as nobly. Church of Christ where it exists, and "shall accord
in the nine
privileges to it which might be withheld at the discre- | lamity about to shake or overwhelm her trembling tion of the State from other institutions, even of a Church. But England may resume her tranquillity, religious description. We are told, indeed, that civil and slumber on a little longer, so far as her Church rulers have no peculiar power of distinguishing the is concerned—its hour of real trial has not yet come. true from the false in religion; and we do not assert During the non-intrusion and spiritual indepenthat they have. But they have the ordinary power dence controversy, which agitated Scotland so long, which belongs to all that have access to the Scrip- it was found impossible to convey to the English mind tures, and which renders them all responsible for a clear conception of what was called the Scottish the acceptance or rejection of revealed truth. And Church question. The recent agitation about the though they have no such infallible gifts as would Hereford Bishopric is very well fitted to furnish an justify them in enforcing the profession of the truth explanation of that impracticable topic; and partly on on others, they have the means and faculties which this account, partly on account of its own importance, oblige them to acknowledge and act upon the truth we think it right to present our readers with a for themselves. Now, when the Church is publicly tolerably full outline of the whole affair. In doing recognised by the State, and the powers which it so, we must go back a little, so as to begin at the holds from its divine Head are fully acknowledged, beginning, that we may make our outline intelligible. it is then virtually established, whether it be en. Some of our readers may need to be informed, that dowed or not. The State may proceed to endow the Rev. John Bampton, canon of Salisbury, beit; as in the Scottish Reformation, after abolishing queathed a considerable property for the purpose of the Papal jurisdiction, the Parliament first referred founding a lectureship at Oxford, the lecturer to be to “ those members of the blessed Evangel whom chosen annually by the heads of colleges, and to de. God had raised up among them, and declared” that liver eight lectures on the following subjects :—" To they and the people connected with them were “ the confirm and establish the Christian faith, and to cononly true and holy Kirk of Jesus Christ within this fute all heretics and schismatics--upon the divine realm;" and afterwards ordained that the admission authority of the holy Scriptures—upon the authority to benefices should be only in the power of the Kirk. of the writings of the primitive fathers, as to the But the steps are quite distinct, and the question, faith and practice of the primitive Church-upon whether the one should follow the other, is one the Divinity of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christwhich, we apprehend, must be determined with a upon the Divinity of the Holy Ghost--upon the wise consideration of the probable results. That it Articles of the Christian Faith, as comprehended in was beneficial, and therefore right in the period of the Apostles' and Nicene Creeds.” That these are the Reformation, we are confident, and we think that important subjects, no one will dispute; and as little experience has justified the conclusion. On the can it be denied that all due care was taken by the other hand, to set up a form of Christianity, however founder of this lectureship that no improper person pure, among a people, and to establish it with public should be chosen, the university itself did its duty. funds, while the majority of the public are actively We merely state, in passing, that many important opposed to it, would seem the most likely method works have been produced in consequence of the of defeating the object contemplated, by provoking Bampton lectureship, which might not otherwise the hostility of those whose benefit was intended. have been written. The Bampton lecture of 1832, But if, on an enlarged view of the subject, the Go- was delivered by the Rev. Renn Dickson Hampden, vernment of a country had reason to think that the M.A., and published in the following year. Its submoral condition, and thereby the temporal comfort, ject is, “ The Scholastic Philosophy considered in of the masses of the people, would be improved by its relation to Christian Theology.” To some, the the establishment of a truly Christian worship, we mere stating of this title will at once suggest the have met with nothing to this day to convince us course which the lecturer must have followed; to that they would violate any law of God, or do any others, some explanation may be necessary. By the injury to man, by carrying such a purpose into exe- phrase “scholastic philosophy,” as used by Dr. cution.
Ilampden, is to be understood the whole range of
philosophical thinking employed in the defence and DR. HAMPDEN AND THE HEREFORD exposition of Christian truth, from the period of the
Alexandrian Platonism of the primitive Church, down BISHOPRIC.
to the minute subtleties of the Aristotelian logicians England, they say, has been on the brink of a tre immediately before the Reformation. And by the mendous ecclesiastical convulsion-its Church has phrase “ Christian theology," as used by Dr. Hampden, narrowly escaped a disruption of its own. There is to be understood, the strictly defined forms into have been memorials to her Majesty and to the Prime which thie philosophical thinking had gradually cast Minister, from thirteen bishops, from the Dean of the great truths of the Christian revelation. Now, Hereford, and from meetings of the provincial clergy. it must be plain to all who are in any degree acThere have been letters and remonstrances of every quainted with these topics, that to inquire into and kind, appealing, advising, threatening, supplicating, perhaps disapprove of the phraseology into which bewailing-the most urgent of these letter-writers scholastic philosophy had compressed the sacred being the Bishop of Exeter, and the above-mentioned truths contained in the Scriptures, is quite a different Dean (the Rev. Dr. Merewether), Dr. Hampden, and thing from disclaiming these truths them.selves. But Lord John Russell. There have been most solemn it is also very plain, that any man who ventures to disappeals to conscience, most alarming allusions to mar- approve of that phraseology, incurs the hazard of tyrdom, and most pathetic reminiscences of " death being regarded by some as disbelieving the trutlis sa bed injunctions, and of hopes awakened, fondly expressed. Of this Dr. Hampden was well aware ; cherished, and about to be blighted for ever ;-all and while he had the courage to state fully his views these things have been agitating the heart of Eng in the lecture, he attempted, in an apologetical pre land with gloomy forebodings of some dreadful ca. | face, to anticipate and guard against being misunderstood and misjudged. But many never read prefaces; , prove that Dr. Hampden denies that there are any. or if they do, they disregard them, and form their doctrines in the Scriptures, but merely a record of conclusions in their own way:
facts. In the passage itself he disclaims the existThe LECTURES are eight in number :-1. ORIGIN ence of doctrines in the Bible far too broadly, as we OF SCHOLASTIC PelosOPHY-2. FORMATION OF THE think; still it is plain, from the tenor of his work, SCHOLASTIC THEOLOGY-3. THE TRINITARIAN Con- and even from the heading we have quoted, that the TROVERSIES—4. The PELAGIAN CONTROVERSIES, PRE- scope and aim of his argument is intended to bear DESTINATION AND GRACE–5. The Pelagian Con- against the harsh and rigid phraseology of those dogTROVERSIES, JUSTIFICATION-6. MORAL PuricosOPHY OF mas, the origin of which he has been engaged in THE SCHOOLS-7. THE SACRAMENTS-8. NATURE AND tracing, and not against the simpler intimations of Use of DOGMATIC THEOLOGY. The very titles of these doctrinal truth manifestly contained in the Sacred lectures show that their author must have traversed a Scriptures. Giving him, what he may fairly claim, very wide range of discussion, and touched many a the benefit of the general bearing of his whole work topie respecting which men are sensitively jealous of as the interpreter of separate passages, we feel ouranything like innovation. Dr. Hampden's primary po- selves at liberty to acquit him of intentionally dissition is, that“ Christianity had its beginnings amidst paraging the doctrinal statements of the Bible; while obstructions of a twofold character--the self-righte- no charge has been, or can be, brought against him ousness of the human heart, and the presumption of with regard to its statement of facts. But we must the human understanding.” “ There is a resistance leave the Bampton Lecture, and trace the subsesimply moral, and another simply intellectual—the quent course of the lecturer. force of vice, and the force of theory."
“ My pur
The lectures were delivered before the University pose in the following lectures is, to examine into of Oxford, as we have said, in 1832, and published in the influence of one of these classes of principles-1833. Their publication did not attract much notice those of the understanding; and to endeavour to at the time; but there were some to whom they had present to your notice the force of theory in its rela- given unpardonable offence. An opportunity of tion to the divine truths of our religion.” It is easy showing this implacable hostility soon occurred. to see that, from such a primary position, or point of During the administration of Lord Melbourne, Dr. departure, Dr. Hampden was led to investigate very Hampden was appointed regius professor of divinity closely the force of theory in theological language, in the University of Oxford. By this time the and to point out and prove, that both the theory and Puseyite or Tractarian party had increased considerthe language, springing from the presumption of the ably, and were rapidly rising into power. It had human understanding, might be separated from the been their hope to obtain the professorship for Dr. truths of Christianity, and the human element exa- Pusey, or Mr. Newman, as was hinted, it is said, to mined without any disrespect to the divine. Follow- Lord Melbourne. Frustrated in this hope, they deing this examination, he proves that the scholastic termined to prevent Dr. Hampden from obtaining philosophy was the result of a struggle between rea- that position. His Bampton lecture was now exson and authority; tracing its origin to the ascendency plored with lynx-eyed eagerness. Passages were of the Latin clergy.
Doctrines were successively wrenched from the context, placed in new positions, stated in the most exactly defined and rigid forms, and constructions forced upon them which they were and enforced by the most despotic authority; but all never intended to convey. Thus disinembered, and the possible inferences which the most subtile logic distorted, and misinterpreted, they were sent throughcould deduce from these forms were the subjects of out England, to fill the minds of the country clergyunlimited discussion. That arbitrary authority,
ith prejudice and alarm. convocation of therefore, which the Latin clergy (that is, those of University members was then summoned in 1836, Europe and Africa, swayed chiefly by the Bishop of Dr. Ilampden's Bampton lecture declared unsound, Rome, and writing in the Latin language), exercised, want of confidence in his orthodoxy expressed, and was the cause of all the perversions of Christian students discountenanced from attending his instructruth which arose out of the scholastic philosophy. tions. In all this, it is said, Mr. Newman was pecuIn the seventh and eight lectures, “ On the sacra- liarly active; and it is certain that the Tractarian ments," and "On the nature and use of dogmatic party were Dr. Hampden's most keen and detertheology,” the injurious consequences of arbitrary mined antagonists. But the hostility of the UniverChurch authority are very clearly traced and sity could not annul the appointment. Dr. IIampden strongly stated. While we think some of Dr. continued to hold his chair; students began to attend Hampden's statements on these points somewhat his prelections; his character, both as a man of exquestionable, especially if separated from the context, tensive learning, and as a faithful pastor,
gan to be we at the same time regard the view which he has known, and there seemed fair reason to expect that given as one of very great importance, deserving the the enmity which had so bitterly assailed him would serious consideration of every theologian.
soon disappear, if it had not already passed away. From the contents of the last lecture, we tran- When the archbishop of York died, a short time seribe the following indicative sentences :-“ Truth ago, conjecture was busy about the probable result. of fact not to be confounded with truth of opinion in Ere long it appeared that the Bishop of Hereford was the scholastic method - No dogmas to be found in to be raised to the archbishopric, and that Dr. Scripture itself--Dogmas, therefore, to be restricted | Hampden was to succeed him at Hereford. Great to a negative sense, as exclusions of unscriptural was the consternation and fierce the rage of the whole truth-- Articles and creeds not necessarily to be dis- Tractarian party when this became known. It was pensed with because imperfect-Their defence, how- resolved at once that the appointment of Dr. Hampever, not to be identified with that of Christianity-den must be opposed, but it seems to have been a l'se and importance of dogmatic theology to be little difficult to rest the opposition on sufficiently drawn from its relation to social religion.” The very plausible grounds. A memorial was addressed to passage to which this refers, we have seen used to Lord John Russell, sigued by twelve or thirteen
bishops, remonstrating against the appointment, and The 28th of December came, big with the foreresting their opposition on the alarm felt by the boded martyrdom of Dr. Merewether.
Most unclergy. Then the country clergy held meetings, and fortunately, the weather was cold, and so was the wrote remonstrances, resting their opposition on the Dean. Fast fell the thermometer, and faster fell his memorial of the bishops. This was too manifestly courage. He had written “brave words,” and he absurd, and another ground was sought, and eagerly had still some brave words to speak; but to do a seized, in the previous condemnation of the Bampton brave deed formed no part of his resolution. Well, lectures by the University. Lord John Russell had the chapter was held, and the votes were taken. treated the reciprocal terrors and sympathies of the Fourteen voted for Dr. Hampden; and two-one bishops and the clergy with no great ceremony; and canon and the dean himself-voted for deferring the Dr. Hampden, in a published letter, pointed out the election. But the dean made his brave speech, endinconsistent conduct of the bishops in requiring cer- ing in a protest, resting on two merely technical tificates of attendance on his lectures from students, points-1. That the non-residentiary prebendaries if they really believed his teaching to be heterodox had no right to vote; and, 2. That no majority was or heretical. The Dean of Hereford, Dr. Merewether, valid unless the dean and three residentiary preben. then stood forth as the champion of the cause, insti- daries were contained in it. These objections were gated, we might pretty safely say, by the Bishop of at once shown to be futile, because there was a majoExeter, whose fierce and haughty letter, or pamphlet, rity of the residentiary, and becanse an act of Parto Lord John Russell, we must not forget. The posi- liament had declared a ajority valid, whether intion taken by the Dean of Hereford arose out of the cluding the dean or not. The dean's protest expired following point of English ecclesiastical law:- very harmlessly, and he himself directed due certi
When a bishopric is vacant, the sovereign sends ficates of the election to be prepared and authentito the dean and chapter of that diocese what is called cated by the seal of the chapter. So closed the gulf, a conge d'elire, or permission to choose a successor, ac- and not one Curtius had leaped into it;—so ended the companying it with a recommendation of some per- martyrdom, leaving the dean of Hereford unscathed; son. But this permission to choose is equivalent to an -so terminated what we apprehend many will reimperative command to elect the person recom- gard as nothing better than a solemn farce. mended by the sovereign; for if the dean and chapter It may still be asked, Why was all this hostility were to choose any other person, they would subject directed against Dr. Hampden? Avowedly, it was themselves to the penalties of a præmunire. The on account of the unsoundness of his Bampton lecpenalties of a præmunire are, that the person incur- tures. Yet the bishops did not venture to say that ring it is at once placed out of the protection of law, they had studied them, and were prepared to prove his whole property forfeited, and himself liable to their unsoundness. Such a charge was, indeed, inimprisonment for life, or during the monarch's plea sinuated by reference to the University decree, and sure. The reason, in law, for subjecting the violators by the re-production, even in the newspaper press, of a conge d'elire to a penalty so extremely severe is, of the garbled extracts formerly used. The Bishop that the refusal to choose the person recommend- of Oxford lent, for a brief time at least, his sanced is regarded as a violation of that part of the tion to a suit against Dr. Hampden in the Court of royal prerogative which consists in the sovereign's Arches, implying such an accusation, but withdrew supremacy over the Church, and that consequently it in the critical juncture, as if aware that it would it is a species of high treason. Referring to this prove futile; declaring, also, that having carefully penalty, the Bishop of Exeter had said, that the sove- studied the work, with the help of Dr. Hampden's reign could not compel the dean ard apter to recent statements, he did not any longer think it choose Dr. Hampden, but only to suffer the penalty. warranted those suspicions of unsoundness to which The Dean of Hereford petitioned the Queen to name it had given rise, and in which, so long as be trusted another person, having, it is said, previously inti- to extracts, he had himself shared. The charge of mated privately that the nomination of himself, unsoundness was, therefore, evidently a pretence, while it would be in accordance with the kindness, and not_the_real cause of the hostility directed and even the “death-bed injunctions,” of King Wilo against Dr. Hampden. Dr. Wilberforce, bishop of liam, would remove all difficulty. The only answer Oxford, tries to misdirect us, we are persuaded, by to this petition was, that it had been laid before the his reference to the “ Observations on Dissent, Queen, but that her Majesty had issued no command which had offended the High-Church clergy. To the thereupon. The glories of martyrdom seemed now Bampton lectures we still must turn for the real to shine brightly before the dean. Certain magnani
If our readers will re-peruse with thoughtful mous cler ymen, gazing with dilated eyes on the attention the account of tifat work which we have gulf which seemed yawning before their Church, already given, they may perceive the germ of Dr. boldly declared that there were "a thousand Curtii | Hampden's crime. By his profound and elaborate ready to plunge into it.” The dean himself again investigation of scholastic philosophy and theology,he wrote to Lord John Russell, in a strain of stately clearly proved that the patristic and mediæval theoloand magniloquent language, declaiming about con- gians had been the corrupters of Christianity;that the science, and declaring his firm resolve to obey its arbitrary authority of the Church of Rome had been dictates, and brave all hazards. The Prime Minister grievously detrimental to its growth and purity; and replied laconically : “Sir, I have had the honour to that the Sacred Scriptures are the only standard of receive your letter of the 22d instant, in which you saving truth, and not the authority of the Church or intimate to me your intention of violating the law. the writings of the fathers. But, if this be true, the I have the honour to be your obedient servant, whole Puseyite or Tractarian theory is false. . If Dr. J. Russell.” This fine specimen of the imperitoriú Hampden's work be sound, then the whole Church brevitas put an end to the epistolary skirmishing. principles of the Puseyites are unsound. Either his “ To be or not to be" a martyr, was now the only book must be destroyed, or it will tend to the dequestion for the dean.
struction of all their hopes of perverting the Church
and people of England. But why did those very not be very likely to enlighten them; as they will learned men, as they are said to be- Dr. Pusey and be led to think that the recent exercise of the Royal Mr. Newman—not answer and refute Dr. Hampden? supremacy has been very beneficial in saving them Perhaps they were well aware that this was no easy from clerical bigotry and despotism. We may add, task-that it was much easier to calumniate the that the position and conduct of the present Scottish author than to answer his work. About two centu- Establishment has also a tendency to mislead the ries ago, a party with whom the Tractarians have English mind, L Aberdeen's Bill having brought much in common, began by barning Gillespie's it under the yoke of Erastianism, and, consequently, "English Popish Ceremonies;" did the same with into such a degree of conformity with their own Rutherford's “ Lex Rex,” aad Guthrie's “ Causes of Church, that it could not now perform any more God's Wrath;” and followed these brave refutations noble or dignified part than a feeble imitation of the op by the deadly persecution of all who held the mimic martyrdom of Dr. Merewether. How striksentiments contained in these books. It is not yet ing the contrast between such mummery and the in the power of Tractarians to burn either books or conduct of the Free Church of Scotland! men. They have shown, however, that they have The conduct of the Bishop of Oxford is, to our the will; and England may rejoice that they have apprehension, the most discreditable of all that have not yet the power. When we take this view of the taken any prominent part in the transaction. Since recent controversy, we perceive it to be one of far his elevation to this bishopric of Oxford, two years greater importance than it would otherwise appear. | ago, he has been in a position which rendered it his It is a warning to England what she may expect, duty to know whether the opinions of Dr. Hampden, should the Tractarians obtain the ascendency; and not only as a divinity professor, but as the rector when we see thirteen bishops giving countenance to of a parish in his diocese, were sound or not. If he the hostile movement against Dr. Hampden, we are had not done so, he had discharged his duty very constrained to believe that the Tractarian party negligently; if he satisfied himself with garbled among the clergy is vastly more numerous than most extracts, he acted contrary to justice; if he did not people apprehend. Should it increase for a few believe the accusation, and yet lent the sanction of years more with as great rapidity as it has done for his station and name to crush the accused, he acted fifteen or sixteen years past, it will be able to com- most wrongfully. He is regarded by the Tractarian mand where it can now only memorialize and party, we understand, as their main hope; not only threaten.
on account of his admitted abilities, not only beWe bave heard people say, that the principle on cause his position in connection with the Court, and which the mimic martyrdom of the Dean of Here- bis skill in the courtier craft, seem to secure to ford was enacted, bore a close resemblance to the him an influence which others cannot attain, but also principle involved in the non-intrusion controversy. because his quick penetration and wary sagacity may Those who say so manifest that impracticability with enable him to avoid difficulties, and seize opportunireference to the Scottish Church question, of which ties with such promptitude and dexterity, as almost we had so frequently to complain. The Church of to ensure success. If this be so, it is well for the England admits, nay, glories in, the Royal supremacy, kingdom that he has overacted his part, and overon which its existence as a National Church is based. reached himself in the present instance. His readiFrom this principle flows the writ of conge d'elire, and ness to support the accusation, so long as there was the penalties of a præmunire. When the Dean of any probability that Lord John Russell might yield; Hereford intimated his determination to refuse to his adroit management in avoiding to be himself the elect the person nominated, he intimated his deter- raiser of the suit in the Court of Arches, which he mination to violate a law of which he was perfectly could allow to be prosecuted or quashed as he saw aware when he accepted the office of dean, and with fit; his sudden change of tactics when he perceived which he bound himself to comply when he accepted that continued opposition could no longer be of any that office. But the Church of Scotland (we do not avail;-all combine to mark him as a man whose of course, mean the Aberdeen Bill Establishment) principles, character, and conduct the community never admitted the Royal supremacy, nay, contained would do well to watch with the quick eye of awakin the very heart of its constitution a strong and ex- ened and vigilant distrust. plicit denial of that supremacy. No guile, no force, no With regard to the Church of England, we do not persecution could ever bring its true defenders to feel disposed at present to say much. Its worst submit to civil domination over things in their own enemy could not have wished to see it placed in a nature spiritual. When, therefore, the Non-intru- more humiliating position, or acting in a manner more sionists refused to obey the commands of the civil completely proving its deep and almost hopeless decourt, in the ordination of ministers, they were act- gradation. Not even the Tractarian party seem to ing in perfect conformity with both the laws of the have either prudence or courage. The Church of land and the constitution of the Church. Their con- England has been so long accustomed to wear the duet was most directly consistent with, and in conse- chains of political thraldom, that its utmost effort is quence of their principles; bứt the threatened con- but to rattle those chains aloud, enabling all Chrisdoet of the Dean of Hereford was most directly in. tendom to mark its hopeless slavery. This is a consistent with, and contrary to his principles, as a mournful spectacle, from which we turn away with clergyman of the avowedly Erastian Church of Eng- mingled shame and pity. Nor do we congratulate land. This essential and primary distinction between Lord John Russell on his successful Erastianism. the two Churches, we never could get Englishmen to He may live to find, or some later statesman will, comprehend. They had regarded the ideas of Esta- that there is no more certain and thorough way of blishment and Erastianism as inseparable, or rather ruining a country, than by enslaving and degrading identical, and this error confounded all their reason- the Christian Church in that country. There is no ing. And we fear the malevolent and absurd conduct gain in checking Puseyism, and by the same act of the Tractarian party in this Hereford affair will destroying spiritual liberty. That will be a great