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beaten-track, we shall be among the last to blame truth is, Independents find the Church under the old him, for he has done not a little to confirm our faith dispensation to be very ticklish ground; it is entirely in the soundness of Presbyterian government. at variance with all that a Church ought to be; and

The simultaneous appearance of these two treatises, the essential identity of the Church under the Old coming from authors who are held in high repute in and New Testaments, which have been demonstrated the denomination to which they belong, and directed by Presbyterians, by the most irrefragable evidence, * mainly against the polity which we have the honour | is too hard a nut for them; and, therefore, in the to uphold, has a rather formidable appearance; but quietest way possible, they would drop the Old Tesbesides what we have already hinted, we have no tament altogether. doubt that this attempt to revive the old controversy Another curious feature in these controvertists, is will only have the effect of eliciting new defences; their unwillingness to admit that the apostles spoke and we are not without hopes that the result will be or acted, on any occasion, except under the influence a clearer and more satisfactory exhibition than ever of inspiration.

of inspiration.' A supposition so palpably absurd, of the scriptural claims of the Presbyterian polity and contradicted by so many proofs to the contrary, Already some well written reviews of Dr. Wardlaw's could hardly have occurred to any mind, unless to work have appeared in the pages of some of our con- serve a special purpose. And it so happens, that it temporaries. In taking up the two works in conjunc- serves to help them occasionally out of a difficulty. tion, we propose to use them rather as text-books Thus, in order to dispose of the formidable passage for illustrating the controversy, than as the subjects in Acts xv., referring to the council of the apostles of regular examination; though, in the course of our and elders at Jerusalem, Dr. Wardlaw strains every observations, we may find ample scope for the scalpel nerve to prove that this could not be a case in point, of the reviewer, of which we shall not hesitate to because it was a council of inspired persons. It is avail ourselves.

not easy for uninitiated persons to conceive the need There are some peculiarities which mark the In- of a “council" at all, where all the members were dependent controvertist so invariably, as to justify us inspired; but the Doctor has discovered, that “ the in suspecting, that under these the causes of no small object of the appeal was to ascertain whether the measure of the misapprehension under which he dictates of inspiration in him. (that is, Paul) correlabours must lie concealed. Among these, the more sponded with the dictates of inspiration in the other prominent is the entire renunciation of the Old Tes- apostles!" We do not dwell on this unintelligible tament Scripture, in forming a judgment on the con- statement: nor need we stay to point out the stitution of the Church. So far as this matter is con- strange fallacy, in his reasoning that, “ if the decerned, the Old Testament is with them a dead letter. cision in question was not given by inspired They speak, in terms far from ambiguous or equivo- authority, it could not be imperatively binding;" as cal, as if the Church of God only began to exist in if the fact of the decision being recorded, with the days of the apostles; and though they refrain evident approbation, in the Word of God, 'were from saying it in so many words, it is quite plain not sufficient to render it obligatory on all Chris. that they consider, that if there was any Church be- tians ! But we request attention to the followfore that period at all, it may have been the Church ing:--"Paul was

of Jest's of Moses, but it was not the Church of Christ. No- CARIST. You will not question his inspiration. Is thing is more remarkable in Dr. Wardlaw, than the it, then, to be imagined, that the inspired instructions coolness with which, without any attempt to justify of one who had the mind of Christ,' and who was it, he sets aside the authority of so large a portion of not a whit behind the very chiefest apostles,' were the Word of God. His title-page bears on it, “Con- remitted for review, and for judicial decision upon gregational Independency, the Church Polity of the their authenticity, to an uninspired assembly?". (Pp. New Testament,” by which he means, not of the New 266-269.) Our readers do not need to be reminded Testament Church, which would be quite proper, but that Paul himself submitted his doctrine to the reof the New Testament Scriptures. “I have said, view of the Bereans, and that John exhorted all there is sufficiency of proof in the New Testament Christians to try the spirits; nor can they fail to see alone.” Even this would be admissible, were it meant how, even on the supposition that Paul had delivered merely to assert the authority of the New Testament “ inspired instructions,” our argument is strengthened in preference to tradition or human authority; but by the fact that a council of the Church was called, the assertion amounts to a disclaimer of the Old under divine direction, to decide upon them; for how Testament, as an authority in this matter altogether. much more needful are councils when inspiration has And yet, in apparent unconsciousness of any such ceased! But we refer to the language of Dr. Ward. design, he says, “My motto is, and I shall keep myself law, merely to point out a strange feature which we sternly to it—THE BIBLE, THE BIBLE ALONE." (P.3.) have observed in all our controversies with the IndeWe are aware that Dr. Wardlaw may plead that the pendents, viz., their propensity to hold that the constitution of the New Testament Church must be apostles were so inspired, that they could never open founded on New Testament authority: a poor quibble, their mouths without announcing infallible truth, at the best, founded on using the same term in dif- as if inspiration had been an inherent quality of their ferent senses; but this will not atone for the studied, minds! We wonder what Dr. Wardlaw would make the systematic, the tacit, and the more offensive, be of the contention between Paul and Barnabas, or cause tacit, slight that is cast on the Old Testament between the same apostle and Peter, when he “withScripture; for while we are all willing to bring our stood him to the face, because he was to be blamed.” systems to the test of the New Testament, we hold But the most extraordinary hallucination which the Old Testament to be an authority, even upon besets the minds of our Independents, relates to the points of New Testament duty and privilege. On use of the word CHURCH. We all know the magic the subject of Christian baptism, for example, we • We would strongly recommend to Dr. Wardlaw's perusal a quote its authority, and Dr. Wardlaw can make use treatise lately republished, but which he never appears to have conof it himself when it suits his purpose. But the

sulted—“ Whytock's Short Vindication of Presbytery, with Twelve Essays on the Church, Edinburgh, Kennedy, 1843.




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nfluence of this term in the eyes of Romanists, and | gregation meeting within four walls, is one of the High-churchmen of all degrees. But no shaven richest specimens of the petitio principii, or begging priestling of Rome, no capped and fur-belowed fellow the whole question in dispute, any where to be met of Oxford, places more weight on this unfortunate with. And yet this is the palladium—the sheet term than our Congregational disputants. Rejecting, anchor of Congregationalism. On these “two meanof course, the superstitious use of the word, they ings” of the unhappy term church hangs the whole nevertheless ring the changes on it with as much of their polity. And their m quarrel with us perseverance as if life and death depended on it. that we ascribe other senses to the word!“ Other Dr. Wardlaw has spent a whole section on “ Unau- senses,” says Dr. Davidson, “have been frequently thorized uses of the word Church.” And what is annexed to the term. Thus it is said to denote a the meaning of the word ? Why, as the Doctor is number of congregations united under one governobliged to admit, it just signifies an assembly; and it is ment, each, the meanwhile, having its own teaching ruler. "applied in the New Testament to any assembly—to These separate assemblies may belong to a city, a the convention at the time of the Demetrian riot at district, a province, or a country. Their number and Ephesus, which was a tumultuous concourse of territorial occupancy are subordinate points ; it is people, of whom the greater part knew not wherefore sufficient that they are all united into one church. they were come together!” * Exactly; and he might Thus we read of the Church at Jerusalem, at Corinth, have added, it is also applied on the same occasion to at Ephesus, &c., each consisting of various churches any lawful assembly, convoked for a special purpose. ocieties under the same rule, whether that rule “But if ye inquire anythiug concerning other were Prelatic or Presbyterial. Hence, also, has arisen matters, it shall be determined in a lawful assembly" | the customary phrase, Church of England, Church -literally a lawful church. “ And when he had thus of Scotland, Presbyterian Church in America,” &c. spoken, he dismissed the assembly”-ixxamoiy-he (P. 70.) In like manner, Dr. Wardlaw remarks,dismissed the church. We would conclude, in our “A considerable portion of the evidence on the presimplicity, that when we meet with the term in other sent point, has been already before us, in considering connections, it must just mean an assembly; that a the proper import of the word church. We have church composed of Christians, means an assembly shown that by a church is meant a congregation, or of Christians; that a church composed of apostles society of believers; and that there is no instance and presbyters, means an assembly of apostles and in the New Tastament of its being used in its alleged presbyters; and that, in short, the nature of the representative acceptation--that is, as denoting the assembly must be judged of by the persons of whom Church's officers independently of the people." (P. 234.) it is composed. But no, says Dr. Wardlaw. No Now, in answer to this, we beg leave to say that sooner do you apply the word to “social Christianity," we ascribe no other senses to the word church, but one: than its meaning alters—it becomes a mystic phrase, it means an assembly. But while we adhere to the capable only of “two significations.” In its more simple meaning of the term, we do not attempt, like comprehensive conception, it denotes the whole body of the Independents, to limit the application of it in the faithfulthe entire spiritual Israel of God. The more the New Testament to two kinds of assemblies. limited acceptation of the word is by much the more We see no right they have to stereotype the applicafrequent in its occurrence. In this acceptation, it tion of the term only to their own kind of meetings; denotes a society of believers in any place, acknow and we take the liberty of interpreting it, as we ledging one another in that character, statedly would any other term of the same general import, meeting together on his own day in the name of according to the context, or, in other words, by Jesus, for the worship of God, and for the observance what is said about it. We are aware that some of his ordinances.” (P. 39, 41.) In the same way does Presbyterian writers have given occasion to the Dr. Davidson state the matter: “Two meanings have wretched quibbling that has been perpetrated on this been specified as alone belonging to the word ixxandía, term, by the mode in which they have put the arguchurch, in the New Testament, viz., that spiritual ment derived from the use of the word church as apassembly which comprises all true believers in all plied to such places as Jerusalem, Ephesus, &c. To ages, usually denominated the unicersal church; and a this we may afterwards have occasion to revert; but congregation of Christians assembling for worship in in the meantime we may say that, in our opinion, one place, or a particular church.Now, we would too much apparent weight has been laid on this very simply ask, what can these gentlemen mean, by saying inferior and subordinate argument for Presbytery. that the word ixxanoic or church has “two significa- The real strength of the Presbyterial argument lies tions,” “two meanings,” in the New Testament? We in the fact, that a principle of unity prevailed among thought it had been granted to have only one meaning, all the churches or assemblies of Christians in every viz., an assemtly. How comes it to pass that this part of the world—a principle realized and exhibited simple term, so intelligible when applied to ordinary in various forms of actual union, as far as that was meetings, becomes so mystical when applied to practicable in the circumstances in which they were "social Christianity," or "Christian meetings ? A placed. What we contend for is, that we have clear Church of Christians, we must repeat, is just an as- evidence of union among the Churches of Christ, as sembly of Christians, or Christians in an associated well as among individual Christians;—that, divided as capacity. The particular character of the association, they were by distance, or compelled from their numwhether large or small, catholic or particular, for bers to meet in separate places of worship, they still worship or for discipline, visible or invisible, per- recognised each other as members of the same sonal or representative, must be decided by the con grand Christian fellowship, community, kingdom, nection in which the word stands, but can never be body, flock, family (we purposely abstain from the indicated by the word itself. To suppose that use of that cabalistic word church, which, like Proswherever the word church occurs in the New Tes- pero's wand, conjures up so many strange sights and tament, it must mean either the spiritual assembly sounds); and that, among other signs and pledges of of all true believers in every age, or a particular con- | union, they were ruled in common by those who


were set over them in the Lord. It may be true, ings were churches, and holds that it was only when that among other proofs of this, the application of they met together in one place, which he says they the word church in the singular number to such a did habitually, that they were entitled to be called a numerous body of Christians (another aggregate term church. “It is not, in fact,” he says, “ a point of great of the same import) as that in Jerusalem, which we importance, whether the believers in a city or town cannot suppose to have congregated in one room, de- meet together for worship and the observance of monstrates the unity to which we have referred; ordinances, provided they have the same teachers and goverthough we would not say that it was intended to nors in 'common.” (P. 119.) It matters extremely teach us a lesson on Church government.

little, so far as the argument for Presbytery is conBut how frail and flimsy must that system be, which cerned, whether you suppose the teachers and goverdepends on its being established, beyond all doubt, nors of the congregations in a city, fixed in particular that the Christians of Jerusalem and Ephesus never charges, or teaching and governing in common. If met as a church--that is never met at all, or held an in this we have departed from primitive practice, the assembly, except within the boundaries of four walls! Congregationalists are as much to blame as we. But Some Independents have actually been willing to it is some concession, at least, to allow that there rest the whole controversy on the meaning of these may have been Christian congregations, or “ little words, " in one place.” If they cannot get the thou- bands” of worshippers, or whatever else they may be sands and myriads of Christians in Jerusalem and called, all of whom were governed in common by the Ephesus squeezed into one room, huddled under one pastors. After making this concession, which the roof, the cause of Congregationalism is done. Dr. truth seems to have extorted, it is somewhat superWardlaw has accordingly set himself, with might and fuous for him to insist on the church signifying a main, to this desperate enterprise of compression. meeting of the whole in one place. Nor can we well After heaving a sigh of regret at attempting to “re understand why he blames us for converting the exstrain the flow of pleasure with which every Christian ception into the rule. “ Because the people of God must contemplate the widening success of the gospel,” in Jerusalem and Ephesus were compelled by cirhe first of all tries to crowd the “ many thousands” cumstances, or urged by the pressure of a conveniinto one place. When we exclaim at the impossi- ence, almost amounting to a necessity, to meet somebility of this, and hint the danger of suffocation or times in small companies, Presbyterians have made something worse,--Cannot help that, says the Doctor, it a part of their system to erect such separate conin they must go! " We have the fact on inspired gregations, and tofurnish each with a separate pastor.” record, that the multitude of the disciples' met We have only time at present to reply, that when he together; we have in opposition to this, the affirma- has succeeded in finding a room sufficiently capacious tion of our Presbyterian brethren, that their so for holding our city congregations in one body; and meeting was impossible. Our brethren say they could after he has made the experiment on some Independnot; the inspired historian says they did. Here, then, ent congregations, in order to show its safety and is a balance of difficulties." We beg, by the way, practicability, we shall be quite willing to follow his to rectify the balance, by observing, that what we example; that we shall promise never, to call our say is just what Dr. Wardlaw is obliged to say after- "little bands” by the name of churches, but reserve wards, viz., that if there were so many thousands, that appellation for the great meeting of the multithey could not each and all meet in one place. There tude come together into one place;" that, if the may have been, however, a public meeting of the pastors assemble to consult about governing, the Christians in one place, though, as at public meetings whole in common, we shall not call it an assembly, or we do not expect the whole inhabitants to be present, church, or presbytery, but anything he pleases; and it may not have included the whole Christian popu- that if all the pastors of the several churches in lation of Jerusalem. But Dr. Wardlaw, finding no Scotland, for example, should assemble for the same room for such a crowd, even in the temple, sets bim- purpose, we shall not talk of the Church of Scotland, self next to diminish the number; there may not but may think of following the example of the French have been so many thousands in Jerusalem after all; Protestants, who called their assembly “The Synod they may include the surrounding neighbourhood of the Reformed Churches in France.” and, finally, having exhausted his strength and giving up the matter in despair, he falls back on the whole

(To be continued.) multitude meeting“ in one place,” exclaiming, * Surely it cannot be necessary to my believing this, that I should be able to tell with certainty where and

Notes on New Books. how, to ascertain the place, and prove its suitableness and convenience!" (Pp. 54–58.). It is truly painful to observe all this vain expenditure of ingenuity, more especially when it is remembered that this Strictures on Certain Vievs propounded by Mr. Emerson; phrase “in one place,” on which so much is made to being an Address delivered to the Scotch Young Men's rest, signifies nothing more than “together," is often Society, by the Rev. ALEX. MUNRO. so translated in other passages, and refers simply to We have elsewhere alluded to Mr. Emerson, so highly eulomutual association.

gized by the organ of the Church Establishment, and whose But we leave Dr. Wardlaw to argue this point with refined infidelity has just been distilled into the ears of some his friend Dr. Davidson. That writer, unfortunately, has cut the sinews of Dr. Wardlaw's argument, by

of our Edinburgh so-called philosophers. We do not know admitting, that after all, the Christians in Jerusalem for what reason such men are allowed to lecture in the Hall may have met occasionally for worship in separate of the United Presbyterian Church. It must be purely from places. It is true, that, in common with all Inde inadvertence, for our friends can, of course, have no sympendents, Dr. Davidson is spell-bound by the word pathy with such dangerous principles. It is unfortunate, church. He will not allow that these separate meet- however, and if they do let out their hall for general purposes

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(a plan on the propriety of which we give no opinion), they ; and thinking which the wise and good have long, and for ought surely to discriminate amongst the objects to which it just reasons, discarded ? But let us lift the disguise of the shall be devoted. Meantime we are anxious to call the at

definition a little farther, and see what Mr. Emerson's tention of our readers to a very able “ Address” published sceptic actually is. He presents to us a class with whom, by the Rev. Mr. Munro of Manchester, in regard to the real

as we shall show, he professes not merely sympathy, but principles and motives of this scoffing American. Emerson

also identity. To make their distinctive qualities as intelliis a Boston man, and a disciple of our own Carlyle, who gible or palpable as possibly he can, he gives us a charac

teristic specimen—an embodied representive. Montaigne carries his peculiar views to their legitimate consequences,

he exhibits, at full length, as the bear ideal of the genus and endeavours to cut up every thing “most surely believed sceptic. He is the paradigma of the definition; yea more, amongst us” by the roots. And yet all this is done in the he is, in the lecturer's estimation, the very paragon of writers usual quiet, and cowardly way of men who know that a and of men. Mr. Emerson gives an account of the origin Christian community would rise up in arms against them, if and growth of his own almost transcendental regard for their true object were openly and manfully avowed. They this author. Nay, so thoroughly is he at one with him, that, wrap up their meaning in dark phrases, through which their as he tells us, ‘on first reading his works, he felt as if he scepticism leers and peeps only at intervals, or they strongly himself had written them in some previous state of existcommend to their hearers the characters and works of noted

ence. He approves, he lauds, he cordially commends the

author and the writings to his young listeners. infidels of former times and of other lands, so that the un

“ Well, but who and what was Montaigne, this prince of wary young are made to stumble into the pit before they are

considerers?' That he was a man who possessed certain aware; or they endeavour to fix in the minds of their gifts of ingenious and agreeable garrulity; that he led an hearers abstract principles, without pointing out in the first easy and unembarrassed life; that he had a free way of instance their future dangerous applications. All this has speaking about himself, and a courteous way of speaking to been effectively exposed in Mr. Munro's able and eloquent others, there is no ground to doubt. But that he is a lecture, which we strongly recommend to the perusal of such pattern or a writer, to commend either to age or to youth, of our readers as may desire to know the tactics of the is questionable in the extreme. Is the gentleman aware of modern enemies of truth. Meantime we give the following the well verified judgment of the Port-Royal scholars on extract:

Montaigne? Or does he think that these can be lightly set

aside ? Are the names of Arnauld, Nicole, Sacy, Le Maitre, This, it will be perceived, is the programme of the latest Fontaine, and Pascal so unknown in literature, as to be uninfidelity among us. IXETTisy,' says Mr. Emerson, ' means, deserving of attention, in estimating his character? Pascal, to consider: a sceptic, not in the sense of a scoffer,' &c. a man of noble family, who elucidated and completed the Here, if I am not mistaken, is another piece of literary wile. discoveries in natural philosophy, on the suggesting of Who does not know that in every language there are words which the fame of Torricelli mainly rests—Pascal, whose which have a primary or secondary meaning that has never talents shone with equal lustre in the most abstruse parts followed them into their fixed use? And who does not of mathematics, and in the sublimest forms of eloquence, know, that the worst sects have always given themselves the of morals, and piety-was himself a host. He it was who finest names ? But men of sense have taken care to judge wrote that part of the logic of the Port-Royalists which the name by the sect, and not the sect by the name. In the delineates the character of Montaigne. Having, from a present instance, it is well known that the term sceptic variety of passages, described him as entertaining his readers scarcely ever in the most ancient, and never in modern with a display of his humours, his inclinations, his phantimes, marked out the considerate disciples of earnest in- tasies, his diseases, his virtues, and his vices; having stated quiry; but the rejecters of settled truths—the obstructors, that Montaigne does so, through a defect of judgment, as not the constructors, of salutary doctrine. At the very well as from an inordinate self-love and vanity; having earliest dawn, or rather dusk, of their existence-in the quoted his own excuse for his weakness and wickedness, days of Democritus and Pyrrho, their founders—they had namely, that he was so formed and so circumstanced, as to other names besides: Aporetici, from atopsiv, to doubt; be unable to do otherwise; that it was needless to repent; Ephectici, from sr*%«, to hinder, obstruct, or hold back, that if he was to live again, he would live as he had done; names borne by the body, along with the term sceptics, that he neither mourned the past, nor feared the future; but, etymologically, more characteristic of their tenets. that without thought or care, he holds himself ready to Down to the days of Empiricus, in whom the ancient plunge into death as into a depth which engulfs all at once school expired, they were staunch to their miserable voca- -death which is but a quarter of an hour's suffering, tion of extending their negatives and doubts far beyond the without consequences, without disagreeables, and which legitimate province of doubt-asserting strenuously the deserves no particular directions;-having exhibited these utter fucility of all inquiry, and denying the possibility of statements from Montaigne's own works, Pascal exclaims, any certainty, in physics and morals, as well as religion. as well he may, “ Paroles horribles!—Horrible words, inThe system, though chased into its grave by the growing deed; indicating an utter extinction of every sentiment of light of truth, in the reign of Antonine, has yet revived, or religion." rather been dug up, in modern days. It possesses still the “The strictures, too, on Montaigne, by Malbranche, are same essential qualities. Whatever slender differences may unaccountably left out of view—a writer of the first emibe noticeable among its recent, as well as its earlier abet- nence, who, though like our own Brinckly, he had some idle tors, its identity cannot for a moment be disputed. In all notions on intellectual ideality, yet, like him also, was firmperiods, it has comprised the Stratos, the Timons, the Spi- minded, pure-hearted, and sincere in everything that relates nosas, the Bolingbrokes, the Humes, and the Owens-as to morality and religion. He condemns Montaigne; and this opposed to the Platos, the Ciceros, the Boyles, the Lockes, the more, because that, not assuming to be a reasoner, he and the Chalmerses.

attempts to divert and please by strengthening the passions, “ Is, then, considerer'-this comely definition of an ill- as well as by dangerous sentimente. favoured word-intended, like an alias to a name, to propi. “ But there are others whose testimony cannot be fairly tiate the reception into British society, of a sort of thinkers overlooked. Dr. Brown, a member of the Scottish Bar,

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and a writer of research and probity, tells us that, notwith- Earl of Warwick. The first part of this work consists of a standing of expressions used by Montaigne, indicating an reprint of the sketch of her Ladyship’s life and character by entire extinction of the religious principle, ‘he yet had mass her friend and pastor, Dr. Anthony Wood. Then we have celebrated in his chamber in his last moments, and expired her Diary for six years, here published for the first time. At during the elevation of the host.' Here, then, you have

the time of her death the Diary came into the hands of her one or two things to conclude respecting this man-either,

domestic chaplain, the Rev. Thomas Woodroofe, who, fearing that to his scepticism he added hypocrisy; or that, through life rejecting all faith, he was at death given over to all

that it might perish, either copied it, or caused it to be tran

scribed. credulity.

has been preserved in his family, and is now in * Besides this; Professor Dugald Stuart, one of the very

the possession of his great-great-grandson, the Rev. N. G. first philosophers in those recent days, and an author, inva- Woodroofe, vicar of Somerford Keynes, Gloucestershire, riably, of upright and charitable judgment, says of Mon- who has given it for publication. We have perused the taigne, that “the radical fault of his understanding consisted Diary with much interest. It most affectingly exhibits the in an incapacity of forming, on disputable points, those de- character of a humble, contrite, watchful, and simple-minded cided and fixed opinions which can alone impart either force Christian lady, who, with much in her station and relations or consistency to intellectual character.' And again, he

to try her faith and stedfastness, kept her garments clean, and states that, 'by Montaigne, in his apology for Sebonde, the

walked daily and hourly with God. Such entries as the folpowers of the human understanding, in all inquiries, whether physical or moral, are held up to ridicule; a universal lowing are frequent:-" In the morning as soon as I awoke

I blessed God, then went out into the wilderness to mediPyrrhonism is recommended, and we are again and again reminded that the senses are the beginning and end of our

tate ; and there God was pleased to give me sweet commuknocledge. Whoever has the patience to pursue this chap

nion with him, and to fix my thoughts much upon my death, ter will be surprised to find in it the rudiments of a great and to make me pray, with strong cries and abundance of tears, part of the licentious philosophy of the eighteenth century.' that I might be prepared for that great change.”—“ Had large Mr. Emerson informs us, that ‘Montaigne had no spiritual- meditations of death, and was much moved to consider what ity-no enthusiasm, with the one exception of his love for a strange change death made in one moment. The thoughts Socrates.' But what says Professor Stuart? What, but

of a separate soul did much move me, and made me with *that Montaigne has done more perhaps than any other man

great contempt reflect what a brutish action it was for me so to introduce into men's houses what is called the new philo- much to forget eternity, which was pressing upon’me.”—“In sophy—a philosophy certainly very different from that of

the morning, as soon as ready, prayed God to go along with Socrates.' “I now put the question, What is to be thought by any

me in my journey to London, and then took coach to go, right-minded person, of Montaigne, as set up for young and, by the mercy of God, got safe thither, without any men to study, imitate, and admire? Now, be it recollected,

misfortune." Again : “In the morning, as soon as ready, that while Mr. Emerson cordially identifies himself with

and had taken leave of my lord, I went to prayer, to this writer, he is his chosen sample of the sceptics, the beseech God to be with me in my journey, and to bless him genuine representative of that class which has never, since for my preservation in London; then took coach to go to Leeds. the world began, furnished mankind with one valuable As soon as I came out of Warwick House, I was much pleased principle, one exalted maxim, or one heroic deed. How

that I was now returning to my quiet home, from the hurry I could it? It wants the stamina—the spring of every- had been in in London; but I had this comfort, that I could thing that is elevating in thought, or strenuous in action.

truly say I never found my heart taken with any worldly pomp It abandons the high domain of the spiritual, and gladly

or vanity I had seen there, but looked upon all with contempt grovels in the sensuous. It teaches its disciple to be a drag rather than a promoter; instead of a truth-seeker, a self

and chose rather to converse with God in solitude, than to be seeker; instead of a labourer for society, a Sybarite for

in the crowd of the world, where I was either deserted from bimself. Dr. Earle thus defines the sceptic:- He is one

God's service, or distracted in it. I could truly say I came that bangs in the balance with all sorts of opinions, whereof home more mortified than I went, and resolved to walk closer Dot one but stirs him, and none sways him. He would be with God." (We select these passages at random.) She wholly a Christian, but that he is something of an Atheist; was also very faithful in the discharge of her duties as mistress and wholly an Atheist, but that he is partly a Christian.

of her household, and earnest in charging all, high and low, He sees reason in all opinions, but truth in none. He finds within the reach of her example or influence, to seek the Lord. doubts and scruples, better than he resolves them; and is

Thus we read : “As I went alone with my Lady Essex in her always too hard for himself.' This being something of a

coach, I did, with all the awakening arguments I could, entruer definition than “a considerer,' who does not confess that scepticism, whether ancient or modern, must emascu-

deavour to stir her up to a more serious diligence than ever late the mind, and annihilate all generous resolve; making in things of everlasting concernment.” Again : “ Having the hands to hang down and the knees feeble ? "

opportunity offered me by my lord, I embraced it, and did,

with great humility and yet with great plainness, speak to Temoir of Lady Warwick: also her Diary from a.d.

him about the things of his everlasting concernment, and did 1666 to 1672, now first published; to which are added mightily press him to consider what was God's design in often Extracts from her other Writings.


and heavily afflicting him with dreadful pains, and did earLady Warwick was daughter of Mr. Richard Boyle, born nestly with tears beg him to break off his sins by repentance." 1566, who rose from the position of a private gentleman to be, Again : “I did this happy morning find my soul follow hard as Earl of Cork, one of the most distinguished and influential after God for full three hours together. After I had taken of the aristocracy. The Honourable Robert Boyle, who at- some paius to instruct some of the poor weeding women in tained to such eminence as a Christian gentlemen and philo- things that concerned their souls, I returned in with my heart sopher, was her brother; and other members of the family at- made very serious-afterwards I read and prayed.” We might tained distinction in different departments. Mary was the multiply extracts, but it is unnecessary. The whole book is seventh of eight daughters, and married Charles, the fourth | interesting; and while we do not affirm the propriety of every

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