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remember, in a conversation with the Rev. Adolphus thus proceeds :-“My desire is, that we should mould Sydow on this point, to have been struck with the into a more perfect form that which we already posinsensibility to the distinction between the endow. sess in the United Evangelical Church of Germany;" ment of truth and of error, which circumstances had and in that portion of his book which contains his produced in his highly intelligent mind; and the detailed application of hisgeneral principles, he speaks wonder is repeated in the case of Chevalier Bunsen. of 60 bishoprics for 60,000 parishes, containing about He speaks without any protest, or any feeling of 10,000,000 of Protestants. This gives 100 parishes, incongruity, of “the two National Churches" --so that, or about 167,000 souls, for each bishop. He has

f being in a position for unfolding the con- Metropolitans besides, and Rural Deans, the former stitution of the Church of the Future, it does not having the confidence of the king, and therefore appear that some intelligent Germans have yet got allowed to wield his patronage--the jus magistatis in hold of the grand distinction on which alone National the Church of the Future. Now, on reviewing this Churches can be upheld—the principle of endowing projection, we own we have a difficulty in repressing the truth, and nothing but the truth, according to the idea that it is meant for a practical joke; and the Word of God. We wish we could sympathize yet, in sober earnest, Chevalier Bunsen would cashier with our author in the hope that an era of free love English Episcopacy, Scottish Presbyterianism, and is dawning on the Church (p. 267). But we must disintegrating Independentism, for this strange meconfess that if that love is to take its outgoing in the lange this cumbrous and anomalous system. He direction of putting errors condemned by the Word retains bishops, and yet prays, “God preserve us of God not merely on a level with his truth, but from dioceses like most of the Roman Catholic and above it, in point of State support, we cannot but

English ones.” say, "into their assembly, mine honour, be not thou We need add little now to show that this ideal of united.” We would predict that a period of disunion the Church of the Future, as we understand it, is and disintegration awaits the Church of Prussia when vulnerable at a hundred points. It is essentially such elements are still mixed up in its ecclesiastical Erastian, even while its author says, “the spheres constitution. If she has not discovered the antagon of the State and the Church are entirely different ism that exists between Popery and God's truth, and separate.” The king and his ecclesiastical miniswho is she that she should claim, or that any of her

ter of State have powers which the New Testament sons should claim on her behalf, to be the model of no where confers.* It admits even the dreaded Inthe Church of the Future? It is no doubt beautiful ) dependentism, by making the people in some cases and catholic (although, on the whole, we judge it rulers. It retains patronage in full vigour, and in romantic) to hear our author speak of the Herrnhut- | unchallengeable power. Before a man can take part ters and Methodists as the embryo orders of the in calling a minister, he must, among other things, Church of the Future for missions to the heathen, be a contributor to the building and repairing of and describing them and “other separatists" as the the church. Now, surely, it cannot commend the chrysalis of that Psyche which is only waiting for the discernment of any author to hear him, with the Bible

d air of spring to unfold her wings. But we on his study table, eulogizing such an institute as the deem it far more likely that these separatists will chrysalis of a future Church, possessed of all that is absorb the Church in Prussia than that the Church

pure, free, evangelical. Again, on the one hand, it is will absorb them, unless they be deadened and de not right to slur over the gross laxity long tolerated generate. The patriotism of the author, glowing and

among the ministers of the Prussian Church; nor, on truly generous as it is, may shadow forth other

the other, to mutilate Presbyterianism, and then results; and he dwells again and again on the pic-| reason against it; in short, a system in which the ture which his native land will present when his

native land will present when his spiritual is evermore inter-penetrated by the temNational Church has become the model Church of | poral or the civil power, is one which only fond parthe future. But it is a dream. Make that Church | tiality can defend. Instead of being regarded as a all that he wishes to-day; its corruption and decay model, we view it as a beacon. Bunsen exults in will begin to-morrow. He asks with enthusiasm, the hope that no further proof than his plans and “ Have these three--government, congregation, and arguments is needed to show that “the day of clergy-different interests ?" We reply, they have Clergy Churches and State Churches is over and not; but they have passions, prejudices, pride; and gone, and as certainly that of sects and separatists;" to commit them to any scheme that is not purely and and then he exclaims, “Of this Church of the Fuperfectly scriptural, any plan moulded by human ture, we say that in her all, just or unjust, reasonwisdom, is not merely dangerous—it is sinful. Are able or unreasonable, jealousy must disappear;" in we not right in supposing that our author is pleading other words, a specific for regenerating a whole for Utopia where he says : “ Neither State nor con nation, and turning it into an Eden, is discovered. gregation need entertain with us any suspicion of Our author believes that the vision is a reality, for assumptions on the part of the clergy-the govern he is an earnest impassioned man; but he is gazing ment need fear no rude fanatical congregation-the on a mirage-he is propounding an ideal destined Church need dread no insidious government, a never to be realized by a Nation, though it will by stranger to the national faith;" in other words,

the Exxanoia. there can never again be a Frederick on the throne

It is true, Bunsen deserves our highest eulogy for of Prussia, who is an infidel himself, and the patron his constant aim at the good of the Christian people, of our future Voltaires..

and the rearing of a Church for them, his endeavour We cannot now advert to the author's views of to overthrow sacerdotalism, and bring into vigorous Popery, Independentism, Presbyterianism, and other

* Can it sound otherwise than strange to read_" In Berlin is forms. After discarding English Episcopacy as “a

the directory of spiritual affairs under a minister of State" (p. 133); fragment, its counterpart the Presbyterianism of

or, again, referring to the synods, it is said, each Synod - watches Geneva, Holland, Scotland, as nothing better, Inde over the maintenance of sound doctrine and discipline in churches

and schools. Causes of complaint brought to light by this examipendentism as a mere disintegrating negation," he 1 nation, are to be laid before the State courts (p. 140).


play the individual conscience, and personal respon- of Paulus and Wegscheider, to the philosophic infi. sibility of the sinner. He estimates most soundly delity of Hegel, thence to the mythical gospel of also the retrograde movement in England. It will Strauss, and ultimately to the Atheism of Stirner. end, he declares, in a system “essentially Popish.” And he presents us with many interesting and impor

It corrupts the doctrines of redemption, justifica tant views of the religious and ecclesiastical condition tion, and the sacraments, by giving to them a Judai and prospects of Germany. A detailed reference to cal meaning. This is, in our opinion,” he says, " to these we must, for the present, postpone,wishing rather deny and crucify Christ." Yet this conceded to his in this paper to give an outline of luis statements reapplanse, truth compels us to record the sentiment, garding the people and churches of Britain. that his own “ Constitution” is but a very partial He is a great admirer of the English character. honouring of Him who is Judge, and Lawgiver, and He says :

If the German feeds upon the ideal, the practical is the To close, What will be the fate of his volume?

his volume: characteristic of Great Britain; I say, Britain, because most

cha By some it will be regarded as "a protest against of what I say here of England is applicable to Scotland also. Episcopacy;" by others, “ an unconditional recom- Reality, action, business, bear sway in the politics, the inmendation of it." These opposite views were actually dustry, the commerce, and, I will even say, in the religion of taken of the author's letters to Gladstone, and the

the English. Yet this practical tendency which characterizes same conflicting opinions may be formed of this

England is not selfish, as might have been expected. The

large scale on which the people work gives a certain sco work, because the author does not take the golden

and grandeur to the imagination. The habit which the Engthread of scriptural simplicity to guide him through lish have of falling into parties, and of looking at themselves the labyrinth which he has attempted to thrid. At constantly as a nation, is opposed to a narrow selfishness; the same time, it will help on the reaction which, and a more elevated sentiment struggles with this vice in a for some years, has been begun in Germany. The

large portion of the people. ..... author says, “that the dead Rationalism of the

I observed in England one thing, that the people talk much

less of liberty than we do on the Continent, but practise it eighteenth century which .... could claim nothing

more. The young men, who play so important à part in for its own, but an understanding which dreamt not Germany, and even in France and other countries, do not so of the depths of mind and spirit, has borne its own in England. It is not for want of spirit in the English youth corpse to the grave, except where it has been pre -they have even rather too much; but it is confined in the served as a mummy, and cherished as a dead house

preparatory sphere of schools and colleges, and does not dishold god by certain Governments;” and in this all

| play itself in public business. Influential institutions satisfy

this people. The young men know that their turn will come, that love our kind will exult. We mingle our felici

and they wait quietly. Among a people deprived of public tations with his, that the work of faith is advancing, institutions, vigour is often misplaced; it is forced forward in that truth is in progress, that love, the queen of all youth and exhausted in riper years. In England, on the conthe graces, is plying her many labours, “not in trary, it is disciplined in youth and exerted in manhood. On secret orders and foreign societies, sneaking about in

| the Continent, paternal authority is much shaken; in Britain, silence, but of public brotherhoods, and free sister.

the parents, generally speaking, know how to keep their

children at a respectful distance; and this is a great element hoods, whose motive is Christian love, and whose of strength for a nation. When the Bible would pronounce a object is the comfort of their poor and oppressed threat against a people, it says, “I will give them children to brethren in the faith.” That may be the path along be their princes, and babes shall rule over them.” (Isa. iii. 4.) which, in the wise overrulings of God, the right con

The opinion which he gives of the aristocracy is also stitution of the Church of the future is to be made

very favourable; the more so, probably, from the conpatent to the Churches of the present.

temptible character, or worse, of the general aristo

cracy of the Continent. He fadvocates the organic GERMANY, ENGLAND, AND SCOTLAND; or, Recollections reform of the Church of England-reform in her of a Swiss Minister. By J. H. MERLE D'AUBIGNE, universities, especially by giving the study of theology D.D.


a prominent place in the curriculum-and reform in

her Government, by elevating the position of the We doubt not that we shall best consult the wishes

clergy, and freeing the Church from the abjectness of our readers, in dealing with this volume, if, instead

of its present slavery. He says:of presenting them with any lengthened criticism

If Evangelical England is to be rebuilt, she must be set up of our own, we lay before them a selection of the

anew upon the living rock of the Divine Word. She must reminiscences and impressions of the distinguished cease to cultivate almost exclusively in her universities the author. Merle D'Aubigné is one of the few men classical languages and the mathematics; and in order to form who, when they speak, can command a hearing theologians, some attention must be paid to theological from Christendom; and as, in this volume, he speaks

science. England, in this respect, is far behind the Churches

and universities of the Continent. ..... chiefly of ourselves—about three-fourths of the book

To the convocations once belonged, saving the king's prerobeing devoted to Scotland - we have an additional

gative, the government of the Church. But in 1717, at the time call, as well as an irresistible inducement, to listen. of the Jacobite troubles, the debates having displeased Govern

Germany occupies the first sixty pages of the | ment, the convocation was dissolved; and now it no longer volume. D'Aubigné, although a Genevese by birth,

exists. It is true, that whenever a new Parliament meets, and for many years by residence, is no stranger

the elections again take place; the convocation assembles at to Germany. He spent six years (from 1817 to

Westminster; a Latin sermon is preached; after which the

convocation recognises what the last Parliament has enacted 1823) in that country--first as a student, and after

concerning ecclesiastical affairs, and draws up an address to wards as a pastor; and he tells us that he “can

the king or the queen; after this it adjourns sine die. Thus never revisit it without again feeling himself among the Anglican Church meets to take off its hat and make a low the friends of his best years." He was himself bow to those who have taken away all its power-and then withered for a time by its Rationalism, but God have

the mutes disperse. It is the shadow of a body, which have ing a work for him to do, delivered him. He draws

the shadow of a jurisdiction, holds the shadow of an assembly,

and then all these shadows dissolve and vanish under the anhere a rapid, but true and even thrilling sketch of the tique arches, and among the pillars, statues, urns, and tombs progress of Rationalism from the rationalismus culjaris of the Gothic abbey. ....:

The Church of England must have a government inde- , that the Christian's sap has been transfused into pendent of the Parliament-a government in which, doubt- | them, not from the weakened off-shoots of the less, the bishops will sit; but in which will appear also the

Romans, but from a young, vigorous, and indigenous ordinary clergy, and wherein deputies from the parishes will have an influential voice. Every true Protestant should

stock. This union of natural energy, with that reject the hierarchial course; which may be very serviceable, energy which comes from above, can alone explain perhaps, for ancient Egypt, or modern Rome, but is unsuited the Church of, and what she is now doing.” to Great Britain. . . . . .

FuriherThe want of ecclesiastical institutions and representation in England is, I am convinced, one of the most active causes

Scotland appears to me at present the best proof of the of Puseyism. Both the ministers and the members of a

Reformation. I do not mean that nothing is wanting in it; Church require occupation; and when there are no public

but, comparatively speaking, it is, of all Protestant nations, institutions calling upon them to discuss ecclesiastical in

that in which the gospel has worked the best, and in which terests, and to realize salutary reforms, then they rush into

its effects have been the most durable. This gives to Scotland something else. In Germany, they have taken to science

a great importance in that Christian restoration which we and Rationalism; in England, they have turned to ecclesias

should wish our age to witness. Though Scotland should not ticism and Popery. ...:

be for us the model country (it is in ages further back, in the An ecclesiastical constitution, inspired by a spirit of wis

primitive times of Christianity, that the model of the Church dom and piety, would remedy this evil. Councils, synods, is to be sought), it is perhaps destined at the present period to and connections of different ministers with each other, would

be the vanguard of Christ's army. rouse those who are on the point of falling asleep, and be a

This eminent rank, he thinks, has been secured to means which the grace of God would employ to "lift up the hands that hapg down, and the feeble knees.” (Heb. xii. 12.)

Scotland, by her attachment to sound doctrineThey would prevent two evils--the want of superintendence,

meaning by doctrine not a cold,arid, lifeless orthodoxy, of order, and of discipline, on the one hand; and the arbi but “ the doctrine which is according to godliness." trary rule of the bishops, on the other.

Doctrine, as it is to be found within the Church of ScotReferring to the threatened endowment of Popery,

land, is neither an abstract dogma nor an obsolete formula he exclaims :

It is spirit and life. These minds so quick and so penetrat

ing; these intellects so moulded by public life and civil liberty, · Let the State beware! Popery is less a' religion than a

to great movements and great manifestations; these souls so State. The Papacy everywhere tends to constitute itself a

fresh, so ardent, so energetic, cannot take delight in that State within a State. We know that it is yet far from its

phantom of orthodoxy which we have seen on the Continent object; but let us be patient! we are clearing the road for it. subsisting long after the life of faith had disappeared. The With politicians so short-sighted, as some of those who have,

critical, exegetical, patristic, or historical element, which chain other respects, justly acquired the highest reputation in

racterizes Germany, does not, it is true, exist to the same Europe, Popery will quickly make its way. The State talks

degree in Scotland; yet we must not therefore expect to find of finding another ally, but it will receive a master.

an external and superficial theology. There is more real theoA touching incident opens and warms his acquaint

logy—that is to say, knowledge of God-in Scotland than in

Germany. ....... ance with Scotland :

The Siottish theologian places himself at once in the centre We arrived in Edinburgh. It was the day on which the

of the Christian doctrine; it is on faith in the reconciliation Queen's birth-day is kept; there were great rejoicings in the ' by the expiatory sacrifice of Christ that he takes his stand. streets, and fireworks were thrown against the coach. I had This grand dogma, which tells us at once of the sin of man not yet alighted, when I perceived amidst the crowd a head and the grace of God; this fundamental doctrine, which conalready whitened by age, with a lively eye and benevolent | tains, on the one hand, the consciousness of our guilt, and, on smile. It was Chalmers, that man who for these thirty years, the other, the assurance of an irrevocable counsel of mercy and has been all over Europe the representative of Scotland; he | salvation, is the vivyfying centre of Scotch theology. Faith had had the kindness to come and meet me. The hearty in the Lamb of God, who has borne the sins of the world welcome of this venerable Christian, with whom I was not

this is the milk with which the Scottish child is fed in the before personally acquainted, and who adds to bis great genius

schools of the towns, the mountains, and the plains; and the the simplicity of a child, affected me even to tears. Thence

strong meat, whose Lourishing juices are dispensed by the forward I loved Chalmers as a brother, and reverenced hiin

theologians of Edinburgh or Glasgow to the future ministers as a father. I was united to him, to his Church, to his people,

of the Church. by a powerful bond of affection. A month afterwards, having But if Christ. once dead. is the youndwork of the edifice. gone to spend my last two days in Scotland with Chalmers,

Christ, now living, is its corner-stone. If there are some in a delightful village at Fairlie, on the sea-shore, opposite

countries in Christendom which vorship Christ as much in the mountains of Arran, I repaired to Greenock, to meet the

his death and as a victim (which there certainly are), I think steamer which was to carry me to Liverpool; and, notwith-that there are none which honour Christ in his imperishable standing the distance, notwithstanding his age, and a heavy

life as King so much as the Church of Scotland.
life as King

. rain (a Greenock day, as they call it there), Chalmers would see me to my cabin, and did not leave me till the signal He proceeds to give an account of the Scottish was given for our departure. Chalmers was the first and the mode of public worship, admiring its solemnity and last whom I saw in Scotland. If I recall this cordial wel simplicity. He complains, however, of the length of come, it is not only for the sake of doing honour to this

our public prayers : “ A Christian alone in his closet friend; I merely point to the venerable Edinburgh patriarch

may pray for a quarter, a half, or a whole hour, or as the type of Scottish hospitality.

more; but when a large assembly has been praying Like all travellers, he is loud in his praises of for ten or fifteen minutes, are not most of the hearEdinburgh. He terms it “the most picturesque ofers unable to follow, except on extraordinary occaall the towns wbich he has ever visited. Its situa- sions, and sadly liable to wandering thoughts? On the tion has been compared to that of Athens, but it is Continent, at least, it would be thus.” Of our preachers added that the Modern Athens is far superior to the he says: ancient.” As to the character of the people, he says : All things considered, better preachers are to be found in “I found the Scotchman kind, cordial, hospitable. Scotland than in any other country of Christendom. We active, and generous. .... I was especially struck generally, see, mingled in due proportion, in the discourses of by the energy of this people—their energy of feeling, the Scottish preachers, those two elements which constitute all of words, and of action. There is still something of

Christian eloquence—the objective truth on the one hand, and the old Scots and Picts in these Christians of the

the individuality of the preacher on the other. The developnineteenth century. Christianity has sunk deeper

ment of the latter principle, the subjective element, is very

prominent among some of the leading men in Scotland; and into them than into any other nation, but you see this it is which constitutes their eloquence, but not to the

injury of the other. Perhaps, on the contrary, among the He explains the reason of his declining to address mass of the preachers, the former element is too predominant. | the Established Assembly. First, it was to the Free

Our readers may be interested in his sketches of Church that he had been deputed; and then, further, “Scottish orators :"

he perceived that such was the state of the public I will not mention all the admirable orators whom

mind in Scotland, that he must absolutely make a

choice. “Besides,” he asks, “ what could I have I bare heard in England and Scotland; the list would be too long. But if I must give the names of the said in the Established Church? It would have been lions of eloquence, I would point in Scotland to Chal- against my conscience not to speak in all sincerity; mers, whose profound intellect and ardent heart are dis- and yet my remarks would have been out of place plared through the medium of a diction of fervid, I would

before so august a body.” He then turns to the Free eren say, of Scottish energy-Chalmers, whose lips utter

Assembly, remarking fames and fire, so that in spite of an accent so strongly provipcial as to be almost unintelligible to us, the foreigner loses On passing from one Assembly to the other, we feel that not one of his expressions, for the soul of the orator reveals the State and its power, the nobility and their influence, are what his organ seems to conceal-Chalmers, who fearlessly with the Established Church; and certainly this is something. throws himself into the most difficult subjects, because wher- The Free Church has on her side the people and their enthuever this great orator bends his steps a ray of light springs up, siasm; but let us not forget that among this people there are and makes all clear-Chalmers, the most powerful soul that to be found influential merchants and manufacturers, enlighterer was made subservient to the most lucid and vigorous in ened lawyers, respectable magistrates, and nobles belonging to tellect, I would next name Dr. C ; at first grave, severe, the most illustrious houses of Scotland. abrupt, letting his sentences fall with a certain monotony, The description of the meeting which he addressed appearing torpid, almost asleep; then all at once bursting like

in Tanfield, and which many of our readers will rea shell amidst the assembly, moving heaven and earth, and leaving all his auditory crushed and shattered by the thunders

member, is one of the most graphic passages in the of his feloquence. I would name also the Rev. 1. G

volume. We can give but parts of it. smiling, jesting, scattering flowers around you, and then They could not certainly do us greater honour than appoint hoaring like an eagle from these gay parterres, among which Chalmers to introduce us. The thought of hearing once more you thought he would leave you, and carrying you with him this venerable old man, whose life had been so full of action to the highest heavens.

and of power, and whose voice (a fact before unheard of in The greater portion of the volume is connected with

the history of the Church) had, as if endowed with magic the Disruption and the Free Church. He visited

power, twice covered the whole of his country with temples

consecrated to the Lord; perhaps also the thought of saluting Scotland in the month of May 1845, when the two

the foreigners, had drawn together an extraordinary concourse. Assemblies were sitting, and he came in contact The Free General Assembly meets in a plain, modest, but vast with the leading men of both. He has evidently taken building, formerly destined, I believe, for a manufactory, much pains to acquire a thorough knowledge of the situated at Canonmills, at the foot of a hill on a picturesque character and details of the ten years' struggle which

road leading to the sea, towards Fife. The hall is low, which

renders the atmosphere stifling; but it is very spacious. preceded the Disruption. He has also studied, with

Under its bare rafters and rude beams, which form a strong manifest care and minuteness, the religious history of

contrast with the desert magnificence of the Established Scotland from the Reformation downwards; and in Assembly; with no throne, no Lord High Commissioner, no the latter half of the volume he narrates the whole powdered pages-was assembled, on the evening of the 18th with fulness and facility, interspersing the narrative of May, an immense auditory enthusiastic for the Church and

for liberty. ..... with his own eloquent and earnest commentary.

We advanced slowly, headed by Dr. Chalmers, as it was First come his personal reminiscences. His refer

necessary for the dense crowd to open and allow us a passage. ences to the Establishment and its Assembly will

Some one was reading at that moment a report of the Comsufficiently explain his sentiments regarding them: mittee for the Propagation of Christianity among the Jews;

but the instant Dr. Chalmers appeared, a general movement Wben, after having seen the Castle and the Parliament

interrupted the reporter. The audience rose, shouted, clapped House, we arrived at the church in which the Established

their hands, stamped, and waved hats and handkerchiefs. I General Assembly was sitting; "As you were presented to

can speak of this, for I shared not in these acclamations; I his Grace this morning," said my friend, “we will go to his

had arrived only the day before, and nobody knew my face. platform." I should have preferred a more modest place, but

........ The moment some powerful expression, some it was impossible: a door immediately opened before us, and

“winged word,” strikes the Assembly, it acts like a waterwe were admitted to our seats-I on the right, and my compa

spout falling on a calm and quiet sea. The waters move and nion on the left of the throne of the Lord High Commissioner.

rise; the waves roll onward and rush together; now falling, The platform in which I was seated rises majestically over

and now dashing furiously upwards. A Scottish Assembly the Moderator's chair, as if to represent the superiority of the

is no corpse that nothing can move, as our own too often are; State over the Church. The Commissioner's throne is placed

it is a living body of extreme sensibility, which will start under a rich canopy of crimson velvet. Behind him stand

at the slightest touch. Yes: these multitudes feeling so deep two little pages, with powdered hair, in full court dresses of

an interest in the debates of the Church, for the cause of scarlet; in the back-ground were several officers in waiting. The Marquis of Bute, who was in an adjoining room when we

the people of God, is a spectacle which even the world does

not present, when political debates are in progress, and the arrived, entered almost immediately after. Below the throne

| earthly interests of nations are at stake. Neither int was the Assembly, besides the ministers, the elders, and a few

Houses of Parliament in London, nor in the Palais Bourbon advocates in their gowns and wigs, representing the courts of

in Paris, is to be seen anything like what is witnessed in the law, which now exert so great an inflnence over the Estab

Canonmills at Edinburgh. Let us, therefore, respect these lished Church. As for the audience or spectators, they were

noisy exhibitions, however extraordinary they may appear to very few in number, scattered here and there in the nave; and

us. It is right that the Church should somewhere show to in the galleries there were none.

that world which so often sneers at her, that she is able to " Rari nantes in gurgite vasto."

feel more enthusiasm for the cause of Christ, than the world

does for social and material interests. At the sight of so much grandeur, and at the same time so much coldness, one could not help inquiring whether this D'Aubigné then proceeds to a discussion of what Assembly, which had in its favour the pompous representation he terms “ The Scottish Question;" and his deliverof power, possessed also the cordial sympathies of the people.

| ance regarding it is full, forcible, and explicit. He However, I was told that in the evening there were more spectators present. After having for a short time listened to

sets out with this general statementtheir debates, the subject of which I do not remember, I rose, The Free Church has remained stedfast to the charactermade a low bow to his Grace, and retired.

istic principles of Scotland. The Moderate party, the present Established Church, appears to me to have, unthinkingly, | eighteenth by the enervating and lethargic vapours of Patrondeviated towards the principles established in England. age and Moderatism. .....

Scotland submitted to this unlawful act. In the beginning He then states, in the form of propositions (taken of the eighteenth century her fatal slumber had commenced. substantially from the catechism by Mr. Gray of The Church had been losing her senses by degrees, and the Perth), the Scottish doctrine of the Church and its mephitic vapours of Moderatism, ascending to her head, had government, remarking, “ This doctrine appears to deprived her of the consciousness of her own existence. This me to have all the exactness of a theorem.” He adds,

| lethargic influence had increased from year to year, and she

fell into a long and dead sleep. ...... We protest against the insinuations and the accusations to Yet a few generous voices still made themselves heard. which Scotland has been more than once subjected, from the The spirit of early times--the spirit of Knox, of Melville, of wise men of this world, even on the Continent. No; the Welsh-was not yet extinct. Thus, when a dead calm falls great principles maintained by this Church are not those of a upon the sea, destroying all life and motion, light airs from narrow Puritanisir, a political agitation, a desire of subject time to time gently swell the sails of the ship, until at last ing the State to the Church, or the intrigues of an ambitious every movement of the air ceases, and the disheartened sailors clergy. Scotland has received a vocation from God, and this can no longer work the vessel. In like manner, a few vivivocation she is fulfilling. The principles she maintains rest | fying breezes still came, from time to time, to reanimate upon the most venerable statutes, the most ancient laws of Scotland, lying still and motionless in the dead calm of the this nation; nay, upon the Word of God itself. These priu- Moderate party. ciples are the right, the strength, the glory of Scotland. They

Then sketching the secession, and a number of the pervade her whole history, the struggles of her fathers, the constitutions of her people, the scaffolds of her martyrs, hier | grosser intrusions which followed, he comes to the revolutions, her restorations, and all the great events in which regime of Principal Robertson, whom he characterizes her annals abound. They run through them like a reviving | as “a strauger to the internal wants of the people of stream, whose waters carry in all directions fertility and life. God, and to the life of faith.” “The reign of Mode* This controversy," says Gillespie, “rises to the heavens,

ratism," he says, “became more and more absolute. and its summit is above the clouds." ..... The essential cause of the Disruption was the duty of

Robertson himself was soon outdone, and after havmaintaining the spiritual independence of the Church, of pre ing destroyed the liberties of the Church, men were venting the civil power from deciding in religious matters; found willing to abolish even the doctrines of the and that duty is one which most incontrovertibly flows from Word of God.” the constitution of that Church, and from the tenet of the king

Evangelical Christianity had almost expired in Scotland, ship of Christ, which she has been commissioned from God to declare openly in the Church. The Church of Scotland can

and absolutism, error, and lethargy had subdued the free and

living country of Melville and of Knox. not yield this point without proving unfaithful to her calling,

Then commenced a period of transition, which separates without sacrificing the very principle of her existence.

the dismal times of Robertson from the glorious epoch of D'Aubigné repeatedly asserts the Free Church to Chalmers. be the true Church of Scotland, and in proof, enters He introduces “ Chalmers' period and the Veto" upon a review of the leading points in her history. with these startling and emphatic words :The periods of the first and second Reformations, Robertson had buried the Church of Scotland: Chalmers the Covenants, the Restoration, the “ Killing time,” raised her from the dead. Or rather, the power of darkness the Revolution, are successively and most graphically

had prevailed under the illustrious name of the historian of traced, and the identity of the Church's testimony dis

Scotland and of Charles V.; the power from on high was

| made effectual under the illustrious name of the great theoloplayed. We have neither time nor space to follow him

gian, the great philosopher, the great philanthropist of the in his review. Suffice it to say, that his words everywhere are strong and decided, and such as to leave no

And shortly afterwards he says, doubt as to his meaning. He then comes to the period of the Union, denounces in earnest terms the “flagrant

We can only add, that to live in the period of Chalmers,

and yet remain attached to the traditions of that of Robertiniquity,” by which shortly afterwards patronage was

son, is a most singular and revolting anachronism. restored. “It is true," he says, “ that more than a

Having indicated the powerful evangelical influcentury has elapsed since the deed was done; but an old iniquity is still more flagrant than a new one; it

ence of Chalmers, Thomson, and M'Crie, and the is increased every year by the injustice which refuses

rapid revival of religion which followed within the to redress it. Such injustice is a crevice in the

Established Church, he comes to the passing of the

Veto, and expresses it as his opinion that Parliament armour of a people: in spite of all they do, this de

| was bound to have legalized it. “They ought to have fect becomes more and inore apparent, neutralizing every movement. Sooner or later the consequences

done a great deal more”—by abolishing Patronage

altogether-_"and, therefore, it was still more incumwill be seen. They have sown the wind, and they shall reap the whirlwind.” He proceeds to trace the

bent upon them to do less.” This, however, was not rise and progress of Moderatism. Having referred

done. A powerful opposition was raised on the part to the admission into the Church, at the Revolution,

of " politicians," “ lawyers," and "patrons.” D'Auof the three hundred " prelatic worldly and persecut

bigné addsing" curates, and to the rise of Arminianism, he

If we may believe the prevailing sentiment in Scotland, says

there was yet a fourth class, which was one of the most in

fluential. There were men opposed to the gospel. PerceivThe patrons naturally preferred these Arminian clergymen ing that the Veto Act, which they had at first regarded merely to the Evangelical ministers, finding among the former men as a liberal measure, would favour the pre-eminence of evanmore compliant, more indifferent, and more accommodating gelical principles in Scotland, these men turned against it. as to the moral law. Thus laxity in the essential doctrines The resurrection of the ancient Presbyterianism, with its of Christianity went along with laxity as to the liberties of faith, its vitality, its decision, its strict morality, its Christian the Church, and the two qualifications united, thenceforward works, and its independence, alarmed the world. Life has formed the distinctive characteristics of what afterwards re- always terrified the dead. ceived the name of Moderatism. Every period has its pecu

The Auchterarder case is then detailed. Referliar danger. After having had to sustain in the sixteenth century the hateful and perfidious struggle against Popery, I

ring to the order issued by the Court of Session to and in the seventeenth the violent and cruel one against Pre the presbytery to ordain Mr. Young, the following lacy, the Church of Scotland was now to be enfeebled in the remarkable statement occurs, the perusal of which

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