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utterly and for ever lost all power to disquiet him. It could of the purity of heaven, and the permanence of eternity, than not even retain him in the grave where it had laid him. The any other affection which has a fellow-creature for its object. debt being fully paid, the surety was set at liberty. He is that affection is surely not one that must live in the heart henceforward a stranger to suffering in all its forms. He can without ever finding appropriate expression in this world. no longer suffer, he can no longer die. He has entered into Our love to our brethren in heaven, is to be shown in our his rest; and that ' rest is glorious. He is sitting,' the pos- giving thanks to Him who loved them and us, for making ture of repose,' at the right hand of the Majesty on high; them more than conquerors;' in keeping steadily in our angels, and principalities, and powers, being subject to him.' mind's eye all that was excellent in their character and conInstead of the incessant toils of his humbled life on earth as the duct, both for model and for motive; in giving all diligence, victim of sin, there is the uninterrupted repose of eternity; to

to the full assurance of hope; that we may not be slothful, but the powerlessness of death, to which sin reduced him, has suc- followers of them who through faith and patience are inheritceeded · all power over all flesh, all power in heaven and ing. the promises; in maintaining stedfastly that good cause earth;' in the room of the days of a mortal man, few and full which was dearer to them than life when here, and which we of trouble, has come length of days for ever and ever;' he know is dearer to them now than ever; and in often practising who was the man of sorrows and acquainted with griefs, has the first notes of the ever new anthem, which, as sung by become most blessed for ever;' and the soul which was ex- them, and to be sung by us, shall 'everlastingly echo in ceeding sorrowful, even unto death, is ' made exceeding glad heaven;' Unto Him that loved us, and washed us from our with Jehovah's countenance.'”_Vol. ii. pp. 435, 436.

sins in his blood. Salvation to our God and the Lamb for

ever and ever. III.“ A royal priesthood."

“ These remarks have been entirely addressed to the bre“ They are a kingdom, but they are a kingdom of priests.' thren. They alone could relish them; they alone, indeed, They belong to, complexly taken they form, the kingdom that could fully understand them. But is there any one here unin is not of this world. They belong to a spiritual monarchy, at

terested in them? Not one, • Strangers, foreigners, aliens, the head of which is Jehovah, in the person of the only begot from the commonwealth of Israel,' from the household of ten Son. They are his subjects; and, being his subjects, all | faith, there may be here; but every one of these must be their duties are religious duties, all exercises of the priestly come brethren,' else they are undone for ever, for there is no function. • Whatsoever they do,' in the way of duty, they are

salvation but by union to the Saviour—the first-born among required to do it as to the Lord.' They serve the Lord the many brethren.'. We dare not say to such persons, Make Christ.' • Whatsoever they do, whether in word or deed,

a profession of brotherhood. No; in your present circumthey do all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to stances this were but to accumulate guilt, to increase danger, God the Father by him.' And whether they eat, or drink,

to aggravate damnation. But we do say, Become brothers. or whatsoever they do, they do 'all to his glory.'”– Vol. i.

The brethren with one voice of invitation say, 'We were once
like
you,

far off;" but we have been brought nigh.'. You,

too, may be brought nigh by that all-attractive blood of Jesus IV. “ Having a contersation honest among the Gen- Are you very guilty, very depraved, very wretched? tiles."

So were some of us; ay, so were all of us; but' we have been “ The heathens were poor judges of Christian doctrine: there washed, we have been sanctified, we have been justified, in was much, too, in the Christian character, the excellencies of the name of our Lord Jesus, and by the Spirit of our God.'

His blood is as efficacious, his Spirit as free as ever. which they could not at all appreciate. But when they saw

Oh,

come to him, and then come to us! Give yourselves to him, Christians making it plain that no temptation could induce them to deviate from the straight path prescribed by the laws and then give yourselves to us by his will. Come to him; of temperance, and chastity, and justice, and love; rendering he will put you among the brethren; he will not be ashamed no man evil for evil; meekly suffering many injuries, but in

to call you brethren; he will give you the brother's inheri

tance, the goodly land. Come to us, we will do you good; we flicting none; denying themselves the comforts of life, to supply those who were destitute of its necessaries; sacrificing and

will love you as brethren, and you will love us as brethren; sufering every thing, rather than violate conscience: they other's hearts; and move onwards and upwards, till we, one

we will strengthen one another's hands, and comfort one ancould not help feeling how beautiful and how awful goodness

And when God is; and a testimony was silently lodged in their hearts, in be- by one, join the goodly fellowship above. half of the religion of Christ, which no reasoning could have

has filled up the number of his chosen ones, a number which placed there.”—Vol. i. pp. 329, 330.

no man can number, then will the completed holy brotherhood

be presented by their elder Brother, ' a glorious church, withV.“ As the sertants of God."

out spot or wrinkle, or any such thing,' to his Father and “ The only true liberty of which a dependent being to dwell for ever in his presence, where there is fulness of

their Father, his God and their God, with exceeding joy," like man is capable, is the free use of his faculties in the ser

There will be no vice of God. Independence, strictly speaking, belongs only to joy, and rivers of pleasure for evermore." God. Man in seeking it, instead of obtaining, lost liberty. They will all of them be thoroughly taught of God to love

need, then, to press the exhortation, ‘Love the brotherhood.' Seeking to be supreme lord of himself, refusing to be the ser

one another.'

• Come with us, and we will do you good; for vant of the best of beings, he necessarily became a slave of the worst. It is the very condition of our being, as creatures,

the Lord hath spoken good concerning Israel.'”—Vol. ii. that we serve; 'we have not the liberty to choose whether we shall serve or not, all the liberty we have is to choose our We conclude with an expression of our thanks to master.'”– Vol. i. pp. 373, 374.

him for this valuable contribution to our stock of exVI. “ Lore the brotherhood.

pository works, and of our esteem for him personally. “ It only remains, on this part of the subject, that I say a

We congratulate the congregation which still posword or two as to the love which we should cherish towards

sesses him as its pastor, and the Church whose chair that part of the great brotherhood who are not on earth, but of divinity he yet fills; and our fervent desire is, that in heaven, and the manner in which we should express it :

when called to "put off this his tabernacle,” he may “ One family we dwell in him,

have an abundant entrance ministered unto him into One church above, beneath,

the everlasting kingdom of our Lord and Saviour Though now divided by the stream,

Jesus Christ. “ The stroke of mortality has broken many a strong and

On some public questions we do not see eye to tender band; but it has not broken, it could not break, the eye, nor is it likely that we shall on earth; but we band which binds Christian brother to Christian brother. We rejoice to believe, that “the brotherhood,” of which have no reason to think our brethren on high have forgotten he has discoursed so well in these volumes, is comus, or ceased to love us. We know we have not forgotten posed of such as are “one in Christ," and that among them, nor ceased to love them. They stand in no need of our offices of kindness; they are beyond the reach of imperfection; his throne, and raising the sweet symphonious shout,

those who shall be seen casting their crowns before very tender and ardent affection-an affection which has more “Worthy is the Lamb that was slain,” will be de

pp. 37-40.

The narrow stream of death.'

scried some who in this dark wilderness sometimes | And, as regards infidelity, there never was an age “fell out by the way.”

since the Flood in which so great a proportion of the The work is elegantly got up, and does great credit human race were disbelievers.

Were the great to the publisher.

apostles of infidelity, Voltaire and Rousseau, to look

up from the dead, how would they be astonished at THE SIXTH VIAL AND THE THREE FROGS. the success of their labours! A whole continent conDuring the pouring out of the sixth vial upon the verted! For we affirm, without fear of contradicEuphrates, Europe will become the scene of busy tion, that the vast proportion of the people of Europe intrigue. The skies of the western world are to clear

at this moment are atheists. Their whole character, up for a little space; the lightnings and hail of the life, and creed, may be summed up in three words; seventh trumpet will be intermitted, and the quiet they fear nothing, worship nothing, and believe in interval will be intensely occupied by the agents of nothing. With what restless energy has this spirit the dragon, the beast, and the false prophet, who been propagating itself these thirty years past ! shall prosecute with 'incredible zeal and activity Agencies innumerable has it pressed into its service : their unconscious mission of bringing on the grand

the journals and novels of France, the poetry and catastrophe. “ And I saw three unclean spirits, philosophy of Germany, the university chairs on the like frogs, come out of the mouth of the dragon, Rhine, the academies and printing-presses of the and out of the mouth of the beast, and out of the Helvetic towns-all have been the vehicles of conmouth of the false prophet. For they are the spirits veying infidelity, under its various forms of neology, of devils, working miracles, which go forth unto the socialism, communism, pantheism; and the result that kings of the earth and of the whole world, to gather has been wrought out, especially on such a groundthem to the battle of that great day of God

Almighty.” work as the Popish mummeries had been the meanis We determine the character of these three frogs, or

of creating, is not surprising. Thus have these spirits

, by tracing their origin. The first issues from symbolic frogs covered Europe, penetrating everythe mouth of the dragon, which is the old serpent, where, loading the air with their croakings, and the devil. This can be nothing else than infidelity, polluting the earth with their filth.

But, though the religion of Rome in its dragon form, in con

individually insignificant and base, collectively they junction with its usual concomitants, democracy, and have been the authors of a tremendous catastrophe.

In the execution of their commission, they have rebellion against all authority, Divine and human. The next issues from the mouth of the beast; i. e., the gathered the kings of the earth and of the whole seven-headed and ten-horned beast. The characteris- world to the battle of that great day of God Altic principle of this beast, as distinguished from that mighty. This is the next terrible scene that open of the false prophet, is despotism. The third and before us. last spirit comes from the mouth of the false pro

On the very eve of battle a solemn warning is

tendered. phet, and beyond question is Popery. We have no

Behold, I come as a thief;" for this hesitation, then, in concluding, that the three prin- event is to overtake the world with unprecedented ciples that are to burst into wide-spread and and startling suddenness.

“ Blessed is he that vehement action, during the brief interval of quiet watchetli and keepeth his garments, lest he walk in Western Europe, are infidelity, despotism, and naked, and they see his shame.” This warning Popery. This marks conclusively, we think, our plainly imports, that immediately before that great own times as the period to which the prophecy has day, individuals aud Churches should be exposed to reference. It is plain that the advocates of these peculiar temptation to forsake their principles, here principles were to propagate them, not by the sword, symbolized by their garments. The temptation will but by loquacious talk; for they are symbolized as

not arise from the persecution of force, but from

the seduction of these three spirits. Do recent events frogs--stingless frogs; a figure which has been employed since the time of Cicero, who applies it to the

throw no light on this prediction? Has not Puseyprating demagogues of his day, to designate the ism solicited some to part with the doctrine of

Christ's atonement and intercession? Has not Erasnoisy advocates of demoralizing principles. Who is so ignorant as need to be told how rampant these

tianism solicited others to give up the headship of three principles are at this moment in every country

the Lord Jesus? And has not Neology tempted in Europe ? No sooner had peace returned to the others to make shipwreck of the faith altogether? A West, than Popery, with prodigious effort, set about peculiar blessedness will be his who watcheth and repairing the calamities of the vials. She advanced keepeth bis garments.-" The Serenth Vial. her former blasphemous pretensions; intrigued in every court of Europe ; flattered sovereigns; pan.

Calls Moderated. dered to the passions of the people; had her men of Edinburgh, St Paulos.—Rev. W. M. Hetherington, LL.D., science for the learned ; her miracle-workers for the July 10. ignorant ; sent missionaries into every land ; affected

Old Machur.—Rev. Mr Bannatyne, July 27. liberality in free states, and erected the Inquisition

Inductions. in certain despotic ones. Thus did she labour to

Dunse, Boston Church.-Rev. James Manson, late of Free recover her ancient dominion. The spirit of despot. Deau Church, Edinburgh, July 20. ism, too, rallied from the terrible blows which the Halkirk.- Rev. Hector Fraser, May 11. French Revolution had dealt it. The former dynasties were restored, and, untaught by the bitter ex

New Church Opened. perience of the past, began systematically to act on Edinburgh, Free Tron Church.By R. S. Candlish, D.D.,

July 26. the principle of enlargiug the kingly prerogative, and curtailing the popular privilege. France itself

Printed by JOHNSTONE, BALLANTYNE, & Co., 104 High Street; and was no exception. There this line of policy was pur

published by JOHN JOHNSTONE, 15 Princes Street, Edinburgh, sued, both by the elder Bourbons and the house of

and 26 Paternoster Row, London, And sold by the Booksellers Orleans, who have borne sway since the Revolution.

throughout the kingdom.

THE

FREE CHURCH MAGAZINE.

MOSES STUART AS A COMMENTATOR.

of any note who, in a time of shameful poverty and

barrenness as to the more learned kind of expositions SOMEWhat more than twenty years ago, Moses Stuart in the English language, boldly stepped forward to of Andover began to be known in this country as a take away its reproach. A new era had dawned for theological writer of vigorous intellect, and even then the scientific interpretation of Scripture on the conpossessed of considerable learning. The work which tinent of Europe; there were giants there, and men introduced him to the favourable notice of biblical of renown, who had signalized themselves in the work students in this country, was a series of letters to Dr after its most improved modes, not a few of whom, Channing, written chiefly in vindication of the divinity like their ancient prototypes, had wonderfully striven of Christ, and which were reprinted in Ireland by to confound heaven and earth; and with the somesome of the orthodox members of the Synod of Ulster, what cumbrous and rusty weapons left us by our foreduring the controversy which they were called to fathers, it seemed as if we were placed altogether wage with their Arian and Socinian brethren. Since hors de combat, as if our simple mother tongue were then, besides various translations from the German, incapable of playing a part in such dexterous operaoriginal essays in periodicals, and several hermeneuti- tions, or as if those, at least, who should have been cal helps (among which a volume on the Canon of the using it were alive only to the maxim, “ that discretion Old Testament deserves to be especially noticed), he is the better part of valour.” When learned men from has sent forth expositions successively on the Epistle abroad asked, where now were our Pocockes, our to the Hebrews, the Epistle to the Romans, and the Lightfoots, and our Lardners, we had no answer to Apocalypse—which, for an expositor, are unquestion give. And we, therefore, hold Mr Stuart entitled to ably the three most important and difficult books of some honour for adventuring in such circumstances New Testament scripture. The preface to the last to take the high places of the field, and commencing work, which is dated three years back, gives even an English literature in this department, that should then such indication of an impaired and sinking con- seriously aim at meeting the new demands of the age. stitution, that we can hardly doubt, we have already The author of the Letters to Channing was evidently received all the contributions of any moment which possessed of gifts and attainments, which gave fair the field of scriptural interpretation is likely to derive promise of future distinction in exegetical theology. from his pen." And as his works, those especially if there appeared nothing original or profound in his on Romans and IIebrews, have now acquired a re- cast of mind, there was at least freshness and vigour cognised place in the theological literature of this of thought, acuteness of discernment, clearness of country, it may be rendering a service to a consider conception, a ready command of appropriate ideas, and able portion of our readers to lay before them what the power of expressing them in an easy and agreewe shall endeavour to make a fair and impartial esti- able style. Of a lively and active disposition, he was mate of his character and labours as an expositor. also thoroughly devoted to the study of sacred litera

To those who are in the least degree acquainted ture, and resolved not to be hindered in the pursuit with Mr Stuart's writings, we need not say that his by any narrow prejudice or antiquated notion, but to expositions belong to an entirely different class from take full advantage of the new materials placed withthose of his countryman, Albert Barnes, which we in his reach, and turn them to account in the eluci. recently noticed. The Notes of Barnes are intended dation and defence of what he considered to be divine for intelligent readers of the Bible at large, and hence truth. Nor was it an unfavourable omen of his future come into competition with our Henrys and Scotts, success, that, while in a position to avail himself of the authors of our general commentaries. The expo- the best means which the literature of the age could sitions of Moses Stuart are designed to meet the afford, he seemed perfectly alive to the abuse to wants mainly of professional students, and necessarily which the approved hermeneutics had been applied sought to conduct the work of scriptural interpreta- | by the theological school of Germany, which was then tion on what may be called its highest literary ele- | in the noon-tide of its strength, and was also beginvation-so much so, indeed, that at the time when ning to operate with disastrous influence on the theohe commenced his labours, the men could scarcely be logy of America. It was, therefore, with a mind fully said to have “a local habitation and a name” in this alive, both to the evil and the good of the times, country, with whom he was called to appear as a rival, that Mr Stuart entered on the work of scriptural but were known elsewhere by such names as De interpretation, and with everything around him fitted Wette, Rosenmuller, Tholuck, Olshausen, &c. On to give the highest stimulus and the most profitable this ground alone, we cannot avoid entertaining a direction to his labours. sincere respect for Mr Stuart, as being the first person The sacred books chosen by him for the exercise No, LVII.

SEPTEMBER, 1848.

of his talent indicate a full consciousness of his were not properly entitled to such a character; and powers, and a high sense of his calling as an exposi- if we find more instances of this description in the tor, not unmingled, perhaps, by some promptings of New Testament than you are prepared to do, still we ambition. In some respects, however, it was unfor. are agreed in, principle, and the only question betunate that the first display of his skill should have twixt us regards the extent to which it should be been made on the Epistle to the Hebrews, which im-carried. peratively demands for its successful elucidation a But the deficiency now referred to in our author clear insight into the spirit of the old economy, and appeared even more strikingly in the very meagre the intimate connection between that and the new. and defective views which were exhibited in his comBut there was no department of divine truth which mentary on the great theme of the Epistle—the real the earlier theology had left in so imperfect a state character and design of the ancient economy, and its as this, and 'none which the new helps of the age close and inward relation to the realities of the goshad as yet done so little to improve, or, we should pel. It has sometimes surprised us, how a person rather say, had done so much to misinterpret and even of ordinary intelligence and reflection could obscure. The light here was still to a large possibly traverse so rich a field, with so little apextent intermingled with darkness, and Mr Stuart parent consciousness of the treasures that were lying was wanting in the penetration and depth of thought around, and touching so often on points of the necessary to separate the one from the other. #c- deepest interest and importance to the learned theocordingly, his work on Hebrews, while respectable in logian, as well as the humble believer, yet gliding point of scholarship, and bearing evident marks of over them, as if all were easy and common-place. care and industry, made no real advance in the in- This is, no doubt, partly to be ascribed to the idealterpretation of the epistle; not a single new ray of the false ideal, we take leave to call it—which Mr light was thrown upon the great argument main- Stuart appears to have set up for himself, as the best tained in it, or upon the special difficulties arising at for learned expositions of Scripture, according to intervals along the line of discussion. Even the which, if the meaning of the original were only exlengthened prolegomena–most unduly lengthened, plained and cleared from grammatical or other obindeed, by entering into details needlessly minute, jections, the work was to be regarded as done. and formally discussing topics and opinions that did Latterly, be ventured upon taking a little further not deserve a moment's consideration-form no ma- license in this respect; and in his preface to the terial contribution to the literature of the subject, commentary on Revelation, he even enters into a and leave the only question of moment, that regard defence of the length to which he has there gone in ing the authorship of the epistle, as problematical as handling the topics discoursed of by the evangelist. ever. But what was still more unfortunate, the “Without pretending to decide the question, in reentire manner in which the discussion is conducted gard to the ideal of a perfect commentary, and withby the inspired writer, implies a depth of meaning out any design to speak lightly of views that differ in the old economy, and the writings belonging to it, from my own, I think I may safely say, that the and a closeness of connection between them and the simple grammatico-historical exegesis of an author is new, which was beyond the reach of Mr Stuart and the great and leading business of an interpreter..... the authorities to which he was most inclined to But what hinders one, who desires to render his work bow. This partly discovered itself in his manifest more interesting and useful than the mere perforperplexity and uneasiness regarding some of the re- mance of such a work would do, from throwing into ferences to Old Testament scripture, in which he his composition remarks and considerations of an could find no satisfactory ground to stand upon, and ästhetical or of a theological character ? Is it not was driven for relief to the principle of accommoda- the proper business of a Christian interpreter to point tion--the very principle which he had so justly de- out the true nature of Christian doctrine, as exhibited nounced in his Letters as one of the worst and most by his author, its harmony with other scriptural fruitful devices of German Rationalism. This came writings, and its importance ? Unquestionably it is; out most distinctly in his 10th Excursus, when and Mr Stuart would not have needed to make, nor casting about for an explanation of the reference to probably would ever have thought of making, the deMessiah and his people of the words in Isaiah viii. fence which he thus records in behalf of such a 18, “Behold I and the children whom the Lord hath style of interpretation, but for the undue influence given me.” Mr Stuart does not, indeed, admit for which some of the greater spirits of Rationalism had himself, that the use made of the passage was to be acquired over him. So far from really needing to regarded simply as an instance of accommodation; defend himself from what he has done in this rehe is inclined to think that probably (for he seems spect, it would have been more to the purpose to by no means absolutely certain) there was some have apologized for what he has not done; and we sort of typical connection between the old and the venture to pronounce it one of the capital defects of new in the eye of the writer ; but it is clear, that he his commentaries, of itself sufficient materially to felt himself substantially shut up to the principle of damage their permanent worth and usefulness, that accommodation. And, as usually happens when a there is so little in them of a serious grappling with wrong principle is taken up, so here Mr Stuart was the matter of scriptural statement, and so much of carried beyond the immediate occasion, and led to the pains that should have been employed on the make concessions, which indicated an ominous truth itself, squandered on trifling minutiæ or palleaning to the Rationalist school of interpretation. pable absurdities. The bald and sapless style of It would have been quite competent for the most commentary after which his work on Hebrews thorough adepts of that school to have said to him : was modelled, was the invention of a class of men Well, you admit with us, that Christ and his apostles who, the better to hide their own anti-Christianism, so far stooped to the mistaken notions and current made every thing of the casket of the gospel which prejudices of the Jews, that they sometimes treated they could handle, to the neglect of the heavenly jewel as facts, and took for Messianic predictions, what that lay within. For such men the Bible had no attraction as an exhibition of divine truth, or a revelation of tion or enlargement of this meagre statement, which Godhead; they knew and prized it merely as a field is afterwards given, is simply, that by “ the rites of for the exercise of philological skill, or the display of the law, the offerer obtained external purification," historical research. In proportion as the light and su- or that he obtained “ the civil and ecclesiastical parperficial spirit of Rationalism has waned we find this don of his offences,” while Christ's blood“ sanctifies style of commentary also falling into desuetude; it is the soul of the believer,” or saves him from “ the conalready growing antiquated in its native region; and sequences of sin in another world.” Was the worthe men there, who combine with vigorous thought shipper, then, under the law left to the awful inflicand profound learning a sense of religion—for example, tion of these? or how did he find an escape from them? Tholuck, Olshausen, Hengstenberg-have in nothing What was the actual worth and value of that extermore shown their superiority over the preceding race nal purification, or civil and ecclesiastical pardon, of commentators, than by the amount they have which was all, it seems, that he could obtain through thrown into their works of the materiel of Christianity. his sacrifices? or how, in many cases, could such a We do not regard even such works, however, excepting result meet the palpable wants of his condition? in some select portions, as exemplifying the proper The man, for example, who had committed a fraud ideal of a Christian commentary; the relation of sub- or a perjury (Lev. v. and vi.), and sought atonement servience, which the strictly philological and expla- through the appointed offerings, what could a merely natory part should bear to the exhibition of divine external purification do for him? He plainly labourtruth and principle, is still not sufficiently preserved. ed under the stain of a moral, not, in the ordinary For a commentary should take its hue and shape from sense, of a corporeal or ceremonial impurity; and if he the character of the original which it seeks to illus- felt his guilt, as he should have done, the grand contrate and make known; and the Bible is throughout cern with him must have been, how to obtain peace so intensely ethical in its tone, that the letter and with God, life instead of death, Did the sacrifices the form have not there, as in classical productions, provide a way for his actually obtaining this? or something of an independent existence, a value and a could he only find it if he descried with the eye of worth for their own sake, but exist merely as the faith the coming sacrifice of Christ ? Not a hint is necessary media for reaching the understanding and dropt with reference to such inquiries; and it is perthe heart. So that, whatever may require to be done haps as well. For certainly, on the supposition that in verbal criticisms and controversies, in noting pecu- all was merely external under the Old Testament liarities of construction and language, or in rehearsing rites of sacrifice, no satisfactory explanations could the views and exposing the errors of former interpre- have been given. ters—whatever may require to be done in this respect On the whole, we are obliged to confess that Profor purposes of elucidation, if the whole is not made fessor Stuart's work on Hebrews has no great claims inferior and subservient to the development of the to distinction as a contribution to our stores of exeline of thought, and the establishment of a sound getical theology. It is entitled to some consideraand vital Christianity, there is no well-adjusted and tion as a sort of first effort in the English language, satisfactory exposition of the sacred Scripture. after a period of collapse, and under a kind of new

We, therefore, regard Mr Stuart as erring at the régime; but otherwise, it is not deserving of a prooutset of his career most materially in his ideal; and minent place. It was soon succeeded by the someto that is, doubtless, to be attributed the scanty, cur- what similar work of Tholuck, and, in its peculiar desory, almost incidental character of his remarks on partment, clearly surpassed; for, as an explanation of the great theme of the Epistle to the Hebrews--some- words and sentences, a recension of opinions, a distimes even the total absence of any remark, where it play of philological skill and biblical learning, the promight be most looked for, as in the case of the taber-duction of the professor of Halle has the undoubted nacle and its furniture, described in chap. ix. 1-5, advantage of that of the professor of Andover; while it which, though declared to be a shadow of heavenly also stands far superior in depth of thought and inthings, is passed by without the slightest effort to ex. sight into the meaning of the Epistle. If Tholuck has hibit the symbolical or typical import of the different sometimes spoken too slightingly of the work of parts. But the remarks themselves also frequently Stuart, we cannot wonder that he has so seldom reindicate a want of insight into the higher relations ferred to it. and bearings of the subject discussed. Thus, he It was about five years after the publication of the plainly confounds (at chap. viii.) the Old Testa- Commentary on Hebrews that Mr Stuart gave forth the ment dispensation with the covenant of law, which next specimen of his exegetical labours—his work on formed only a part of it-a confusion which renders Romans. Here he had Tholuck for a precursor; andif on absolutely impossible any clear or satisfactory expla- the former field he was virtually supplanted by that nation of the position of ancient believers, or the essen- dangerous rival, he has in this not altogether escaped tial identity between their condition and that of be- from his trammels, as a very large portion of his lievers under the gospel. Then, in regard to the ques: materials are derived from Tholuck, and there is a tion-one of the most important that force themselves want of something in the American work to give it a' on the mind of one who really investigates the Epis- marked and distinctive difference from the German. tle-Wherein precisely stood the difference between | Viewed in reference to the mere literature of the the legal offerings and the sacrifice of Christ-their subject, we have not been able to note anything in difference in nature and in effect :-we have nothing our author which could properly be regarded as indimore than what is contained in the following passage, cating a step in advance; and being, as it is to taken from the general view of the contents of chap. siderable extent, of a dependent character, its place, vi.-x. 18,“ The blood of bulls and of goats, present- on the whole, cannot be fixed very high, though someed by the Jewish high-priest, effected nothing more what higher, we think, than the Commentary on than ceremonial, external purification, while the blood Hebrews. of Christ purifies the conscience and renders the wor- But viewed simply per se, without reference either shipper truly acceptable to God." The only varia- ( to the works that preceded it or the materials from

con

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