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cussion is a serious one, Doubtless, this is the light and powerfully, and that it is an essential part of the in which it would have been viewed by Calvin. system of divine truth which bears his name. More. In disproof,

over, that he was the most unlikely of all men to 1. We observe that none of his contemporaries, change; being, though moderate and couciliatory in foes or friends, so far as we have been able to dis- his judgment on indifferent matters, a perfect stranger cover, ever breathed the charge. It is well known, to the tickle or changeable in temperament-a very that through life and after death he was surrounded rock of stability in his doctrinal convictions. Then, by a crowd of enemies—that a multitude of accusa- it is to be considered, that, unlike Luther, who died tions of all kinds, even the most improbable, were unexpectedly, when from home engaged in matters preferred against him. It would have been of im- not directly religious, Calvin had the most ample and portance to controversialists of his day, and of sub- favourable opportunities of announcing any change sequent times, to have been able to say, Calvin, on which had come over his views in his latter days. his death-bed, changed his faith on a great article of His death was foreseen for three months before-was religion, to the very reverse of what he maintained familiarly spoken of. He saw leading friends;-the throughout life.” But not a whisper of this nature pastors of Geneva, in the beginning of Marchấthe was ever heard. How did none of his keen and un

magistrates and clerical friends, separately, in the scrupulous Popish adversaries ever hear of so im. end of April. He spoke to them largely upon reliportant a change? Their ears were sufficiently open gion in the immediate prospect of meeting with God. to hear; they had as good opportunities as others- On the first visit, he asked the opinion of the minisfar better than men of the present day. Successful ters upon some translations of the French New Tesin establishing such an allegation, they would cer- tament, which he was correcting. No opportunity tainly have discredited the memory and influence of could have been more propitious for informing them the reformer among multitudes; and yet they are of any change of his doctrinal views. Then, whatsilent. There is no explanation, in so far as they ever were his infirmities, he was noted for his inteare concerned, but one; and that is, that no change grity and uprightness. His conscientiousness was so ever took place—that the accusation is a recent great, that he was facetiously called the “ Accusative fiction, to help a weak causo by disparaging a great Case." If any important change, or even slight modi

fication of his sentiments had taken place, he would As enemies are silent, equally so are friends. In have felt bound, as an honest man and a Christian the kind providence of God, and possibly the better divine, to make known the change—as much under to falsify subsequent charges, there were peculiar obligation as his biographer and colleague would have facilities for knowing the sentiments of Calvin. He been bound to record it. Yet we look in vain for may be said to have died in public; he saw large any trace of change. It cannot be alleged that bodies of friends. His life, too, was written, not by be was disabled and confused by sickness from a stranger, at the distance of centuries, but by his announcing the change of his views. If so, how do brother and colleague, Beza, and was published in modern anti-Calvinists know that any change had the very year of the reformer's death. The closing passed at all? It is well known, that though the scene is given with fulness and detail. If there had reformer was so prodigious a sufferer, from some ten been any doctrinal change Beza could not but have disorders, shortly before his death, that he was known it, and would have felt bound, writing, as he thoroughly collected, as well as admirably patientdid, under the eye of Protestant Europe — deeply that he addressed the varied classes who waited upon interested in the subject of his narrative—to have him with all the clearness and strength of his earlier announced it; but there is not a trace or surmise of days. The truth is, that so far from any change of change. Melchior Adamus, who published a Life, religious opinion in his last days, there is decided extending to some fifty closely-printed Latin pages, evidence of the reverse. There might not have been about eighty years afterwards, and who had an op- such evidence; while we could not have doubted the portunity of hearing all that Popish or Protestant stability of his former creed; but happily there is controversialists alleged for and against Calvin, mean- evidence. We do not allude merely to the fact, that while, does not breathe a whisper about doctrinal a few years before his death he published a new edichange, or give the smallest intimation that such tion of his great and first work, “ The Institutes,” change had ever been imputed. On the contrary, in without any change of doctrine, but that on his deathmarking the striking features of the reformer's cha- bed, within a few days of his dissolution, he addressed racter, he notices “constans in doctrinâ," and adds: the Syndics of Geneva in these terms:“ In doctrinâ quam initio tradidit ad extremum con- “Touching the doctrine you have heard from me, stans nihil prorsus immutavit, quod paucis nostrâ I take God to witness that I have not rashly and memoriâ theologicis contigit”—“The doctrine which ungroundedly, but carefully and purely taught the he taught at the beginning he held to the very last, Word of God intrusted to me, whose wrath I should without change—a circumstance which can be al- otherwise now perceive hanging over me. But I am leged of few divines in my remembrance.” What certainly assured that my labours in teaching it have can be stronger or more comprehensive than this ? not been displeasing to him. And I testify this the

2. There is no intimation of change on the part of more willingly, both before God and yourselves, beCalvin himself. It must be remembered that the cause I doubt not but the devil, according to his reformer and his brethren were not loose or latitu- custom, will raise up wicked light, and giddy-headed dinarian in point of doctrine like many in our day; people, to corrupt the sincere doctrine which you that they attached the greatest importance to Scrip- have heard from me.” ture truth, so much so, that they thought error Surely this is not the utterance of a mind which punishable with civil pains and penalties. It is to be was conscious that its doctrinal views on an imporconsidered too, that the particular doctrine in ques- tant subject had undergone a change. Surely it is tion, the extent of the Redeemer's atonement, was a the utterance of a mind deeply penetrated with the doctrine on which the (reformer had written often | solemnity of religious truth, testifying its continued





adherence to all that it formerly taught, and almost It is so obviously unreasonable and absurd to atprophetically anticipating a corruption of the faith. tempt to make out a serious death.bed change from

3. We observe that the expressions employed by such an expression as has been quoted from the will Calvin on his death-bed, and on which, we presume, of Calvin, that it is scarcely necessary to do more the proof of his change of sentiment is founded, do than exhibit it. This is a sufficient refutation. But pot bear out the charge. The only expression which were further proof needful, we might appeal to anwe have been able to find, on which it may be sup- other expression in the same document, which is posed that Arminians and semi-Pelagians rest, is fatal to the forced interpretation which has been atcontained in bis will, drawn up a few weeks before tempted. “I testify and declare,” says he,“ that it his death: “ I testify also,” says he,“ and declare is my intention to spend what yet remains of my life that I suppliantly beg of him (of God) that he may in the same faith and religion which he has delivered be pleased so to work and purify me in the blood to me by his gospel; and that I have no other dewhich the sovereign Redeemer has shed for the sins fence and refuge for salvation, than his gratuitous of the human race (sanguine effuso pro humani generis adoption, on which alone my salvation depends.Here peccatis), that under his shadow I may be able to stand there is not only a plain intimation that Calvin at the judgment-seat.” We are not aware whether meant to remain in the same creed which he had modern parties found upon anything else. We have professed all along. There is no hint of change and not been able to discover in the records of the re- modification, but his salvation is distinctly traced to former's death any other expression which could be the sovereign, free, electing love of God. This is the twisted to an Arminian or Pelagian sense.


obvious meaning of God's “gratuitous adoption;" correspondent who first directed my attention to the and where the consistency of this with the doctrine allegation states, that in conversation the semi-Pela- of universal redemption--redemption equally for the gian gives the substance of the reformer's belief on lost as the saved ? This sentiment occurs in the his death-bed, thus, “ Because Jesus Christ died for same document in which the expression is introall, therefore I know he died for me." There is no duced respecting Christ dying for the human race, such statement either in the will or in his addresses, showing how that expression was meant to be underwhether to the ministers or magistrates of Geneva. stood. I suspect, therefore, that this is a semi. Pelagian The reader will now judge what weight is due paraphrase of the words which I have quoted. to the assertions, that the great Genevan reformer Do, then, these words warrant the inference that changed his sentiment on a most important doctrine Calvin had changed his views of the doctrine of on his death-bed-changed it to the opposite of what particular redemption which he had all along so he had held and maintained for a life-time. Surely ably and consistently maintained ? No. The re- never was a serious conclusion hung upon a more former does not indicate any consciousness of change, doubtful and precarious premise. It surpasses even which he would certainly have done, had the words the celebrated brass pin, on the strength of which a been intended to mark the change. The words are modern Prelatic historian would fain make out that casual and incidental, no stronger-not so strong as John Knox was a inurderer! It is a old device for various expressions which are to be met with in getting rid of a troublesome opponent, to allege a Scripture,andwhich Calvin understood and interpreted death-bed change--but probably the present is the in a limited sense. It is not even said that Christ died most violent fiction of the kind which was ever atfor the whole human race, and far less that he died for tempted. We may smile at its absurditity. To all the members of that race equally—those who are those, however, who ought and might know the saved and those who perished, in the same sense. truth in the case, it has a serious aspect. We see Had the reformer given expression to the last senti- from the wholement, which is the semi-Pelagian doctrine, there (1.) The gross injustice which is done to the would have been some ground for the charge, though memory of great and good men by parties who claim even then it would have been indispensable, in common an almost exclusive love of truth and practice of fairness, to have taken in the whole of his teaching charity. on the extent of the Redeemer's death. As it stands, (2.) The false principle of interpretation on which the expression denotes no more than that Christ died they proceed in seeking to learn an author's meaning. for the human race, as distinguished from the angelic The garbled, one-sided application which they make race. All Calvinists allow that there is a general of an expression in Calvin's will, is a not unfair sense in which Christ may be said to have died for specimen of the manner in which they interpret the all men. He has died for all, in such a sense that, in Word of God on the distinctive points of their faith; consequence of his death, divine long-suffering is and exercised towards wicked men, and they share, in (3.) The leaning to human authority in divine many outward benefits—to all of which the apostate things, while professedly disclaiming it. No party angels are strangers. A similar expression is em- speak more disrespectfully of confessions of faith, or ployed by John Knox on his death-bed-a death-bed talk more of the exclusive authority of the Word of whereupon so many of its circumstances bore a re- God, than the advocates of semi-Pelagianism, and yet markable resemblance to that of Calvin, his great many belonging to it eagerly grasp at a supposed friend and father. “He then protested,” says Dr countenance to their opinions from an expression in M'Crie, “as to himself, as he had often done before, the writings of Calvin--a countenance which is not that he relied wholly on the free mercy of God mani- only signally slender at the best, but which, when fested to mankind through his dear Son Jesus Christ." examined, turns out really to have no existence. If such expressions as these are to be held as declar. With earnest prayer for the counteraction of ing the doctrine of universal redemption, it will soon error, and the universal spread of the entire truth of to be impossible to find a Calvinist at all. Knox God, I remain, &c. ,

I will be set down as well as Calvin, as holding Armi.

John G. LORIMER. aian tenets.

Glasgow, 1848.

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at the end of each lecture, and the four indexes Review

which close the whole, the reader will see that extra

ordinary care has been bestowed upon it, and that no EXPOSITORY DISCOURSES ON THE FIRST EPISTLE OF

pains have been spared to do justice to the subject. THE APOSTLE Peter. By John Brown, D.D., The characteristic excellences of the work appear to Senior Minister of the United Presbyterian Con- us to be, the union of commentary, lecture, and sermon, gregation, Broughton Place, Edinburgh, and Pro-flowing in one clear, deep current; rigid adherence to fessor of Exegetical Theology to the United

the text, not only in its substance, but in its complexion,

its structure, and its minutest connecting links; an unPresbyterian Church. 3 vols. 8vo.

Edinburgh: 1848.

trammeled freedom-with all this pertinacious text

uality-in expatiating on the various topics and preThese volumes waken up some of the gratefulest cise phases of thought brought out in succession;, a recollections of early life, when, though belonging teeming variety of matter, soundness of doctrine, to another communion, we were favoured for several

and practical power; reverence for the authority of winter months with the prelections of their venerated inspiration, and a love of God's Word for its own sake, author, at a weekly meeting in his own house for the evidenced by the frequent quotation of large portions critical reading of the Greek Testament, with some of it, which betokens a mellow personal Christianity students of his body, ere yet he was appointed to the altogether refreshing in a septuagenarian, who knows, exegetical chair of which he has so long been the

as his motto assures us our author does, that “shortly ornament. They recall, too, the hours which we then he must put off this his tabernacle.” In availing enjoyed with him in private, when all the most in himself of the materials so richly furnished to his teresting questions in theology were turned over, and hand in this Epistle, he has not only been scruthe stores of a liberal and cultivated mind were

pulous in acknowledging his obligations, but inde. freely poured into a ready ear. Long have these pendent and discriminating in the exercise of his stores been hoarded—too long, some who knew him own judgment. In discoursing on the topics which were apt to think-but they have come forth at almost every clause of the Epistle furnishes, the ez. length, in rich abundance, and in many respects, like haustive method has been carried, perhaps, a little a shock of corn fully ripe.

too far. But for the purpose more immediately in “A number of much respected members of his view, it may prove rather a recommendation. For congregation having earnestly solicited him, before Sabbath evening exercises, it seems, in this respect, increasing age should make it difficult, or approach- well fitted ; nor could a family go through the work, ing death impossible, to furnish them with a perma- portion by portion, without finding that it had denent memorial of a ministry of considerable length, scribed nearly the entire circle of revealed truth, and full of satisfaction to him, and, he trusts, not unpro, compassed the whole field of Christian duty. In reductive of advantage to them,” the author was induced gard to style, a little more compression might have to comply with the request, by the preparation and added to its point and vigour. Owing to the author's publication of these volumes. The form into which he great desire to clear his way as he goes along, there is has thrown the work, is probably the very best for em

a tendency to repetition; and here and there one might bodying such a memorial of his labours as would

erase an entire paragraph without losing almost anymeet the wishes of all. A mere course of lectures or

thing that is not either in the preceding or following sermons, as delivered to his congregation, might have Should the work come soon to a second edition, left among them delightful recollections of his minis.

as we presume it will, we would respectfully suggest try, but would have failed to illustrate his exegetical attention to this hint. With these general remarks, labours, and disappointed those who enjoyed the we proceed to a more detailed consideration of the benefit of them. A commentary, on the other hand, work, so far as our very limited space will admit. in the ordinary sense of that term, while it might A few remarks on the new translation, may be have borne evidence to his critical attainments, would thrown into a foot-note, as they would exhaust, in the have been no memorial of his pulpit ministrations, text, nearly all our space, and would scarcely interest and failed to meet the reasonable desires of an

the general reader.* attached flock. The plan adopted will accomplish both objects. Dividing the Epistle into paragraphs * The new version is not, in our opinion, particularly happy.

Where the sense of varying length, he first gives the result of his

unchanged, the English is decidedly inferior critical investigations into the sense of the sacred to our own in simplicity and strength. Thus, the simple text, and then, having laid out methodically the topics

“wherefore” of ch. i. 13 (do), is rendered “Seeing these which it embraces, he takes them up in succession, things are so ; " " whereas” or “wherein” (iv), is translated as subjects of expository discourse;" the object being which” li. 12, iii. 16); and so forth. The fine " Ye” is

" with regard to that in which," and " in the thirg regarding not to discuss in a general and abstract manner, the expelled in favour of " you," and the th of the third subjects which the text may suggest, but to bring singular, so suited to the stateliness of the Bible language, clearly out the apostle's statements, and their des supplanted by the termination in 8-as, “In imitation of the sign, and to show how the statements are fitted holy one who has called you, be you also holy.” (i. 15.) For to gain the objects for which they are made.”

the idiomatic brevity of our version, we have a too stiff

fulness—as, To the Discourses on First Peter, is prefixed a new

“ did not revile in return,” for “reviled not

again;" “ as to him who wishes to enjoy life," for" he that will translation of the Epistle; and as there was room in love life," &c.-Important peculiarities of inspired style are in the last volume, there are added six sermons on some places lost in efforts at explanatory renderings. Thus, other subjects, and the lecture which the author de where our version (in common with others) translates litelivered at the opening of the last session of the rally, “ If a man for conscience toward God endure," the new United Presbyterian Divinity Hall—for the publica- endure." (ii

. 19.) So, " your good Christian behaviour," for

version has it, “ If any one from religious principle tion of all which a wish had been expressed. From

your good conversation in Christ;": " in the estimation of the list of authors consulted, as well as from the

God," for " in the sight of " before God;" “ the gracious work itself, with its numerous foot-notes, the notes gift of life," for “the grace of life.” In ch. i. 3, 4, where


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four pages,

The subjects of discourse are most methodically laid difficult to present the reader with a fair specimen of out and elaborately handled. So much so, that it is any one of them. Nearly all the principal topics ocour version (with the Vulgate, Beza, Luther, and Calvin) cupy about a hundred pages each, such as “The Pritranslates literally, “Who hath begotten us again unto a lively vileges of Christians, and how they obtain them”--the hope . . . to an inheritance incorruptible," the new version text of which is seren terses (chap. ii. 4-10); and “The gives it thus,“ Who hath anew made us his children, so as to Sufferings of Christ (their nature, design, consegive us a living hope . ., so as to make us heirs of an inheriiance incorruptible.” In ch. ii. 22, where the apostle is quences), an Encouragement to Christians suffering

for his cause”-of which the text is fire terses (iii. comforting servants under sufferings inflicted by their masters for no fault of theirs, by reminding them of Christ's sufferings 18-22). The sections, however, are quite distinct, for the sins of others, not his own-our version says, with and the headings are so precise, that a complete subbeautiful literality, " Who did no sin;"* while the new ver- ject may be embraced in one moderate reading. sion, unhappily aiming at something more precise, decidedly The following headings, on the words, “ Christ also lowers the sentiment, as we think, by saying,

" Who com

hath suffered for sins; the just for the unjust,” will mitted no fault.” On the same principle, where our version has, “ If the righteous scarcely be saved, where shall the give a tolerable idea of the method in which the ungodly and the sinner appear?” Dr Brown would so tie

whole epistle is taken up. After an introduction of down the reference to the temporal judgment (the destruction

“I. THE SUFFERER, $ 1.“ Christ." $ 2. of Jerusalem, primarily in view, it may be supposed) as to The Just One.” II. His SUFFERINGS-Facts of the Case. exclude, to an English ear, all reference to the final judgment, III. NATURE OF His SUFFERINGS. § 1. Penal-For by rendering it, “ If the righteous scarcely be delivered."

Sins." $ 2. Vicariou8—" For the unjust.” § 3. ExpiaIn ch. i. 2, Dr Brown's version excludes the reference to

tory. IV. DESIGN OF HIS SUFFERINGS—“ To bring men the Holy Spirit on ground that cannot be maintained. “ Elect” (says the apostle, in our version) “ according to the foreknow

to God”-$ 1. To bring men to the knowledge of God. ledge of God the Father, through sanctification of the Spirit,” | $ 2. To farour with God. $ 3. To likeness of God. &c., Dr Brown has it “ by a spiritual separation,” observing, $ 4. To fellowship with God.” These sections, of which in his discourse, that it means this, “ as opposed to external the text is just half a verse, extend over between of bodily separation :" in other words, the term “ Spirit” sixty and seventy pages, embracing a full statement here is used to denote the nature, and not the author, of sanc

of the principles of the remedial system, and of its tification, In a foot-note he reminds us that the article is wanting before “Spirit,"+ as proof, we presume, of the Holy holy design and tendency. But distinguished as the Ghost'not being meant by the term here. But the under-noted doctrinal department is by soundness, judgment, and passages are sufficient to show that the Holy Ghost may be elevated sentiment, it is in the region of duty that the meant where the article is not used; and the structure of the

work is peculiarly admirable; and in so saying, we verse decidedly favours this personal reference. I In ch. iii. 1, a whole clause is omitted in the new version, speak of nearly two-thirds of the whole work. “We

have met with nothing so complete and rich, as a its place being supplied by the next verse, which is woven into the first sentence instead of appearing as a supplementary ex

digest of Christian duty. We have doctrinal works planation of it. Our version, with every other which we have in abundance, and of unexceptionable excellence; but consulted, follows precisely the order jof the Greek, thus: of such expositions of personal and relative duties “That if any obey not the word, they may without the word, as men, as Christians, as members of families, as subbe won by the conversation of the wives, while they behold

jects, as church members, as ministers, as elders, &c. your chaste conversation (coupled) with' fear.” Dr Brown

-we have few, very few. translates thus : “ That if some of them are disbelievers in the doctrine, they may without the doctrine, be won over by

We have said that our author rigidly adheres to contemplating your pious, chaste behaviour.” Thus, the subject of his text; and as this usually affects the over by the conversation (or behaviour) of the wives, contem- context, we find a particular view of the sense of the plating," is compressed into “won over by contemplating."

original running through a whole discourse, and There are a few improvements, however, which we could

directing the entire illustration. This to us is a great like to have set over against these, if this note were not already long enough. They are such as the following:

charm, contrasting refreshingly with the loose way in i. 17. “Call Father, him who," or better, Call him

which all the views that can be taken of a passage Father, who."

are sometimes thrust upon us at once, however inCorruptible things--silver or gold—but by precious compatible with each other, from a timid apprehenblood, [the blood) of Christ."

sion lest otherwise we should lose something of the ii. 9.“ A people for a peculiar possession [to God].". The supplement , however, is unnecessary, and hurts the rhythm of plenitude of Scripture; but that plenitude is some

mind of the Spirit. We adore, with Augustin, the the verse. “ Excellencies.". Our“ praises " is not good.

thing else than a collection of unconnected and scarceV. 4. “ The unfading crown.”

consistent meanings of the sacred text. At the same 12. “ As I judge."

time it must be admitted, that in proportion as we. * Αμαρτιαν ουκ εποιησεν.

miss the one sense of a passage, must our illustration *Αγιασμό πνευματος, not του Πνευματος, he says.

of it be beside the purpose.

And we think that Dr † Rom. viii. 9 (bis), verses 13, 14; 2 Tim. i. 14; Jure 20. On the Brown's work sometimes exemplifies this remark. same principle Dr Brown translates “ of which salvation prophets

For instance, the words which in our version are have inquired" (instead of "the prophets"); because the article is wanting in the Greek. But the article is wanting in Luke xxiv, 44; 1 Cor. xiv, 32 (bis); Eph. ii. 20, iii. 5, although the whole class Dr Brown shows a laudable attention to the purity of the of prophets is manifestly meant, Nor do we like to miss the apostle's peculiarities of style, in

text; and, on the whole, though a public revisal of the authosuch renderinge as “Your pious chaste behaviour," for “Chaste rized version is neither practicable nor, in the present divided behaviour in fear" (in poßm), as Vulg. Calv. Luth.; or "coupled

state of religious opinion, and shallowness of religious feeling, with fear," as Beza and our version. There are other pecu- even desirable, we highly approve of every effort to embody liarities, such as beginning a sentence classically wiih the relative in the form of translations of particular portions of sacred pronoun, which Dr Brown sinks, not for the better, certainly.writ, the results of critical investigation, both into the purity Thus, in the very next verse, “Whose adorning, let it not be," &c,

of the text and into the mind of the Spirit therein. for which he substitutes “Let your adorning not be." More feebly, in ch. v. 9, “ Whom resist," for which Dr Brown has “ Him resist." We might have noticed one or two other renderings not par“Who shall give account" (ch, iv. 5), for which we have “ These ticularly happy, in our opinion, such as “uot of a perishable shall give account." Peter loves such forms as, “The hope that is race" (ch. i. 23), where our version has “seed" with mani. in you" (ch. iii. 15); “ Who is he that will harm you" (v. 13); “ Him that judgeth righteously." (ii. 13.) These disappear in the

fest propriety-but our limits forbid enlargement. One imnew version which has it, “ Your hope," " Who shall harm you,' portant rendering, in which we thin our author has missed “The righteous Judge."

the sense, we shall notice above.;






rendered “The sufferings of Christ and the glory that ent, the race was the same, and that nothing more is should follow" (ch. i. 11), are translated by Dr meant than that men were preached to in Noah's days Brown “The sufferings in reference to Christ and the with very different results from those which have succeeding glories;" understanding the words to followed the evangelical ministry of the risen Lord. fer not to the personal sufferings and glories of Christ, We cannot say that he has carried conviction to our but to the sufferings of his people during the present minds. But the passage is too obscure and controtime, and the glories which are to follow at the reve- verted to dogmatize upon, and we have not room for lation of Jesus Christ.” Taking this view of the pas- any criticism of our own. sage, he entitles the discourse upon it, “The final The discourse following this one, Discourse xvii.happiness of Christians the subject of Old Testament “Exhortation to holiness, based on the atonement”prediction, New Testament revelation, and angelic is one of the most successful expositions of a difficult study”—a felicitous title certainly, but wide, as we passage (ch. iv. 1-6), and practical applications of venture to think, of the apostle’s object. We do not high doctrine, which we have ever met, with; illussay that the sufferings and glories of Christ's people trating better than almost any other part of the work are not included in those of Christ himself, which we the author's exegetical tact, and exemplifying his take to be primarily meant; but they are included elevated views of divine truth. We except, however, only as the experiences of the members are compre- his interpretation of “ the quick and the dead,” whom hended in those of the Head. Dr Brown says in a Christ is said to be “ ready to judge” (iv.5), as denote, that his view “is substantially that taken both scriptive of “the spiritually dead and the spiritually by Luther and Calvin.” There is surely some mis- alive." The argument, from the connexion, we think take here. As to Luther, his “Die Leiden, die in may be easily answered; but we must reserve any Christo sind,” will scarcely support this statement, remaining space for a few specimens of the work. and the marginal references to Ps. xxii. 7, Isa. liii. 3, The following extracts, selected partly for their in our copy, if they be Luther's own, show plainly brevity, will give a fair specimen of the work in dif. that Christ's own sufferings were understood by the ferent departments of it, and are fitted to show how reformer. Then, as to Calvin, his meaning seems to much valuable matter it contains :have been but partially apprehended by Dr Brown.

I. Desire the sincere milk of the Word. “ Calvin's remark," says he, “ savours of his ordinary

"Desire it as new-born babes; show that you cannot do exegetical sagacity: 'Non tractat Petrus quid Christo

without it; that you must have it; that nothing will do as a sit proprium,sed de universali ecclesiæ statu disserit.' Calvin's remarks on this passage do indeed illustrate that you are never weary of it; that you return to it again

substitute; that you relish it; that you are satisfied with it; his exegetical sagacity, but it is by the way in which and again, with unabated, with ever-increasing delight. The he connects Christ personal with Christ mystical, temper enjoined is that which is so beautifully embodied in making the subject-matter of prophecy, as here treated the burning words' of David, 'O how love I thy law! it is of, to be the Head and the members in one body, as

my meditation all the day. I will meditate in thy precepts. I subject to one law, of suffering first and glory there. My soul breaketh for the longing it hath at all times unto thy

will delight myself in thy statutes. I will never forget thy word. after. Having rendered the words ta sis. XoTor judgments. Grant me thy law graciously. I have stuck to Telmuecesa, “ The sufferings to come upon Christ,” he thy testimonies. I have longed after thy precepts. I will says, “Peter does indeed say, 'The sufferings to come delight myself in thy commandments, which I love. Thy upon Christ, but he does not separate Christ from statutes have been my songs in the house of my pilgrimage, his body. The statement, therefore, should not be The law of thy mouth is better to me than thousands of gold

and silver. I will never forget thy precepts; for by them hast restricted to Christ's person, but a commencement

thou quickened me.'

I think no one can now have must be made from the Head, that the members may

any difficulty in understanding what it is to desire the sincere follow in their own order, as Paul teaches, Rom. viii

. milk of the word as new-born babes.”—Vol. i. pp. 200, 201. 29, that we must be conformed to him who is the

That ye may grow thereby. First-born among the brethren. In fine, Peter does not treat of what is peculiar to Christ, but discourses

“ A healthy child grows without thinking much about its of the universal state of the Church.” Calvin does growth. It takes its food and its exercise, and finds that it is

growing in the increase of its strength and its capacity for not say that Peter's discourse is about the Church exertion. And an analogous state is, I believe, the healthiest alone, or even principally, but about Christ, and the state of the spiritual new-born babe. While self-examina Church as his members; adding, that by holding up tion, rightly managed, is very useful, a morbid desire of the to view the Church's sufferings in Christ himself, we

satisfaction of knowing that we are improving, is in danger of the better discern our connexion with him in death drawing the mind away from the constant employment of the

means of spiritual nourishment and health. The best state of and in life. Thus, it is our own version, not Dr

things is, when, in the healthy vigorous state of the spiritual Brown's, that is substantially confirmed by Calvin, constitution, ready for every good work, we have the evidence whose rendering, “The sufferings [to come] upon in ourselves that we are growing." –

_Vol. i. p. 196. Christ,” we prefer to our own, merely as being more

II.He that hath suffered in the flesh hath ceased(or as literal,

Dr Brown renders it,)“ has been made to rest from sin." Dr Brown's view of“ Christ going and preaching to the spirits in prison,” is ingenious, and ably sustained. “ Let us look at the thought in reference to Christ. He Having stated the difficulties attending the view ad- that hath suffered in the flesh,' that is, for sins," has been

made to rest from sin.' Christ suffered in the flesh for sin; vocated by Horsley, and that which he terms the com

he has been made to rest from sin; and his being made to rest mon Protestant interpretation, he endeavours to show from

sin, is the consequence of his having suffered in the flesh that by “the spirits in prison,” are meant the living for sin. captives of sin and Satan, those sinners of mankind

“He had no rest after being made of a woman, to whom“ the spiritually quickened” Saviour, endued made under the law, till, in his obediential sufferings to the with spiritual power after his resurrection, caused the death, he had made full expiation of the sins laid on Lim.

“But having done so, he has obtained rest from sin. On gospel to be preached. And if it be asked how these the cross he exclaimed," It is finished, and so it was. Sin could be said to be “ disobedient in the days of Noah,” armed by the sanction of the law, gave him no rest till it laid his answer is, that though the individuals were differ- him in a bloody, dishonoured grave; but in doing this it


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