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prominently to indicate, among other conspiring / verdict even the semblance of an appeal is im. forces, the desire on the part of our ministers to get piety. possession of that power in the Church which the We do not stay to consider this reverend father's patrons had heretofore possessed. Ministers, according | allegation, that we claim arbitrary power for the peoto the Vice-rector (who in this follows in the wake ple, in rejecting ministers; nor his travestie, in the of others nearer home), wished to transfer the powers true Moderate style, of the Veto law. In keeping of the patron to the mass of the people, from whom it with Romanist policy, Sir William Hamilton's would not be difficult afterwards to wrest it, at least famous pamphlet, with his quotations from Beza, are in substance, and thus possess themselves of the duly referred to, but we miss all allusion to Dr. Cunentire government of the Church.
ningham's reply. We need not marvel after this Our readers will notice how careful this Papal to find the Dissertation very much a special pleading Vice-rector is to reiterate the old Moderate charges. for Intrusion-just such a production as a Moderate Error is homogeneous as well as truth, for the one is could write, and crowd with conclusions like the just the contrast or antithesis of the other. At Rome following:-Sir W. Hamilton has given “ original
in the Parliament House-in the House of Lords- documents from the most conspicuous Calvinists, and on the floor of the General Assembly, when a Mo- quite contrary to the maxim of Non-Intrusion;" that derate had possession of it, the spirit is essentially the is, this Vice-rector, and Sir W. Hamilton, as the same. Men do not judge of principle by the standard advocate of Moderatism, agree in arguing that the of God's Word--they appeal to their own hearts for most conspicuous Calvinists were lutrusionists. principles, and “as they think in their hearts so are Nor need we wonder when we hear this Romanist they." They impute to others what they themselves arguing, that as the question affects the intellect, would be or do; and no one who understands the the Moderates had the advantage, and that “ only divine theory of fallen human nature will be sur ignorant fanaticism, which takes no care to examine prised to hear the same charges reiterated by worldly the truth of its inputations," could impugn their men, whether they adopt the dogmata of Rome, or positions. To suppose that the doings of Intrusupport the ecclesiastical system of which the House sionists amounted to a “dethroning of Christ, to of Lords is at once the fountain of power, the law admitting an illegal power to rule in his government, giver, and the court of last appeal. The author of to placing the Church under the opprobrious yoke of the dissertation repudiates the positions of Non-Intru- the State, and depriving the Christian people of their sionism, and reasons against them precisely as he spiritual independence;"_to allege such things, as would have done had he been in circumstances for the Non-Intrusionists did, amounted, in this Dissertaperpetrating a violent settlement at Marnoch, or tor's mind, to fanaticism, and nothing more. And when ordaining a man to the pastoral superintendence of he stoops to enlist the poor device of the prominent the inn-keeper and the beadle of a parish.
part which females took in the recent controversy, The next attempt of the Vice-rector is to convict the identity of the Popish and the Moderate positions Free Churchmen of inconsistency and incoherence, is nearly established. In short, all argument is on in adopting or continuing a system so complicated as the side of the Moderates--all fanaticism and ignoourg. He admires the exquisite simplicity of the rance on the side of the Non-Intrusionists! ancient Church, where all was peaceful as the grave, From this subject, which is obviously congenial to and wonders that we, and other Reformers, had not the author's mind, he passes to discuss our claim to our system so perfectly matured as to prevent such the title Evangelical. He glances at the decay of collisions as within the last few years have taken place. vital religion in Scotland, and proceeds to caricature Of course the whole lecture which he thus reads, the style of preaching which was designed to restore regarding our ecclesiastical constitution, has an as- the gospel in its purity and power. “The profound sumption for its text. Our system was settled, but it mysteries of grace and predestination "_" the interwas violently trampled on by men who would substi- nal operations of the Divine Spirit;"—these, he says tute the human for the divine; our constitution was with censure, or a sheer, were frequent topics in our adjusted, but it was rudely outraged by men who pulpits. Even laymen, he says, held frequent meetwould grasp at a power which was not theirs. The ings for prayer. Nay, their common conversation, Word of God, to wbich the advocate of Rome makes he alleges with a kind of simple-minded astonishno reference, was at once its origin and standard; ment, was about religion, as if both David (Ps. lxvi. but men would have another; and it was from the 16) and Malachi (iii. 16) were at fault in what they violence of Erastianism, not the "incoherence” of record. Extempore prayer, divine grace, religious Reformed doctrine, or the complexity of Reformed conversation among ignorant and unlettered mensystems, that our controversy arose. Indeed, the all, in short, that the Bible indicates as the means of leading doctrines involved in it—which it may be promoting growth in grace, and the knowledge of our hoped neither we, nor our children, nor our chil. Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, is repudiated or cendren's children, will ever forget-rank among the sured by this Popish advocate; and his horror at such simplest that can be proposed to the mind of man, proceedings is summed up in one emphatic word, That the civil power has no right to interfere in purely which he uses as describing the flower or consummaspiritual things that Christ's will alone, according tion of such excesses as he reprobates—that word is to his Word, should rule in Christ's house that both Raovivamento, a Recioal. It is described as "a kind of his people and his ministers are robbed of their rights alienation of the senses," occasioned by evangelical when an alien power interferes between Him and preaching; it is something “beyond the range of them—these are truths as transparent as they are | nature;" it is sneeringly said that “the revived scriptural, so that it is simply not true that the claimed an extraordinary influence, or influx of “ election of ministers was an undecided question in grace.” The excitement, this Romanist proceeds the Scottish Church.” It was decided, and that (plagiarizing, we cannot help supposing, from some according to the mind of Him who is head over accredited organ of Moderatism), grew and spread all things to his Church, and from whose definitive I sermons were multiplied. For hours without interruption men continued in the churches. Even night. | all their forms intrinsic and essential to Presbyterian fall did not warn them to retire. Whole congrega- life, and the substituting of a new system, which is tions were dissolved in tears, and gave vent to sighs that of the truth, and at the same time utterly and exclamations, like the ancient ingyoupenon, accom- opposed to the former, is indeed a most difficult enterpanied with agitations and convulsions of the body. prise.” In all this he is at once pronouncing an -- But we pause. Our readers have heard all this eulogy and teaching us a lesson. His words are inadvanced a hundred times before by Moderate deed encouraging," Il numero di questi è assai ministers, and Moderate elders, and Moderate piccolo e la generale prospettiva non è molto ridente;" men of every class and name. Speers and innuen in other words, he entertains little hope of convertdoes, the old common places of unostentatious piety, ing Presbyterians to Popery. decency, and virtuous habits, are the arguments But it is not with this that we are at present mainly or appeals which the Romanist employs against concerned. Let us rather advert to the close affinity the men who presumed to be in earnest about their in argument and view that obtains between the Rosins and their souls, in spite of the close fraternizing manist and the Moderate. Some of the sentences of of Popery and Moderatism. He likens the effects the Dissertation might have been used by ministers again and again to mental alienation, to the results whom we could name. During the controversy, we of animal magnetism, and cheers on the Moderates, were often taunted with attempting to erect another who " laughed or wept” at these excesses, because of Papacy. Ours were the insolent endeavours of Hil" their fatal effects on religion and virtue.” Even the debrand, and other imperious Churchmen, seeking to Moderates, indeed, are allowed to be less perfect than erect an ecclesiastical dominion on the ruins of the the Church of Rome, but still they are the fondled civil. Who has not heard the sophism both from favourites of this Vice-rector. He cannot but censure the flippant and the ponderous in the Moderate ranks? them as heretics; but their short-comings, in his eyes, But, as if to refute the allegations, here is a Romanist, are venial things compared with the “ absurdities,” | writing at Rome for Romans, deliberately arguing on "the ignorant fanaticism," "the limited understanding, Moderate principles, and calmly concluding his arguand the small virtue," of the Non-Intrusionists. ment thus—“PREFERIBBE I MODERATI PIU CHE I LORO
Of course, the end of the whole matter is to establish OPPOSITORI, PERCHE L'ASSENZA DEL BENE SI VUOL PREthe necessity of an Infallible head, to settle or silence FERIRE AL MALE POSITIVO.” He repudiates our affinity. all such discussions. If, however, they cannot be It is Moderatism, then, that fraternizes with Rome. prevented, this Romanist leaves no doubt to which | Both of them are opposed to the truth of God, and side he would incline. If a Catholic must side either they band like brothers to condemn the men who seek with Moderates or Non-Intrusionists, he says, “pre to hold the religion which the Holy Spirit taught feribbe i Moderati piu che i loro oppositori, perche l' Paul to record. Moderatism, when it dare, and Roassenza del bene si vuol preferire al male positivo" - manism at Rome, unite in reprobating Christians as he would prefer the Moderates to their opponents, because “ absurd,” as “ignorant fanatics," as “ mentally the absence of good is to be preferred to positive eril. deranged," as "hostile to virtäe," and to be wept over
After this honest avowal, a sketch is given of our as the enemies of religion. progress as a Church during the first year of our ex It is well, then, the means have been supplied, istence. Lord Aberdeen's chivalry, in aiding the from so unequivocal a quarter, for repelling the alletottering Establishment, is then recognised; and the gation that the principles implied in our recent conPapist here starts at the idea of a law for regulating troversy were identical with Popery. Popery, in its ordination originating with the civil government, and | citadel and stronghold, in express terms, sensitively shrewdly questions the success of any such attempt. repudiates our principles. In language no less exHe then felicitates himself and his fellow-Romanists plicit, used by the Vice-principal of one of her Colon the repose enjoyed in their Church, and piously leges, she approves of the tenets of Moderatism, as looks forward to the day when the schismatics will re | far as she can. And now let our readers judge. turn to her embrace, like the dove when it returned to the ark, having found only angry waves to alight on. Regarding us all as cut off from the parent stem, he THE FREE CHURCH, VOLUNTARYISM, AND loses the sense of our recent schism in the grand
THE CONFESSION OF FAITH, schism of the Reformation. He cares not who minister “ in the conventicles which now disfigure It is a curious fact, that though the Free Church
'but is smitten to the heart with anguish at has renounced the advantages of an Establishment, the ruin of its churches and monasteries. He laments it appears to be still regarded by our Voluntary that the numbers returning to the fold in Scotland | brethren as the most formidable defender of the are so few,* and confesses that “Presbyterianism,
Establishment principle. Though it has made no verhaps more than any other form of Protestantism, effort to attain, and has no prospect in the present has cancelled every tradition and memorial of Catho state of society of attaining, those advantages for licisin. Its doctrines, its discipline, its habits, and
itself, it would still seem to be viewed as a peculiarly usages," he says, "are diametrically opposed. The dangerous antagonist. For our own part, we neither education,” hecontinues," which is given to the people complain of this nor regret it. Considered as a comis in harmony with these maxims, and the mind of a pliment to ourselves, though modesty might induce Presbyterian is imbued with a religious system which us to decline it in favour of other Presbyterian bodies, leaves no bond of affinity by which to re-tie it to the we are yet by no means offended with it. And ancient faith. In this respect," he adds, “ the eradica- what is of far greater importance, we are glad that tion of Presbyterianism from the mind, the extract the controversy should cease to appear to be one being of those fibres which are entwined with the | tween Churchmen seeking public money, and Disfeelings and with habits the most inveterate, and in senters grudging or refusing it, and should be seen to the Church of Christ, and those who deny that they for the Church. We shall discuss the two in their order, and have any such duties, unless it be the negative obli- with an immediate reference to the one point before us. gation of leaving it alone. In this controversy, we
be one between those who maintain that the governHe says that at the beginning of this century Romanists in Scotland amounted to about 20,000, now to about 120.000 **. | ments of the world have duties which they owe ta
1 ). He is HEAD OF THE CHURCH :-“ Which," says our
text, “is his body, the fulness of Him who filleth all in all." take the side which we have ever done. We main
|--Now, this relation of Christ to his Church under the image tain that it is possible and lawful and right for a of that which the Head sustains to the body, might be taken State, in the prosecution of its own legitimate ob up in various points of view. The analogy is repeatedly emjects, and without interfering with the laws of Christ, ployed by the apostle; and in one or two instances is dwelt to help the Church, and to make it a greater blessing upon in considerable detail. It might be viewed, for example to the commonwealth than it would otherwise be.
-1. As the headship of eminence and honour: -2. As the And from all that we know of the opinions of the
headship of vital and active influence : -3. As the headship
of intelligence-of spiritual “wisdom and knowledge :"> ministers of the Free Church, we believe that it is
and 4. As the headship of authority.--All these views of the still their conviction that a faithful servant of their relation are pregnant with interest and instruction. But three Master, when not merely acknowledged as pastor of of them we must pass entirely over; and confine ourselves exa congregation, but recogpised as the minister of a clusively to the last, as the one that belongs most appropriately parish, has peculiar advantages for spreading the
to our present subject. knowledge and influence of divine truth, and extend.
We are to regard Christ, then, as, in his Church, the Head
of authority-sole, exclusive authority. .... ing the kingdom and glory of his Lord. Even these
The Headship of Christ over the nations, and the Headship high advantages they dare not purchase by the sur of Christ over his Church or spiritual kingdom, as they are render of the liberties and powers which Christ different in kind, are different in duration. The one is temhas given them, or by a sordid stipulation to perform porary; the other is eternal. I am not aware of any satisfacacts of tyranny, when required, against the flocks of
tory principle on which to reconcile the two statements
“Then cometh the end, when he shall deliver up the kingdom which they are the pastors. But they do not think
to God, even the Father,” and, “He shall reign over the house it necessary, or wise, or right in the State, to accom. of Jacob for ever, and of his kingdom there shall be no end, pany the advantages which it can confer with such but that which is found in the distinction between these two conditions. The State, however, thinks otherwise; headships or reigns-his headship and reign over the Church, and and for aught that we can see, is likely to think as his headship and reign over the world in subserviency to the init does for many a day to come. Meanwhile, the
terests of the Church, and to the final accomplishment of the
ends of his mediation. The latter has, and must have, an end. Free Church has duties on hand far more imme
It is a reign delegated to him as Mediator, for special purposes. diately urgent than the pulling down of the existing When these purposes shall all have been accomplished--when, Establishments, or the constructing of new ones. If in successive generations, the multitude of his redeemed our Voluntary friends can bring down the present shall have been gathered to himself-when the thousand years Establishments. let them do so_ it is no great matter of the triumph of his cause on earth shall have come to a close
--when the last enemy" shall, have been "destroyed," and to us; and when they have done so, and thought
there shall be no more foes to conquer and put under his feet coolly over their achievement, we may invite them to
—when, by the judgment of the great day, the final destinies deliberate along with us about the erection of others. of all mankind shall have been settled, and the gulf of final There is no hurry, however; and in the meantime we separation shall have been fixed between the righteous and would say to them, in the most kindly feeling, that the wicked-when the very theatre of this reign shall have they may employ their Sabbath evenings better than
been burned up—the all-glorious designs of God's justice and in preaching at us.
mercy toward this apostate province of his universal empire, These remarks have been suggested by the recent
having, by the wisdom and power and grace of Immanuel
been consummated--he shall resign this sceptre into the hands perusal of a discourse preached by Dr. Wardlaw,
from which he received it. In such circumstances, his resig. “ at the request of the Committee of the Glasgow nation of it will be his triumph. The acceptance of it from Voluntary Church Association.”* The Rev. Doctor him by the Father will be the public testimony, to angels and has been long before the view of the public. It is | to men, pot of the government represented by it having proved forty years since his ingenious discourses on the
in the a failure, and of God being dissatisfied with his administration
but rather of his having swayed it with more than untarnishet Abrahamic covenant earned him a fair reputation,
honour-with the acquisition to himself and to the Godhead which, a few years later, was greatly raised by his
of new and imperishable glory, the subject of universal an works on the Socinian controversy. And it is be perpetual celebration. But while his headship over the nation cause we look back with pleasure and gratitude on and over the world shall terminate, when the nations and th the performances of his early life that we should world shall themselves cease to be, there is a headship whic feel some regret at seeing him, in advancing years,
remains. It is his reign over his redeemed people--bis spl
ritual Israel - the true " seed of Abraham"--the true “hous becoming the mere advocate of Voluntaryism and
of Jacob." This is the reign that is to be “ for ever "-th Independency. We have no time, however, to review the “ kingdom" of which there is to be “no end." Were the literary and theological history of Dr. Wardlaw. otherwise, he would be resigning his sceptre at the very tin We do not even intend to discuss the resuscitated when he was only completing the number of his subject arguments of the Voluntary controversy contained in
There would be a proportion of them, the last subdued, ov the little brochure before us. But there is some
whom he could hardly be said to reign at all. Over th
"holy nation," then, he shall reign, in the strictest sens thing good in the pamphlet, of which we willingly
"to eternity." His throne in heaven -his mediatorial throu avail ourselves, and there are some things also which
-occupied by him as God in our pature-is a throne whil seem to require a little friendly remonstrance. he can never vacate. All the redeemed above wil), vi
In opening the treatment of his text (Eph. i. 22, grateful delight, regard that throne as the centre of their ho 23), and in closing his lecture, Dr. Wardlaw leads us and happy union, the union of the entire community of to feel what an interesting discourse he might have
faithful, whose allegiance will be as unweariedly and deligt made had he treated the whole subject as a purely re- |
edly permanent, as the sceptre of love that is swayed ov
them in the “better country, even the heavenly,'' will be gi ligious one. We give the pages to which we refer : ciously held for perpetuity. THERE, THEN, and OVER THE The Headship of Christ, as expressed in the words selected
he shall reign (without end,“FOR EVER," “ EVEN FI for our text, evidently divides itself into tro departments :
EVER AND EVER!” May hearers and speaker be found amo 1. He is Head of the Church.-2. He is Head over all things,
his blessed subjects ! Amen and Amen! The Headship of Christ, as affected by National Church The other parts of the lecture are not much Establishments '; a Lecture delivered on the evening of Lord's-day, I harmony with the tone of these extracts. Even: May 2, 1847."
the one point reserved for discussion, under the first , rately composed by intelligent men, that when they head of discourse, there is no exposition of the sub- were treating expressly of the distinct powers and ject, unless it be contained in certain quotations from provinees of the secular and ecclesiastical anthori. the address of our own Convocation, of which he ties, they had explicitly stated that the former must says that the sentiments are “ sound, scriptural, not assume any ecclesiastical function or power! noble.” The greater part of the argument is occu-" The civil magistrate may not assume to himself pied with a vehement, and, we are sorry to say, a the administration of the Word and Sacraments, somewhat ill-natured attack on the Confession of or the power of the keys of the kingdom of heaven.” Faith. He describes it as “our most Erastian Is it not reasonable, that expressions which may apScottish Confession,” as making “a strange jumble pear to have a bearing on the same point, but which of the sacred and the civil," as so inconsistent with occur incidentally in connection with a subject enitself, that its consistency can only “ be made out tirely different, should be interpreted in accordance by a process of interpretation such as might render with the general and explicit statement, if they will easy the establishment of any imaginable contraries.” bear such an interpretation? For, let it be observed, According to it, he says, “ all the intermeddling the twentieth chapter of the Confession does not treat, must be on one side, the civil with the ecclesiasti- nor profess to treat, of the objects or limits either of cal_not the ecclesiastical with the civil. God must secular or ecclesiastical authority. The subject of it bow to Cæsar-not Caesar to God.” It teaches is, “ Christian Liberty and Liberty of Conscience" " that of the purity and integrity of divine truth, of the forner of these being explained in the first secwhat constitutes blasphemy and heresy, and corrup- tion, and the latter asserted in the second, while the tion and abuse, in worship and discipline, and the third section distinguishes the former from licentiousdue settlement, administration, and observance of ness, and the fourth is manifestly designed to show ordinances, he (the civil magistrate) is judge, and the compatibility of the latter with the existence and ultimate judge, on earth. This much the terms plainly exercise of all lawful authority. After the broad imply, if they are not employed in sheer hypocrisy, and statement that God alone is Lord of the conscience, intended, amid great swelling words of vanity, to make and hath left it free from the doctrines and coma cypher of the magistrate after all.” Hard words mandments of men in matters of faith and worship, these, good Doctor--it is a great comfort that the it might naturally be asked, Is the plea of conscience, arguments are not nearly so hard. We wonder that then, to be heard in bar of judgment, or rather to it never occurred to Dr. Wardlaw, that if all these the exclusion of all jurisdiction, either ecclesiastical representations and insinuations were true, the or civil? Is no sin, or heresy, or crime, fit to be authors of the Confession must have either been matter of judgment, if it is said to be conscienenormous knaves, or miserable ninnies; that there tiously committed ? It is to this question that the was good reason to believe that they were neither Confession gives a decided negative, and affirms, on the one nor the other; and that it was possible he the other hand, that if the belief be clearly heretical, himself inight have misunderstood them. We knew or the conduct manifestly criminal, it is a fit subject a young mathematician who commenced the study for the cognizance of the appropriate judges, notof the Mecanique Celeste of Laplace, and who, before withstanding any plea of conscience on the part of he reached the twentieth page, thought he had dis- the accused. Who the proper judges are in different covered a gross paralogism, or rather a downright cases, the article does not profess to decide. It only absurdity. He considered, however, that the work | states, that both the Church and the civil magistrate liad not only been written by a mathematician of the are entitled to disregard the plea of conscience, when highest order, but had been approved and admired urged, in defence of what is clearly wrong, and urged, by all the most distinguished judges, and therefore besides, with the view of resisting the lawful exerbe kept silence on the subject till he at last dis- cise of lawful authority. That this is the real meancovered the source of his own mistake. Now we ing of the article is apparent, from the peculiar form are far from saying that Dr. Wardlaw is as inferior to of expression in which it is stated; not that such parthe Westminster divines as the young student was ties ought to be prosecuted, but that they may lawfully to Laplace. Still we know enough of the learning, be called to account, and proceeded against by the and piety, and intellect contained in that Assembly, censures of the Church, and by the power of the civil to be satisfied that Dr. Wardlaw is more likely to magistrate; in other words, that if the laws of the have misunderstood their meaning than they were to Christian Church, or the good of the commonwealth, have condemned Erastianism in one sentence, and to require such characters to be dealt with, no injury is have affirmed it in the very next. And this, on the done to Christian liberty or freedom of conscience Doctor's part, would have been the safer, as well as by their prosecution. We are persuaded that this the inore modest, conclusion. They were fallible and view of the Confession will commend itself to the sinful men, no doubt. But they were not exactly judgment of every candid and considerate mind; the men to be guilty of the gross absurdity and the and if it be just, where is the propriety of the assergrua impiety, if not a sheer hypocrisy," with which tion, that even in regard to the power of the keys of he charges them. That he has inisunderstood them the kingdom of heaven, the civil magistrate, accordwe hold to be demonstrable to any unprejudiced in- / ing to the Confession, must have his share? Where quirer. Yet while the Confession is studied in the is the truth of the sarcastic charge, founded upon temper evinced in the expressions we have quoted, this chapter, that the Westminster divines were we do not expect that our proof will be satisfac s liberal, in surrendering to and dividing with the tory to the Doctor.
secular rulers the rights and duties which their Mark, for example, his reference to the twentieth divine King had made exclusively their own?” chapter of the Confession, from which he infers that We do not intend, however, to lecture formally "a share" in the “ power of the keys" is conceded on the Confession of Faith; nor bave we any pleato the civil magistrate. Would it not strike any | sure in dealing with Dr. Wardlaw as an antagonist; calm inguirer into the meaning of a work delibe- | we would rather help bim if we could to the attainment and acknowledgment of the truth, and so, / worship shall prevail, or a demoralizing superstition perhaps, repay in kind a debt which we owe him. overspread the land? These are questions in which And as Milton, after Horace, tells us that
the peace and prosperity of the community are in" Joking decides great things ..
volved, and to which an intelligent and benevolent Stronger and better oft than earnest can,"
ruler cannot be indifferent; and though he is not we will venture on a somewhat homely illustration entitled to administer the government and regulate of this same twentieth chapter. It was our lot many the worship of the Church, or to harass any inan on years ago to hear the famous Jonathan Martin, the account of his religious convictions, he will feel it his modern Herostratus, detailing his experiences in a duty to seek for means and employ them; or, in other Methodist chapel, very much to the vexation of the words, “ to take order” that truth and morality, worthy minister who presided. Jonathan had felt peace and pure religion, may prevail, rather than pressed in spirit to expose the formalism of the wor- falsehood and faction, blasphemy and superstition. shippers in the Established Church, and had on some Every day is showing more clearly the silliness of previous occasion been turned out of the church the cry that Government has nothing to do with reliwhen he interrupted the service. On this occasion gion. The reverse is likely to be proved by a kind he told how he had baffled the vigilance of the of reductio ad atsurdum. Ignorance, and vice, and beadles and the precautions of the church wardens, crime are accumulating among the masses of our and in defiance of both, had secreted himself in the great towns. The pauper population of Ireland is pulpit for a couple of hours till the congregation had swarming from its shores to settle on our own, adding met and the service was about to commence, and at once to the pauperism, the ignorance, and the how he then denounced the vanity of their worship, crime of our people. And looking at the deterioraand exposed the error of their ways. Jonathan, notion of the lowest ranks of the community, the inteldoubt, thought this a laudable exercise of his Chris. | ligent regard the evil with anxiety and fear. And tian liberty, or a faithful discharge of a conscientious yet the hands of Government are paralyzed in atobligation; and yet we think it likely that he was tempting to apply a remedy. They may, perhaps, proceeded against by the censures of his Church, be allowed to punish crime, and yet even to this and certainly he was by the power of the civil there seems to be an increasing objection; capital magistrate, for he was, if we remember rightly, sent punishment is declared by many to be legal murder, for a month to prison. “What a power is this !” and transportation and imprisonment have each their says Dr. Wardlaw, “which is declared to belong opponents. But on all hands it is admitted, that the rightfully to secular rulers." We cannot see, how mere punishment of crime will not meet the existing ever, that it was either an assumption of the power | and increasing evil. And yet when it is proposed to of the keys, or a very intolerant use of the secular counteract it by moral influence and training, we power, though a more relevant plea than that of con are told that Government has no right to educate; science might have been put in by the friends of that the attempt on its part, to communica te any eduJonathan Martin in his behalf. It may seem rather cation, is wrong; and, in particular, that to attempt to frivolous to refer to such an event in the history of a afford religious instruction, is intolerable. Imprisonhalf-witted creature. But our case would have been ing, banishing, nay, hanging itself, may (perhaps) be nothing the weaker had it related to numbers of endured; but for Government to furnish instruction individuals-of sounder wits-resisting higher autho- | ip reading and writing, and above all, to supply inrities than the beadles and justices of a provincial struction in the truths of Christianity, is a violation town, and maintaining practices, as he did, destructive of duty and a usurpation of power, to be resisted by of the external peace and order of the Church. The every possible means! This is a curious conclusion reader has only to imagine such cases as existing in for Christian men to come to. And yet there are the middle of the seventeenth century, and we think men who, we believe, would spend their strength and he will have no difficulty in explaining this part of substance to abate the evil by their own exertions, the Confession without imputing to its authors either who would at the same time rather see it increase Erastianism or Intolerance.
and multiply, than see Government apply the only In discussing the twenty-third chapter, Dr. Ward remedy. And how is it that these principles have law compares its clauses with each other, and with been formed? Principally, we believe, from the chapter thirty-first, and declares that the one passage divided state of the Christian Church, each section “ neutralizes the other, turning it into mere words with believing that the interference of Government would out meaning.” In other terms, Dr. Wardlaw cannot | tend only to diffuse the principles and extend the reconcile the different passages, and chooses rather | influence of an antagonist section. And how have to believe that the Assembly of divines spoke non- | these divisions themselves arisen? In the great sense, than that he himself failed to understand majority of cases they may be traced, directly or rethem. With all our respect for Dr. Wardlaw, and motely, to the unwise and Erastian intermeddling of it is qạite sincere, we cannot concur in this conclu Government with the internal administration of the sion. We imagine that we perceive a sound and Church. We argue, therefore, in this way: The consistent meaning in the different passages, and that employment of moral and religious means is necesthe soundness of the twenty.third chapter, in particu sary to check the progress of misery and crime, and lar, is likely to receive a striking illustration from the consequent danger to the State. The employment of events of the present time. We think it is becoming these means is greatly obstructed by the religious more and more apparent, that it is a question in divisions of the community. These divisions are which the guardians of the commonwealth have a themselves mostly the result of injudicious governdeep interest-whether the Christian Church shall ment, and therefore the State, with a view to the enjoy unity and peace, or be rent and distracted by safety of the commonwealth, should take order for jarring factions? --whether Christian piety and mora. the healing of those divisions, and the restoration of lity shall be generally diffused, or heresy and blas- peace and unity in the Church. It is right to take phemy shall be rampant ?-whether a simplescriptural means to advance that pure and undefiled religion