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was called to wonder at an event so great accom- we should be quarrelling. You are not revolutionists, plished with so little bloodshed. France had now neither are we. Pray, did you ever hear of a troop of grown skilful in the art of revolutions. The light Free Churchmen being caught practising theart of rifleof the nineteenth century is now shining full upon shooting for the Chartist rising? Did you ever hear her. All has to be done in a truly philosophical way. of a draft decree for the new commonwealth being Men were not such fools now as to shed each other's found in the pocket of a Free Church felon, declarblood. Philosophy will guide the machine of governing property to be theft? If your property had been mnent; the very laws will be given out clothed in all in France, we verily believe you would have been the graces of poetry; and Frenchmen, all enlightened glad to have it peopled by Free Churchmen. We and all equal, will be one happy family. How soon feel assured, that if the efforts of anarchists should has the insulted Lord of nations blown upon the cob- | unfortunately come to a formidable head in our own web! “ They have set up kings, but not by me; country, the Free Church, to a man, will be found they have made princes, and I knew it not.

on the side of Queen and constitution, liberty, proThy calf, O Samaria, hath cast thee off; mine anger perty, and law; and, if it is any comfort to you to is kindled against them; how long will it be ere they know it, they will maintain their position on the side attain to innocency? The workman made it; of order, just as firmly, though you persist in denying therefore it is not God: but the calf of Samaria shall

them their just rights, as if you had granted them. be broken in pieces. For they have sown the wind, It is true you have thrown an ugly blot in the fair and they shall reap the whirlwind; it hath no stalk; face of the constitution, but it is a noble constitution the bud shall yield no meal; if so be it yield, the notwithstanding; we know of none in the world like stranger shall swallow it up.”-Hosea viii. 4-7. | it. My lords and gentlemen, these are trying times. France might have sat for the prophet's picture. No one can tell what a year may bring. If your per

It is instructive to observe how vain are the efforts secution had been directed against certain other of a guilty nation to escape from the judgments of classes, you might reasonably have entertained the God. The French, taught by experience, carefully fear, that they might have retaliated in the difficulavoided the course which on a former occasion led ties of a future day; as it is, you are perfectly to so much blood. But there are many arrows in safe. It is certain that no provocation of yours can the quiver of the Almighty. A nation whom he infuse into the Free Church, while it remains the intends to visit, by the very effort to elude the stroke Free Church, any sympathy with anarchists.” of one, will expose herself to another. The Frenchmen on this occasion did not cut off their king's head,

ON THE SCRIPTURAL AND PRELATICAL and so provoke invasion by a strange army; but they gathered into Paris and fed a vast body of idle work

DOCTRINES OF REGENERATION. men, and so prepared within their own walls an army When the Methodists and the Evangelical clergy of of executioners for the day of slaughter.

the last century were employed in those labours of What may be the next stage of the revolution, or love by which so much was accomplished for the rewhat its final issue, no one can tell. We may not be vival of religion in England, the doctrine of regeneable to tell what form the tyranny may assume on ration formed a most prominent topic of their preachthe one hand, and the suffering on the other; but we ing. Instead of insisting on the mere formalities of know that the immediate result cannot be freedom. religion, or the decencies of a worldly morality, they * The wicked are like the troubled sea when it cannot inculcated the necessity of a total change of heart, the rest, whose waters cast up mire and dirt.”—Isa. lvii. effect of the direct operation of the Spirit of God-a 20. Until France be reformed in character, her con- passage from darkness to light, from death to life—a dition cannot be happy. They can never be free, transition, painful, it might be, in the first instance, yet whatever the form of their government, who do not gl and happy in its results. The world, both lay recognise themselves to be sold under sin, and seek and clerical, were amazed. Some at first made merry the liberty wherewith the Son makes his people free. on the subject of “the agonies of the new birth;" while

It is ours, meantime, to wait and watch for the end others, looking more gravely at the matter, and findof the Lord. What may his design be with that ing a good deal about regeneration both in the Bible nation? Is this the beginning of those times of the and the Prayer-book, sought to explain away the subend, when the kingdoms “shall hate the whore, and ject as they best were able. In reading the works of shall make her desolate, and naked, and shall eat her High Churchmen, however, one finds a great want of flesh, and burn her with fire ?"_Rev, xvii. 16. Will distinctness, and no little difficulty in ascertaining these shakings of thrones and dominions permit the what they understood regeneration to mean. In hidden ones of God to raise their heads and bear many instances they would appear to consider baptism witness for Christ? Will these ghastly avenues, | itself as regeneration, and to regard the terms as which the sword of civil war is making through the identical in meaning. To this conclusion they were ranks of France's teeming population, become a way naturally led by the language of their baptismal serfor the entrance of the gospel to her desolate rem- vice, in which every child, as soon as baptized, is denant! After weltering for years in the throes of clared to be regenerated. In other cases, regenerainternal strife and foreiyn war, will the wearied na- tion was considered rather as a change of position tion be more willing to look to the Prince of Peace! consequent on baptism-a covenant relationship The future is very dark. The consolation of the formed by means of that sacred rite, not necessarily Church is, God is our refuge, whatever the future producing holiness of character, though favourable may be.

to the production of it. And finally, some have con. To cross the Channel to our own beloved, free, and sidered it as the positive transmission to the soul of happy land, one word to our friends and neighbours the a spiritual influence by means of the sacrament-an site-refusers. We would whisper in the ear of these influence so very sensible, according to Puseyite nonoblemen and gentlemen, if we could get near them, tions, as to excite a smile on the cheek of infancy “ Neighbours, we are all on one side, it is a pity that I when the delightful infusion was experienced.

In one point, however, all grades of High Church | Churchmen have erred in over-rating the baptismal men agreed, that regeneration was something which ordinance, Christians of a different class have also all who had in infancy been baptized by a real cler- erred in the opposite direction. But our present obgyman, had experienced; and as these comprehended ject is simply to show, in opposition to the Prelatical the great bulk of the population of England, to view, that the regeneration spoken of in Scripture is preach the necessity of regeneration to an English a real and internal, not a relative change ; and that congregation was thought absurd. If Heathens and it has no necessary connexion with baptism. Dissenters required it, they might have it, for little It is evident, and admitted, that to be “ born trouble and a moderate fee, by making proper appli- again," or " born from above," and to be “ born or cation to the parson. And there were two circum- begotten of God," are equivalent expressions. Now, stances, which greatly diminished the effectiveness it may easily be shown from various parts of Scripof the arguments of their opponents. Assuming that ture, and more especially from the First Epistle of regeneration implied a real change of heart, they John, that the change indicated by these terms is one very generally--we do not say universally--satisfied not merely facourable to holiness, but directly leading themselves with showing the absurdity of supposing to it, as the cause produces the effect. Regeneration that such a change had passed on all who were bap- is so connected with holiness, that every good man is. tized--an argument of little weight with those who declared to be regenerate, and every regenerate man denied that any such change was denoted by the is necessarily good. Let us look at the evidence of term. And then, as members of the Church of Eng. these two propositions-Holiness is the infallible proof land, they were continually hampered by the great of regeneration-regeneration is the infallible source difficulty of making the language of the Liturgy har- of goodness. monize with their views. If High Churchmen could In 1 John iv. 7, it is written: “ Every one that not cope with them on Scripture grounds, they gra- loveth is born of God, and knoweth God." There is no velled them with the Prayer book. Venn, or Walker, reference here to baptism, or to any external circumor Scott, might urge on his hearers the warning of stance or connexion. Outward circumstances may his Master, “ Except a man be born again, he cannot indeed be the evidence of love, but it is the love itsee the kingdom of God;" but where was the pro- self that is the evidence of regeneration. Take the priety or consistency of applying the warning to an case of Cornelius. His prayers and alms had gone assembly in which every individual had been declared, up for a memorial before God. They were the either by the preacher himself or with equal right by divinely-acknowledged expressions of a loving heart. his predecessors and brethren, to be “ regenerate, a Was he, then, a regenerate man before his baptism? child of God, and an inheritor of the kingdom of The answer is furnished by the apostle's words: heaven?"

Every one that loveth is born of God, and knoweth Of the Prelatical doctrine of regeneration--as, for God.” brevity's sake, we may designate the views of the Again, in 1 John v. 1, the apostle writes, “ WhoHigh Church Anglican party--perhaps the clearest soever believeth that Jesus is the Christ, is born of statement, and the least encumbered with personal God.” Here also the regeneration of the individual and temporary controversy, has been given by is inferred from the principles which he holds—from Waterland. His views have been generally adopted the faith which he cherishes and avows.' It is eviby Bishop Bethell, and his work has been character. dent, however, that the existence of such a faith canized by the late Bishop Van Mildert (unless our me- not prove that a certain relationship has been estabmory fails us), as not only excellent, but unanswered. lished by means of an external rite. Granting the It is so unusual for English High Churchmen (in this reality and sanctity of such a relationship, this respect the Irish are far superior) to study the divines cannot be the proper evidence of it, because it is not of other Protestant communions, that we are not sur- necessarily connected with it. The relation estabprised that Van Mildert had never heard of the an- lished by baptism (whatever that is) may exist withswer of an American Presbyterian. And yet Jona- out faith-faith may be found where (erroneously or than Dickenson was no despicable theologian; and sinfully) baptism has not been administered. Howany one who has read his reply, in connexion with ever right, becoming, and obligatory faith may be, Waterland's treatise, will have pretty ample means as the concomitant of the baptismal relation, still it of forming a correct opinion for himself.

is not the inrariable concomitant; just as love is the According to this system, then, regeneration is a right, and becoining, and obligatory concomitant of change, not of disposition, affection, or principle, but marriage, and yet no proof of the fact of marriage. of relation. It is virtually the same with adoption, It is almost impossible to contrast the evidence of an act of grace, by which we receive a title to the scriptural with that of Prelatical regeneration without privileges of the children of God. It is a grant on the appearance of sarcasm; and yet we say it in all the part of God, through the significant rite of bap- seriousness, and, as we conceive, with strict justice, tism, of forgiveness and grace-requiring, indeed, that according to the latter view the argument the concurrence of the recipient (where that is pos- should run- Every one who has his name enrolled sible) to make it available, but anticipating and in the parochial register of baptism is born of God.” inviting that concurrence. The grant may be disbe- The premisses are very different from those suggestlieved the forgiveness may be rejected—the Holy ed by the apostle, and so, it may be supposed, is the Spirit may be resisted and quenched-still, the bap- conclusion. tized person is placed in a favoured position, and if Faith and love, therefore, the source and subafterwards sinning and reclaimed, the penitent re- stance of all holiness, are the scriptural evidences of ceives, not“ the washing of regeneration,” but “the regeneration. These are the worthy proofs that we renewing of the Holy Ghost.”

are the children of God. For to use the words of It might be interesting to inquire, on another oc- the apostle in yet another passage, 1 John i. 29: “If casion, how far these views of the design and efficacy ye know that He is righteous, ye know that every one of baptism are erroneous ; for we fear, that if High that doeth righteousness is born of Ilim."


And these are the appropriate evidences; for re. baptized. All that is recorded of him leads to the generation is described as the necessary cause of opposite conclusion. But he was regenerate ere he holiness; so that whosoever is born of God is infallibly died, for Christ declared that he should be with him in a holy man. The apostle not merely declares (1 paradise; and no one unregenerate can see that blessJohn v. 18) that“ whosoever is born of God sinneth ed place. He was born of water and of the Spirit, for not,” or, as it may be more comprehensively when he entered the kingdom of God; and Christ affirmed more literally rendered, “ Whatsoccer is born of God that no one who was not born of water and of the sinneth not;" but he gives a reason for the asser- Spirit could enter there. tion (ch. ii. 9):“ Whosoever is born of God doth not We trust we have succeeded in showing that commit sin; for his seed remaineth in him, and he regeneration is a real and spiritual change in the cannot sin, because he is born of God.” The reason- heart of him who is the subject of it, and that it is ing here evidently proceeds on the principle of the not necessarily conneoted with baptism. It may hereditary transmission and derivation of qualities, the serve to confirm this view, as well as to illustrate principle that the natural character of the child is several passages of Scripture, including: that last affected by the character of the parents. It was this quoted, if we advert to what are called the means of principle that the Roman poet had in view when he regeneration. To some there may seem to be an denied that one of a pure and disinterested nature impropriety in speaking of means in regard to a “. Potuisse nasci

change which must originate in the direct operation Matre pudenda."

of the Holy Spirit. On the other hand, it is exAnd which the same poet compared to the notorious pressly said that of his own will begat he us with transmission of qualities in the lower animals :

the word of truth, that we should be a kind of first“ Fortes creantur fortibus; et bonis

fruits of his creatures.” (James i. 18.) And Christians Est in juvencis, est in equis patrum

are described as “ being born again, not of corVirtus."

ruptible seed, but of incorruptible, by the word of God, Like blood in horses, the qualities of the sire are which liveth and abideth for ever.” It is plain from transmitted to the son. It is quite unnecessary to Scripture that the heart must be prepared by the inquire with what qualifications this promise must Spirit for the reception of the truth, with its sancti. be maintained in connexion with physiology. We fying power; for the natural man receiveth not the only observe, that so far as it is true, it implies that things of the Spirit of God, neither can he know the very nature and constitution of the child corres- them, for they are spiritually discerned.” The Lord pond with those of the parent; and when it is em- “ opened the heart of Lydia to attend” to the preachployed to illustrate the subject of regeneration, it ing of Paul; and supposing Lydia to have been a declearly and unequivocally intimates that the nature vout worshipper of the true God, it may be strongly of the child of God is so changed as to assume the argued that if such power was necessary to prepare likeness of his heavenly Father.

the mind of an Old Testament believer to receive The same doctrine was taught by our Lord when the truth of the gospel, much more must it be rehe said, “ That which is born of the flesh is flesh, and quired for one who is altogether unawakened to that which is born of the Spirit is Spirit;” and nothing eternal realities. Still we apprehend that this precan more clearly prove that it is a real change of paratory work is not what is meant by regeneration. heart and character, and not a mere relative change it is only when the word has been brought to bear, which is scripturally expressed by the term Rege- partially it may be, yet effectually, on a mind thus neration; and we might at once proceed to the con- prepared, that regeneration can be said to have clusion that it is not affected by baptism, for it is taken place. It may indeed be considered as one scarcely pretended that baptism is invariably pro- work-the Holy Spirit at once opening the heart to dnctive of so radical a change. But the question receive the word, and bringing the word, “ with may be approached from a different quarter, and con- demonstration,” to the heart. Yet we can, in idea, templated in another aspect. Our Lord has said, distinguish the acts. If the man born blind had had * Except a man be born again, he cannot see the the organ of vision restored to soundness in a chamkingdom of God.” He has thus stated the absolute ber perfectly dark, he could not be said to have necessity of regeneration in order to salvation; and passed from darkness to light. It was necessary if regeneration be indissolubly connected with bap- that the luminous rays should fall on his eyeballs tism, then we must infer that, without baptism, no before the great change was made available. Of man can be saved. We do not insist on the odious

course, the merciful Saviour opened his eyes that the nature of this doctrine, especially where no baptism joy of light might cheer his spirit. And so when the is considered valid unless administered by priests Holy Spirit renews the heart, he so adapts it to the Episcopally ordained. High Churchmen themselves truth, that the truth may exert its proper influence have shrunk from the plain assertion of the doctrine, and produce its appropriate effects. And thus the and have had recourse to the fiction of uncovenanted

soul is born again by the word of God, which liveth mercies that may be reserved for the unbaptized. and abideth for ever; and obeying the truth through But they have no right by their fictions to qualify the the Spirit, it is purified unto unfeigned and fervent explicit statements of the Saviour: “ The unregene- love of the brethren. rate cannot enter the kingdom of God, they cannot see This purification of the spirit by the truth of God's the kingdom of God. Ye must be born again.” Such word, is referred to, when the apostle says that is the strict and exclusive language of “ the true “ Christ loved the Church, and gave himself for it, Witness, who shutteth and no man openeth.” If, that he might sanctify and cleanse it with the washtherefore, there be a single instance of an unbaptized ing of water by the word.” Nothing can be more individual being saved, that instance is a proof that unnatural than the notion that “the washing of regeneration is not dependant on baptism. Consi- water" here refers to baptism, and “the word" to der, then, the thief on the cross. There is not the the form of words used in the administration of ti. slightest reason to believe that he had ever been | Any one who considers the object which the Redeemer is said to have contemplated, namely, to "pre- of two editors—Dr John Cumming, and Mr Ingram sent it to himself a glorious Church, not having spot or Cobbin--who are both thorough adepts in the art of wrinkle, or any such thing, but that it should be holy advertising and puffing. Inferior appliances of this and without blemish,” must see that the cleansing re- sort, we doubt not, have contributed their share to ferred to is a vital, and not a ceremonial purification, the unusually rapid sale and very extensive circulaand that it is accomplished by the “word of the tion of the Notes, though not, we admit, without truth of the gospel” being applied to the heart, is to other and more substantial elements of success bewash it from its pollutions, as water cleanses the longing to the Notes themselves. In various rebody.

spects, besides bulk of volume, they form an imWhen this purification of the heart ascribed to the provement on our older general commentaries, and Spirit as the almighty agent, and to the Word of God have a happy combination of properties as regards as the instrument, is deeply considered, we can also their adaptation for popular use. The language is estimate the force and propriety of those passages in clear, intelligible, and appropriate-flowing in an which it is said that “He saved us by the washing easy and agreeable current. The patience of the of regeneration and renewing of the Holy Ghost ;" reader is not tired by the starting of needless quesand that the regenerate man is “born of water and tions, or the display of superfluous learning. Points of the Spirit.” The design and effect of regenera- of inferior moment, and passages not difficult to tion is to bring man from a state of defilement, un- be understood, are slightly touched, and only such cleanness, and pollution, into a state of purity. The selected for more careful examination and more work is, therefore, in its nature a work of ablution. lengthened remark, as really require the aid of a Christ died to purify unto himself a peculiar people, commentator. And, along with this judiciousness in of clean hands and a pure heart; and the change the selection of topics for special illustration, there which he effects upon them, is at once a transition is also a general freedom from bias in the mode of into a state of breath, light, and mutual love, and a handling them, a candour and discrimination in passage from loathsome foulness into comely purity. bringing out the leading scope of particular passages, (Ezek. xvi. 9-14). It is the washing of regenera- and a facility in educing from them a natural or tion. Reader, are you and we thus purified? Are probable meaning. So that any person of ordinary those whom we love yet strangers to this change? intelligence, or even a minister of the gospel, who Let us lead them to the word, whether written in has not leisure or inclination for independent inthe Scriptures or proclaimed from living lips. It is quiries into the meaning of Scripture, will find here, the Spirit's instrument. Let us ask for them, as in the main, a far more direct and useful help for for ourselves, the Holy Spirit also. Our heavenly those purposes, which commonly lead men to have Father will surely give his Spirit to them who ask recourse to a commentary, than the tomes of Henry, him.

Scott, Whitby, or Adam Clarke. The Notes are also

intermingled, but scarcely ever overloaded with inALBERT BARNES NOTES ON THE NEW

structive remarks of a doctrinal and practical pature,

which considerably enhance their value both to the TESTAMENT.

teacher and the private reader; and partly in the These notes now embrace the whole of the New Notes themselves, partly in the introductions to the Testament, excepting the Book of Revelation; with particular Books, a digest is given of all that is neceswhich, however, the author is at present engaged, sary to be known, or that can with certainty be reso that a commentary on that book also may soon lied on, respecting the authors of the several Books, be expected from his prolific pen. The extraordi- and the persons, places, manners, and facts referred Dary success which has attended the publication of to in their writings. Mr Barnes' Notes, is beyond all former examples in There is enough in what has now been noticed this department of literary labour. The Notes on concerning the Notes of Barnes, to account for their the Gospels, in two volumes, which first appeared in attaining to a considerable degree of popularity. 1832, had, so early as 1840, gone through sixteen Then, the vein of thought which pervades them, is impressions, of 2000 each; and the author states, rather of the plain and sensible, than of a profound at the commencement of last April, that no fewer and ponderous kind—not such, therefore, as to make than 200,000 volumes of the Notes generally had by very large demands on the reflective powers of his that time been disposed of in America. In this readers—while the tone of theological sentiment country four separate, and, we believe, large im- maintained in them may be characterized as a sort pressions, have been issuing simultaneously-three of moderate evangelism, fitted generally to please, from the London, and one from the Glasgow press; seldom to offend, the great majority of pious and inand, judging from present appearances, Mr Barnes telligent readers of the Bible. The author rather bids fair to be soon as extensively known and read shuns than courts the field of controversy; and when on this side of the Atlantic as the other.

the subject renders it impossible to avoid a distinct It is possible that some portion of this unexampled utterance of his views on disputed points, he is success may justly be ascribed to the dexterity and neither decidedly Arminian, nor thoroughly Calviskill with which the subsidiary arts of publication nistic in his remarks-to some extent he might be have been plied. The reduction of the form, from ranked with both. Hence the anomaly of Evangelithe stately quarto, or the full-bodied octavo, below cal Episcopalians, Calvinistic Presbyterians, Indewhich nothing used to be thought sufficiently digni- pendents of the Jenkyn and Moses Stuart school, fied for general commentaries, to the small hand- and Wesleyan Methodists, all concurring, with some book size, with a corresponding cheapness in price, slight reservations, to laud the Notes of Barnes, and must alone have operated considerably in their lending each a friendly hand to the blaze of testimofavour. And, however matters may have been nials that so commonly recommend the editions of managed in America, certainly in this country the Mr Cobbin. We do not accuse the author of sacriauthor has been fortunate in obtaining the patronage / ficing his views of Scripture truth, in order to secure this general unanimity; we 'simply refer to the fact | depravity, or simply by imitation. We need no othe as indicating an additional element of popularity in answer to such representations, than the simple fact his productions—a felicity in the authorship which that Mr Barnes, in common with all who have pre contributes its quota to the general acceptability of ceded him in the interpretation of this Epistle, find the works.

it absolutely impossible to deliver a running commenThis sort of eclecticism, however, in the doctrinal tary on the 5th chapter without very distinctly and views of Mr Barnes, while it secures a wider field for emphatically committing themselves to some one the circulation of his commentaries, compels us to particular mode of connexion between Adam's sin withhold from them an unqualified approval. We and the condition of his posterity, as well as to the believe the Calvinism embodied in the Westminster fact of its existence. And not only so, but so much standards to be a fair and impartial representation of does the apostle's manner of statement bear, prima the truth of Scripture; and though we by no means facie at least, the appearance of being throughout deem it to be the peculiar province of a commenta- based on the doctrine of imputation, that no comtor to exhibit its distinctive tenets in so obtrusive mentator, who rejects that doctrine, has ever been and pugilistic a manner as is done by Robert Hal. able to make his way through the portion in question, dane and some others, yet we are fully convinced without being obliged to couple to a large extent the there can be no thoroughly sound, safe, or satisfac- apologetical and defensive with the expository style tory exposition of the doctrinal parts of Scripture, of writing; he has a great many guards and explanawhich does not harmonize with the tenets referred tions to throw in against what seems to be the apostle's to. That Mr Barnes does to some extent depart meaning, and in favour of the peculiar interpretation from the Calvinism of our standards, especially in his he puts on it. Notes on the Epistle to the Romans, where he dis- But to pass from this to the point itself under disavows the doctrine of imputation, both of Adam's sin cussion; Mr Barnes rejects the doctrine of the impuand of Christ's righteousness, and maintains the ab- tation of Adam's sin to his posterity, because he does solute universality of Christ's redemption, admits of not see how any person can be reckoned " blameno doubt. We therefore profess ourselves quite in- worthy or ill-deserving of a sin in which he had no capable of imitating the catholicity of Dr John Cum- agency;" and the connexion, according to him, beming, who not only gives a general commendation of tween the parent and the offspring in this train of Barnes for his “sound theology,” but sends forth the evils, is that merely of natural depravity. “Adam was Notes on Romans with the full breeze of his appoba- the head of the race; he was the fountain of being; tion, as “replete with happy illustrations, and emi- and human nature was so far tried in him, that it nently satisfactory expositions;" and, rising even into may be said he was on trial, not for himself alone, but the prophetical," ventures to predict that his faithful for his posterity, inasmuch as his fall would involve and lucid comments will find a response in the minds, them in ruin. His posterity are, in consequence hearts, and consciences of most Christian readers." of his sin, subjected to the same train of ills, as if We are old-fashioned enough rather to applaud the they had been personally the transgressors. Not course adopted by the Messrs Blaikie of Glasgow, that they are regarded as personally ill-deserving, or who, in their edition of the Notes on Romans, have, criminal for his sin. God reckons things as they by the insertion of occasional paragraphs at suitable are, and not falsely. He regarded Adam as standplaces, drawn attention to the objectionable matter ing at the head of the race; and regards and treats in the original comments, and supplied a few mate all his posterity as coming into the world, subject to rials for a sounder interpretation. We do not under- pain, and death, and depravity, as a consequence of take to decide between the respective merits of the his sin. This is the Scripture idea of imputation, and editions generally, but on this portion of the Notes in this is what has been commonly meant, when it has particular, we would certainly advise our readers to been said, that the guilt of his first sin—not the sin prefer the Glasgow edition to the others.

itself—is imputed to his posterity.”. It would take us too long to point out in detail Mr Barnes is generally a fair writer, but we think what we consider doctrinally erroneous in the expo- he must have had some little misgivings when he sitions of Barnes; but as the root-matter of the whole wrote, that this is precisely what is commonly meant lies in his views on imputation, we must endeavour, by the imputation of Adam's guilt; he must have had however briefly, to sound a note of warning respect some difficulty in concealing from his mind the fact, ing them. It is the more necessary to do this, as that a large proportion of those who use the word there is here such an approach to the truth in imputation at all in connexion with Adam's fall, do some of his statements, and such an appearance of mean some thing more by the term than his statecandour and fairness in the strain of them, that the ment imports, in any fair construction of his words. precise error may easily escape the notice of many “ The posterity of Adam are subjected to the same ordinary readers. It is in the Notes on the 5th chap- train of ills, depravity, pain, death, as if they had ter of Romans that his views on this subject are personally sinned.” True; but why so subjected ? stated. And as is very usual with those who are or how? Is it as a punishment for that one sin-an conscious of holding sentiments regarding it at vari- act of condemnation judicially passed on account of ance with what is reputed orthodox, he is very desi- it, and reaching to all posterity? No, Mr Barnes rous, in the first instance, of making it appear that holds, for this would be to condemn and punish perthe apostle leaves ample room for diversity of opi- sons" for an act, which was done without the concurnion--that he properly gives no deliverance on the rence of their own wills.” But then, this is what is doctrine of original sin—that he merely asserts the commonly meant by those who hold the imputation fact of certain evil consequences having come out of of Adam's guilt. They understand by this term the the fall of Adam, in which his posterity as well as bearing the iniquity of Adam's sin; so that the evil himself are involved, without implying any thing as ensuing comes, not merely as a natural consequence, to the mode of operation or kind of connexion, but as a penalty, an evil judicially inflicted on acwhether it might be by imputation, or by inherent count of sin; it comes from God, not as the natural

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