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world. Biblical students owe a mighty debt to Dr. I shall not soon forget that day. I have been Robinson. What is thought of it at home?" I told hoping at some future time to renew the pleasure of him I thought it was highly appreciated. “ It's well it. But 0! inexorable death! I cannot think that
it is,” said he. “ You Americans, I believe, ap- Dr. Chalmers is dead, and not feel desolate. He has preciate all your own things better than you do your left a void behind him indeed. In that range of own writers.” He manifested considerable interest elevation, at which the eye has been accustomed to in regard to an edition of his own works, which he behold him, it sees nothing now. Je stood alone understood had just been, or was about to be, pub- there, and has died leaving no fellows. lished in this country (America ), and showed I am sometimes asked if Dr. Chalmers had not a that he had a strong affection for his intellectual off- very strong Scotch accent. It seemed to me, that spring. I mentioned his Lectures on the Epistles to in ordinary conversation this was not so apparent as the Romans, which I had read shortly before leaving many have represented it. I recollect hearing the home. “Ah,” said he, “ that was a hasty work. following anecdote related some years ago by a disThe lectures were written currente calamo, thirty years tinguished friend in this country. In company with ago, when I was minister in Glasgow, for my ordi- the Doctor and some other of the Edinburgh literati nary Sabbath afternoon service. Some of the aged at one time, he expressed his surprise that educated people there remembered them, and clamoured for Scotchmen retained so much of the peculiar accent them, and I just sent them, without revision, to the of their country. Dr. Chalmers immediately turned publisber." I said I valued them as a sample of an to him, and said, “What, sir, ye dinna think that I admirable and (in America) much neglected style of ha’e ony o’ the brog, d’ye?”. Now this was une preaching, and expressed the opinion that that method doubtedly a jest. He had a rich and fine accent, of easy exposition, as a common thing, was the best which I loved exceedingly to hear, but he was cer. way of instructing the people. “ You are right,” tainly as free from the “ brog,” except when he replied the Doctor. “ What the people want is ex. sometimes humorously affected it, as myself. The position and application. God's truth is gladium in tones of his voice, according to my recollection, were ragina. The preacher's business is to draw the ordinarily not melodious; but I remember being sword by exposition, and to apply it by cuts and struck with the singular gracefulness and beauty of thrusts at men's hearts and consciences. Make the his inflections, and with the perfect expression, which people understand the Scriptures. This the labori- in animated conversation he invariably gave to every ous and well-furnished minister can do, and theu try, shade of thought or feeling. His words, when there with God's help, to make them feel and do what the would have been no peculiar force in them had they Seriptures teach."
been written, as he uttered them, painted. They After much more similar conversation, in which gave you his idea in a form, kindled and glowing with Dr. Candlish participated, the Doctor said, “Come, the life of his own emotions. It was not my privi. brethren, I can talk better on my feet. Let us go lege to hear him preach, but I can well imagine how into the fields.” And away we went into the fields. he would preach. I can read now his printed disI started now the object most interesting to myself at courses with a new and surprising interest. I can that time-the Disruption, and the Free Church. put them on his own lips, and catch his unprinted On this theme Dr. Candlish was all energy and fire. I can see and feel the play of his living, leaping fire. Dr. Chalmers was less enthusiastic than I thoughts, and surround myself with the moving imaliad expected to find him. He said it was a gery that sprang up almost entirely from the manner great experiment. He had faith in it, and was will. of his utterance. ing with all his heart to give it a trial. He was be The best idea of the Doctor's eloquence that I lieving more and more that God would own the move- have ever received from any attempts at a descripment.
tion of it, I have received, I think, from plain, unIt became necessary for Dr. Candlish to leave us, educated men, who had often heard him, and who to meet a pastoral engagement. As he went away, described rather its effect upon themselves, than his and as soon as he was out of hearing, Dr. Chalmers eloquence itself. said, pointing his finger after him: “ There goes a “Tell me about Dr. Chalmers,” said I to a person very remarkable man; a very great and good man. of this class, with whom I was one day conversing. Scotland could not do without him."
“Oh, Dr. Cha’mers!" (in Scotland almost universally When at length I was forced myself to leave him, the name is spoken as though it were spelt Chawhe said, “ But you shall not go alone; you have taken mers.) “Oh, Dr. Cha’mers !” he replied," he's just a long walk this morning to see me, and now I'll go unlike any man ye ever heard of.” “ Well, but with you, a bit, at least.
what is so peculiar about him?" Indeed, I canna As we were walking towards the city, a little in- just tell; but he quite amazes you, he takes away eident occurred showing the gentleness and kindness your breath.” of his nature. We met a little girl, a daughter to one
heard Dr. Cha'mers ?" inquired another of his neighbours, who, as soon as she saw him, came of me on one occasion. “No, I have not.” “Eh, running up with great glee, to claim a recognition. sir, but you should hear him." “ Have you no " Ah, Maggy,” said the Doctor, “is it you? and how preachers," I asked, “who can do as well as he?” are you this braw day? And how is mother and * Indeed, sir, we've many good preachers; many exAlek?" And stooping dowı, he clasped little Maggy cellent preachers. There's Dr. G- and Mr. in his arms, and kissed her with a will. It was evi- G--, fine men, very fine men; Mr. B
is a very dent from the child's manner that she felt herself fine man, and Dr. C is a powerful gifted peculiarly favoured.
man—a great man; but oh, sir, Dr. Cha'mers! Dr. The Doctor accompanied me to the outskirts of Cha’ıners! he's the man to mak' the rafters roar." the town, where he took his leave, with a hearty Yes, Dr. Chalmers made the rafters roar, I have good-bye and blessing. His “ God be with you,” is no manner of doubt. He amazed people, and took sounding in my ear yet.
away their breath-not more by the striking bril
liancy and originality of his thoughts, than by the and in deeds of hospitality and kindness; exhibiting simple, earnest, natural eloquence with which he in his outward bearing a gravity of deportment, reuttered them. Absorbed himself with his theme, he lieved by courtesy; ' like the cloud turning its silver had the power of absorbing others with it also. lining to the earth;' which corresponded well with When he spoke, he stood in the world of his own the sober strength, deep thoughts, and deep affecmind, and he had the power of drawing up his hearers tions within; all his faculties were sanctified by an with him into the same world, and of holding them earnest and humble piety, and by being devoted while the occasion lasted; or if they were utterly wholly to the service of his God. Of his value and stified there with amazement at what they heard and usefulness in the Church, we need not speak. His saw, he could let them down now and then for continued and important labours in various departbreathing spells, and catch them up again when it ments, and particularly in the one over which he pleased him.
personally presided—that intrusted to the CommitOne of the best evidences of his greatness, is the tee on Sites; and which he conducted with such fact that his popularity never waned. He did not judgment, calm but fervid zeal, resolute firmness, acquire his position by overtaxing his powers at any and delicate propriety, are too well known to the one period of his life, but by doing from the first friends of the Free Church of Scotland, and indeed, what his heart prompted, and what his genius fully to the community at large, to require to be menenabled him to do. The time never came to him, tioned by us. He has been called away before he when with a mind and body enfeebled by over-work, was privileged to see his efforts for freeing our he found himself burdened with a reputation too congregations from the persecution under which mighty to be sustained. Great as was the fame many of them yet suffer, in reference to the matter which he acquired, he did not go beyond himself in last mentioned, crowned with success; but the victory the labours that acquired it. He got it naturally. for which he contended, whensoever won, will be He acted out what was in him, and the fame came mainly owing to the arrangements and preparations to him. Had Dr. Chalmers ever been troubled about so wisely planned and executed by him; and among his “reputation,” had he ever come to that “pinching the tributes to his loss, none will be more touching place” in the paths of ordinary great men, and found or more sincere than the simple and deep sorrow of it necessary to substitute the “ keeping up of his those who, still worshipping in the open air, exposed name,” for the honest, true-hearted, and Christian to the blasts of winter, were looking to him as the motives that had actuated him in the efforts by instrument through whom they might at last obtain which he made it, there would certainly have been the shelter of a roof under which to worship their an abatement before he died of the interest which God after the manner of their fathers. It was not, he excited. But he was above this evil, and above | however, in the Church alone that his value was this folly.
known, and that his loss will be felt and mourned.
In society, throughout a large and extended circle, THE LATE SHERIFF SPEIRS.
reaching to the highest ranks of life, he ever ap
peared in that most winning of all characters-a Chris[We adopt the following tribute and expression of tian gentleman; and in discharging the varied and feeling on this distressing bereavement, from the important duties of his judicial office, he presented Scottish Guardian. It is from the pen of one who knew a model of that still more exalted character-a Chris. intimately our departed friend, and who fully appre- tian magistrate. To a sound and vigorous intellect, ciates and can depict the many and remarkable * well-balanced mind, secure against prejudice and features of his character]:
partiality, an accurate knowledge of law, patient
investigation and untiring attention, he added a “ It is with profound sorrow that we record the strong innate sense of justice, and an earnest philan. death of another of those servants of God who were thropy, which led him to encourage and promote all honoured to take a leading part in the Disruption, regulations and institutions by which that vice and and whose hands were actively employed in building crime, of which he saw so much pass before him up the walls of our Zion. This year, already so when on the bench of judgment, might be prevented fraught with chastisement and sorrow--which has and checked in the bud, or by which its victims witnessed the removal of Chalmers, and Hamilton, might, if possible, be rescued. In every walk of his and Stewart--sees also, ere its close, that of their life he showed the superior excellence which the fellow-worker, Mr. Speirs. The Lord has, indeed, graces of a truly Christian man give to natural gifts chastised us sore, but let us be dumb before Him, and endowments. for it is his hand; and, in the midst of our sorrow, “ He was little beyond fifty in age. His father was 'we can even give thanks for the good accomplish the late Mr. Speirs of Culcreuch, in Stirlingshire ed by his servants, while he was pleased to spare (brother of Mr. Speirs of Elderslie); and his mother them to us. Among the laymen who took part in was of the family of Gartmore, from which he had the contest which preceded the Disruption, and in his Christian name “Graham.' In early life he enthe labours which ensued, there was no one whose tered the navy, but leaving it at the peace, he studied character commanded more respect, or whose ad-for the bar, to which he was called in the year 1820. herence carried more weight. Sound in judgment, Shortly after the accession to power, in 1830, of the prudent in counsel, consistent in walk; with feel- Whigs, of whom he was a consistent supporter, he ings not indeed easily ruffled at the surface, but, was appointed sheriff of Morayshire, from which when stirred to their depths, showing an intensity county he was afterwards transferred to Edinburglı; in accordance with their power; of active and steady giving up, as is required in regard to the sheriffbenevolence, wisely careful, as a steward ought to ships of the counties in which our two metropolitan be, of his substance, but freely spending it with cities are situated, his practice at the bar, which open-hearted liberality, in the relief of distress, in was steadily advancing, with a fair prospect of the support of religion and every work of charity, placing him; ere long, in the higher ranks of his profession. His health, of late years, had not been more under the control of sound scriptural principle robust, but there were no apparent grounds for than the men to whom we have referred. We knew anticipating an early close to his eminently useful him first at Rome the learned and graceful archæocareer. In the beginning of winter he was attacked logist, the acconsplished patron of art, and the centre by the prevailing influenza, and suffered two relapses, of Protestantism in the capital of Popery. We have the last of which issued in the fever that brought to since beheld him in various characters as an author a close his earthly pilgrimage. He had, however, of great power and a diplomatist of high repute, and long borne himself as truly a pilgrim and sojourner,. be now comes before us, in some sense, as the extravelling onward to another and a better coun- ponent of that Church life, and Church spirit, which try; and, with firm faith in the Redeemer who ac- is so stirring and prominent throughout the world in companied and sustained him, he died in the peace, our day. As the friend and confidant of the King and has now entered into the rest, of God.”
of Prussia, moreover, the Chevalier Bunsen, independent of his intrinsic power, is one of those who are
raised up to influence, if not control, many minds; Beviews.
and with his work before us, we would now offer The CONSTITUTION OF THE CHURCH OF THE FUTURE : second, on the system which his book appears to
some remarks, first, on his general principles, and A Practical Explanation of the Correspondence advocate. with the Right Honourable W. GLADSTONE on the
Have our readers been in Germany? Have they German Church, Episcopacy, and Jerusalem, with mingled with its thinking, reading, speculating a Preface, Notes, and the complete Correspondence classes ? If so, they have seen a tall and somewhat of CHRISTIAN CHARLES Josias BUNSEN, D.Ph. and ungainly figure forming the centre of a group of D.C.Q. Translated from the German, under the earnest men. His countenance is florid. His hair superintendence of, and with additions by, the is sand-coloured and long. His eyes are bright Author.*
blue. His gesticulation is animated, or more you This is a work of no limited pretension, arising, as would think that the interests of a kingdom hang its title-page informs us, out of a correspondence be upon his pleading. He has only got hold of some abtween the author and a British statesman regarding straction, true or false, and is beating it out, as some the English Bishopric of Jerusalem. It embraces in men beat gold, till it becomes so attenuated that if its range, at least in prineiple, and by implication, not valueless, it is impalpable. Such is, in some nearly all the great questions regarding the consti- respects, the bearing of our author; but in others, he tution of the Church that have been raised in former departs far from pure Germanisın. He knows that times, or in our own. We call it a work of no existence is not a theory, but a life, and acts accordlimited pretension; for its title would lead us to ingly, combining deep speculation with practical desuppose that “ The Constitution,” which the author tails. Speaking as the advocate of “ the Church of his so eloquently develops, is not designed for any own people, and his own faith, the United Evangelical kingdom, or district, or any local Church. The Che- Church as established in Prussia,” he is earnest, even valier Bunsen contemplates“ The Church of the Future," impassioned, and anxious to be understood. No one and reasons regarding it. We shall subsequently see that reads his work can question his benevolence how far his title is corr
orrect, or his principles ever and generosity; and were it not for the somewhat likely to become embodied realities among earnest ambitious title of the volume, not a few of his tenets Christian men.
would pass unchallenged, nay, with high applause. Germany is proverbially many-minded. For the We mean, were he pleading only for Church-reform past seventy years at least, that country has been in Prussia, his speculations would scarcely require in a mental ferment; and theory after theory, or sys- critique. tem after system, have appeared, each to demolish or Did our space allow, it would be a pleasing task to supersede its predecessor, with a rapidity, and yet advert to our author's sentiments as in many respeots a diversity, which astonishes all thinkers. In more scriptural, catholic, and evangelical. He announces recent times, the Schlegels, with their misty sophisms some of the cardinal doctrines of revelation in a way sapping truth, Schelling, Fichte, and Hegel, with which shows that he feels them. Under the influence their bold Pantheism, dragging man down to the of these truths, blessed by the Spirit of God, to whose lowest deep of selfishness, have poured over Ger- agency Bunsen often pointedly refers, the ultimate many an amount of speculation fitted to upset a “perfection of humanity” is, in his view, the terminus nation more rooted in truth than the Germans can ad quem of political and national life, and we can claim to be. We agree with our author that it is overlook what is romantic or idealizing in the pecu“half-hearted and old womanish” to lament“ over liar opinions of the author, for the sake of such farthe unbridled boldness of German science and philo- reaching truths as the following :-" It is the Chrissophy.” He who makes the wrath of man to praise tian who offers the sacrifice, not the minister.” “No him, will do the same by German Rationalism and merely human mediator is conceivable between the Pantheism. These form a step in the evolution of Christian priesthood (all Christian men), and the Jehovah's decreed and revealed purposes; but that Father; the only possible mediator is the eternal does not hinder wide, lasting, eternal injury from Word become man-the God-man-God the Son.”. meanwhile accruing to the unstable from such affec- But passing from these general views, we approach tations of depth, such realities of inanity, when viewed opinions more immediately connected with the object in the light of eternity, as we often meet with in of the volume before us. Bunsen's mind regarding the Germany.
priesthood is, in many points, antagonistic to that of We do not class Chevalier Bunsen with these the Anglican Church. Gladstone had said that he minds. Though exhibiting not a little of the German looked to “ the Episcopate as the basis of a truly idiosyncrasies, both in his thought and style, he is apostolical institution and discipline,” for the hope • London, 1847.
of recovery from the sins, and scandals, and unwor. thiness of the English Church.” We shall see anon of Luther adopt one platform, the Reformed or Calthat Bunsen has his sphere of Episcopacy also; but vinistic another, and which of them all, or what comunlike the British statesman, the Prussian does not bination or eclectic system formed out of the existrest his hope on that foundation. As to the priest. ing bodies, Bunsen would adopt, we are not able hood, as an Anglican or Romanist understands it, categorically to answer. He rejects the haughty that is for ever at an end, or rather, it has received pretensions of Episcopacy, and argues against them its complement and consummation in the priest who with the vigour of a Presbyterian; he complains of is God; and Bunsen, therefore, equally repudiates the the “stiffness” and the “sternness” of Presbyteri. priestcraft of Romish and of Romanizing Churches. anism; he reasons against the essentially sectarian . The divine Reality,” he says, “ who has entered character of Independentism; but how he would denovisibly and personally into the world, has completed minate, or in what precise category place, his Church the atonement, and, therefore, by his perfect sacri- of the future, it is difficult definitely to tell. We fice, the sin-offering is for ever abolished.” All submit, however, the following general remarks as pretences to priesthood he now declares to be a re- calculated to aid our readers in forming an estimate trogression, for “ mankind has become a priestly com- of the author's principles on the subject. munity; and individual men, as members of that We begin with his views of Church and State. community, are priests--that is, they enjoy immediate He seems, though we would speak with caution, to intercourse with God.” This is, in principle, argue that the Church and the State are formally, thoroughly sound, and might eradicate for ever the though not essentially or actually, the same. The pretensions of Popish and semi-Popish Churchmen. whole nation, according to his view, should belong to And with such convictions as these, we need not the Church, and in the future will do so. To accomwonder to hear our author abjure the pretensions plish the prediction of Malachi regarding the coming of High Churchmen with a most solemn oath. condition of the Church, Bunsen says, that “a ChrisGladstone was startled by the utterance; but Bunsen tian nation, and a Christian State, are required." The was right. Could the sectarian pretences of Angli- whole man, the whole life of man, is claimed by the can Episcopacy be established, it would be on the Christian religion; and to give that religion full scope, ruins of the entire inner life, the heart and the soul every relation, social, civil, economic, temporal and of religion.
eternal, is to be Christianized. So far well, and had The adoption of such views leads our author to be placed his Church of the future in " the new hold other cognate opinions, of no less importance in heavens, or on the new earth,” all would have been deciding the question as to the right conditions of a faultless, both in his Church and his argument. If Christian Church. He repudiates what he calls a he mean by Future-Eternal, we agree with him, and Clergy Church, as completely as he explodes the idea his positions are impregnable. But when we keep in of priesthood in the Popish sense. Wherever the mind his details, as applicable to Germany, which he clergy come to be regarded as a clerical corporation, so patriotically admires, and so enthusiastically lauds, and as such are called “the Church," the spiritual one is prompted to question what power of self-imconscience has been buried under corruptions—Bun- position could have led an author so gifted and prosen says, “ under the cupola of St. Peter's.” In the found, to expect such a Church anterior to the inilMediæval Church, Christian truth was obscured | lennium. “ The universal priesthood of Christians," “obedience to the Church--that is, to the clergy,“ placed at the very head of his treatise,” is unqueshad taken the place of the Eternal Word; and the tionably a scriptural and glorious truth; but then judgment of the Church—that is, of the clergymen it is Christians, not citizens, and our author makes -had superseded the verdict of conscience, and the the two synonymous or co-extensive. He complains exercise of moral responsibility.” Looking thus his- that the Church was merged in the clergy, so that torically at mere clergy Churches, our author sees its corruption was hastened; but do the Scriptures them fraught with corruption; he denounces them warrant us to conclude, that its conditions would be as rags of Pharisaism; and instead of adoptivg better were it merged in the people ? No doubt, he Gladstone's views of the Episcopate, he declares says, that “the full realization of the universal his aversion to any system which attaches dogmatic priesthood requires that all the prime relations of importance to Episcopacy at all—that is, which ele- private life in the family, and public life in the vates it to the rank of a doctrine. The Church
State, and in the Church, should be thoroughly will then, he thinks, take the place of Christ and the leavened ” with right principle. But we return to Spirit. He says, “I have denounced as heresy that our question, Do the Scriptures warrant the exview which asserts as an universal truth, that an his- pectation of such a state of things? Where is the torically descended Episcopate is necessary to the passage of the Word that makes it so clear that the participation of individuals and nations in Christ's Church and the nation, whether in Germany or Church and her promises”-in other words, the Britain, are to be one and the same?* That they Anglican Sectarians are heretics; at least their fun- should be so, is unquestionable; that they will, who damental dogma-no bishop no Church, and no Chris- but a theorist, avoiding the Bible as a whole, will tianity-is, in the Chevalier's view, a heresy.
argue? We have our eye on the author's repeated and Now, with these sound and scriptural elementary admirable aphorism, that Christianity is not merely principles, of which we have given but a specimen, a doctrine-it is a life; but whether we take the idea it might be supposed that no great difficulty would of doctrine or life, bis view of the Church of the be felt in discovering what the Chevalier regards as a future appears equally Utopian. He says, with right Church condition; and yet, we must confess, characteristic ardour and patriotism, that the time that after studying his volume with all the care we has come when the Established Evangelical Church could command, we have not yet exactly discovered of Prussia may "present to the world a free, what Church principles he would adopt. Popery,
. We confess that we are not German enough to understand nur Presbyterianism, and a mongrel system belonging to author, where he speaks of " citizens strong through faith, like neither, exist side by side in Prussia. The followers
Jeremiah and Cato.
national, thoroughly popular community, which the most thoughtful study, will be limited in its shall recognise itself, and claim to be regarded by effects. others, as a branch of the catholic Church of As we advance in the study of this volume, our Christ.” We may grant it, but will that realize wonder increases when we notice how soundly the Bunsen's view of a nation of Christianized men; in author reasons on some of the points which emerge. other words, will the Church and the nation be For example, he announces the truth that Christ is commensurate? Never, until, on the one hand, the Head of the Church, and at a subsequent page there arise some spiritual Procrustes, or on the he argues that His body should be utterly indepenother, the day of millennial glory dawn. Our author dent. He says: “So long as the Church has not makes his Church not an εκκλησια, but Οι πολλοι. sufficient faith to cast away those police crutches on
We pass, then, from this wholesale view of the which she bas become a complete cripple, she is Church and nation to consider some details. Our not the Church of which we speak;" yet in the very author, again and again, speaks of the separate spheres next page he argues thus : "Let the State, as the legal of the ecclesiastical and the civil in a nation. While guardian of the minor, continue to oblige baptized he wishes the body politic to comprise things human parents, who have not become Baptists, to bring their and divine, he thinks that the civil and ecclesiastical children to baptism. We should hardly think this administration of a State by its parliaments and course required any explanation. No one who has a synods, respectively, are two different streams of the voice among the German people will think it an act one rational life, and that the purity of those streams, of despotisın. ....." Probably not; but some-many and the healthfulness of this life, will be best insured –millions in Britain will presume to do so. The State by their complete separation." He does not wish his may compel a recusant parent to register a birth; but Church to be “a State Church.” Such a Church he with baptism, a sacrament of the Church, the State, calls a "dangerous political institution;" and antici- as such, can, in the nature of things, have nothing to pates only corruption for itself, and persecution for do. Indeed, this sentiment, so boldly avowed by our other bodies, from it. In contradistinction, he aims author, may be regarded as a key to many passages at a National Church; and he says, “the difference in his work. The view which it advocates terminates between these two is very great. A State Church our surprise that the theory of “The Church of the is exclusive; and, therefore, persecuting and oppres- Future” is apparently so diverse from Scripture. sive: the National Church (that is, we suppose, the Had any doubt existed as to the view we have Church comprising the entire nation) is in nowise so. taken of Bunsen's Church principles, that doubt The one is the Church of the clergy—the other, a would be dispelled when, in a subsequent passage, Church of the people;" and yet, with these distinc he treats it as a matter “of course" that the Sovetions, which are so far sound, we find the Chevalier reign must approve of the decrees of the Church. giving so large a share of the government of this He is virtually its head; and who will deny that the Church to the king, to the king's ministers, and Church thus contemplated is not the Church of the councillors of State elected just to manage the eccle- New Testament? Indeed, we cannot but conclude siastical institution, that we suspect our interpreta- that the distinction between the things of God and the tion of his language. While he speaks, at one place, things of Cæsar is practically set aside. “ParliamENT of "the spiritual sovereignty of the whole congrega- AND CHURCH CAN ONLY FIND THEIR POINT OF UNION IN tion;" at another, he lets in, by a wide door, the THE ROYAL AUTHORITY; THEY ARE ENTIRELY DISTINCT entire Erastian element, and undesignedly lays a UP TO THAT POINT.”—That is a sentiment held by the foundation for a despotism as complete as ever harass- able author of “ The Church of the Future.” The ed the bodies and trampled on the consciences and Word of God is not the rule for the two. The king spiritual rights of men. What can be more abso- is the master of both. Is not the Chevalier's own lutely Erastian than the following:-“ Let ecclesias- sentiment, that “true political wisdom ..... should tical matters belong to the Church, civil matters to believe that full liberty of conscience (to the Church the State; but with this plain understanding, that the as well as individuals), and, therefore, of religious life State in all particular cases in which there is a dispute as (life according to the Word of God), can never do to the boundaries of Church and State, can recognise no harm to truth and religion,” fatal to his own theory? higher judge on earth than the law of the State.” This But we must hasten our remarks to a close. Had is well nigh Hobbism; it is painfully familiar in we gone elaborately into the work, it would have Scotland as unmitigated Moderatism.
been requisite to dwell at length on various other When we read such a sentiment as that which we topics. Our author, for example, earnest and prohave put in italics, one is tempted to surmise that found as he is, sees no incongruity in holding up our author has scarcely planted one firm footstep the Church of Prussia as a model, though in that within the proper ecclesiastical or spiritual domain. land the Popish and the Protestant Churches are By substituting nation for Church, he brings in the both supported by the State. With an honesty national rulers often pari passu with the ecclesiastical, which amounts to naivetė, the Chevalier tells us nay, as their lords paramount; and not one sentiment in his appendix, that, according to the last pubdo we find strictly akin to that radical maxiin, that lished accounts of the expenditure of the State, Christ hath appointed office-bearers in his Church the Roman Catholic Church receives altogether distinct from the civil magistrate, and, in their own 712,215 dollars, the Protestant only 239,775, province, the Church-the spiritualia—independent although the Protestants form nearly two-thirds of of them. After what has recently been done, upon the population. As regards the Rhenish provinces, a national scale, in Scotland, our author, profound the Roman Catholics (1,889,000 in number) draw as he is, might have deigned to face, and discuss 293,000 dollars; the Protestants (590,000 in number) the clear, scriptural, and unchallengeable principle only 33,274.” Now, when error is thus put not so often asserted, so triumphantly vindicated among merely abreast but far ahead of truth, without remonus. He has not done so; and the result is, that, de- strance or objection, can we marvel at the disjointparting from Scripture, his book, though deserving edness of the theory laid before us by our author? We