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“ • Anna Catherine Egger, who was paralytic and lame, priest before the altar, and after having curtsied, took out a was publicly brought to the grave of the saint, and there, in á gilded box, which he held up; whereupon a servant boy few moments, received the full use of her stiffened limbs.' tingled the ritual bell, and all the vast crowd bowed down

“ • At Silten in Wallis lived the daughter of Michael Weibel, their heads, as Hindus would do at the presence of Juggernaut. who had been three whole months quite blind.

No sooner

This done, the priest withdrew his box, the attendant extinhad she promised a pilgrimage to the grave of the Holy guished the candles of the altar, and for a moment all was Nicholas than she received her sight. In the perfect use of silent. Then followed a bell from a distant altar in the east her eye-sight she accompanied her father to Saxeln, there to end of the cathedral, at which again all the crowd bowed down; return thanks to the saint and fulfil her vow.'

and boys were seen rushing off with the candles from this " John Weler, a man of Brienz, in Canton Berne, had so second 'altar to the vestry. After this dumb show, forth wounded his eye, as to cause blindness. Medicine proving stood a coarse, soulless-looking old priest, with a fleshy, hanguseless, he came to Saxeln, and whilst praying at the grave of ing under lip, which seemed as if it had quarrelled with its the saint, his eye was made whole again.'

fellow, never more to meet, who rose into the pulpit; and * • Mary Elizabeth Laggar was dumb from her birth to her there, without prayer, without once looking at the people, conseventh year. Her parents then undertook a pilgrimage to the tinued to read for a quarter of an, bour, from a quarto black grave of the Holy Nicholas; and the same day their child book, and from separate bits of paper, while the great bell of began to speak.'

the cathedral drowned his voice with its roar. ..... *** Nicholas of Einwili, a ‘landman' at Sarnen, became quite blind by a sad accident. The sixth day they conducted

EVENING PRAYERS. him to the grave of the Holy Nicholas, where, with many "After dinner we heard the bell of the village chapel at Brun. tears, he offered his prayer. Accomplishing nothing there, ner, and hastened to the vespers. The service was worthy of they were obliged to lead him back to his home again blind! Catholicism. Though the priest was ill, this presented noim. but in the following night a voice called to him to look np; pediment, as another functionary officiated in his room. About he did so, and found that he really saw. His sight continued, ten little girls, headed by three old women, were arranged and he enjoyed it during the rest of his life.'

close to the door of the chapel; and within the iron railing round “ • Egidius Murer had a little son, who accidentally got a the altar, at the other extremity of the building, was a man in piece of pointed wood so deeply forced into his neck, that his a fustain jacket, with his boys. The north side was occupied mother, at her second attempt, could scarcely draw it out. A by the man, who was aided by three boys, of whom one was severe swelling arose from this wound. They carried him to without his coat; and two other boys knelt on the south side. the grave of Saint Nicholas, where the swelling disappeared, The two parties within and without the railing kept up such and the wound, which was horrible to behold, was imme- a rattling recitative as could scarcely be matched. First the diately healed.''

fustain man and his boys gabbled fast and loud, then the girls "• The first day after his burial Nicholas appeared to his gabbled as fast and loud in return; on which up rose the boy pious wife Dorotbea, and to other pious acquaintances. He in bis shirt sleeves, and aided the discord by tolling the chapel stood on the so named Flüleiu, where the handsome chapel is bell; and at this signal a boy on the south side of the altar now erected, and gave out from his person such wonderful started from his knees to pull another bell; while the fustian glory that people's eyes could hardly bear it: he held a white man and all the boys and girls precipitated their rival roaring, banner in his hand, which he waved victoriously and joyfully.' till the bells, the boys and

girls, the old women, and the man By such lies have the priests of Unterwalden been main- of fustain, made up such a thundering melodrame, as became taining the impious practice of saint worship and image wor. the land of storms and cataracts, of avalanches and earth-slips. ship, among a simple people, in aid of the Harlot Church of The performance being ended, out rushed the man of fustain, the Apocalypse, and of the pretended Vicar of Christ; the end with all the children, pell-mell, without a moment's interval, of whose tyranny is thus predicted by St Paul: "Then shall like school-boys rushing out to play; and I saw him take his that wicked (one) be revealed, whom the Lord shall consume place among the boatmen on the little wooden pier, like a with the spirit of his mouth, and shall destroy with the bright- sheep which, when released from the shearer, walks to its ness of his coming: even him whose coming is after the work- companions, and shakes itself with a sort of cold and uncoming of Satan, with all power, and signs, and lying wonders, fortable satisfaction that the annoyance is over. ..... and with all deceivableness of unrighteousness in them that perish; because they received not the love of the truth that

THE JESUITS OF LUCERNE. they might be saved. And for their cause God shall send them “To the right of the hotel, acros the Reuss, rises the capastrong delusion, that they should believe a lie. This strong cious church of the Jesuits; to the left, still nearer, is the delusion still reigns among these lovely mountains; evangelic cathedral; both are consecrated to a sour superstition; and preaching is prohibited, and miraculous medals of the Queen along the promenade, between these churches, it is surprising of Heaven, or prayer to Bruder Klaus, have superseded trust to see how many priests present themselves to the public view. in the Redeemer.

Old priests and young priests, Jesuits in their broad hate, “For a few minutes we halted before the church of Saxeln, looking like educated men, and friars of coarser stupidity. and entered to see the trophies of Bruder. The eight columns, But one priest I especially viewed with dislike.

He was a each of one piece of marble from the quarries of the Melchthal, fine-looking man, followed by a servant in livery: Two sleek are not the chief treasure of the Church. For there lie Bru- and rotund priests, whose obésity was radiant with smiles, and der's bones beneath the high altar, and there is his holy cell. on whose cheeks the perspiration seemed to exude the gravy Pictures and offerings without number celebrate his achieve of the last jollification, lackeyed him one on each side; bements in favour of bis suppliants. Believe the storied walls, tween whom he stalked in full-blown clerical pretension, the and you might expect to bear a charmed life, which neither very beau ideal of ecclesiastical pomposity. Huge calves and fire nor flood, neither frost nor precipice, nor epidemic, ma delicate ankles, resplendent in lilac silk, supported his enorlady, nor hostile rage could harm, if you only supplicate his mous trunk, with its array of ornaments : more corpulent than favour. But we did not see all. Costly robes, it is said, his well-fed clerical lackeys, he was likewise so tall, that they covering the skeleton, leave bare only the bony hands and were obliged to simper upwards when they turned towards the skull; ` into the holes where eyes were wont to inhabit, there sunshine of his Prelatic condescension. He looked exactly have crept, as t'were in scorn of eyes, reflecting gems;' and at

what he was the Nuncio of the Pope, Monseigneur Macisti, stated times the skinless idol, with its stone eyes, comes forth Archbishop of Colosse, &c.; and to him, in concert with these to'grin horribly a ghastly smile' upon the enthusiastic pil- restless and aspiring Jesuits, must be ascribed tho intolerance grims for the benefit of the cool, calculating priests. How of the canton. No man in that canton dares to express an soon will Catholics learn that there is one God and one opinion against the Church of Rome, on pain of fine and imMediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus ?... prisonment; no man dares to give an evangelical tract to bio A CATHEDRAL SERVICE.

neighbour; all discussion of religious truth is prohibited; to “ On Sunday, at half-past eight, I visited the cathedral at Lu

be a Protestant is to be stripped of all political rights, and even

a Catholic must lose them if his wife be a Protestant. Thanks cerne which was nearly full, while crowds were still arriving to the Nuncio, the Jesuits, and the priests, this is the law of I could not stay to the conclusion; but never did I attend a the whole confederation of the Sonderbund. ..... more stupid service, as far as I could judge. First, I heard some discordant rattling of the priests, intended to be a chant,

KING LEOPOLD-CRUCIFIXES. in the obscurity behind the great altar : then came forward a “On our road to Stein we bad met the carriages of the

King of the Belgians, on his way to Zurich; and we now oc- mother a beggar;—had accompanied her mother from earliest cupied the room where his majesty had dined. It is said that childhood, and been three times convicted of public begging; be is tired of the cares of Government, not strong in health, -could not read when she entered the school-has improved and has a fixed melancholy; I should not wonder at any quickly in her lessons, and has given satisfaction in all respects potentate wishing, like Charles V., to descend from the cold to her teachers. and stormy altitudes of Government, to enjoy with less re- "A.M—, a boy aged thirteen, lost his parents early in life, straint the pleasures of literatare and friendship; but he has and had since subsisted by begging ;- was sent from the Police more reason than most monarchs to do so. A Protestant at Office;-had for a length of time before admission to the the head of a Catholic nation seems to me in a false position. School, no home, and had been allowed by an old woman to King Leopold has thought himself obliged to attend mass, has sleep at the outside of her door on a common stair;-was in a walked in a Catholic procession, and has assisted at a Catholic fearful state from neglect;-was, through charity of a lady, ceremony, where a splendid idol, representing the Queen of after his entrance to the School, provided with a lodging, Heaven, was crowned by the officiating priest. If conscience from which, however, he several times deserted, appearing is not killed by such practices, it must feel very sick. The to find much discomfort in being housed. He is now clean, obligation to countenance prostration before idols, is a high contented, and happy, and is making good progress in the price to pay for a crown. The crucifixes by the way-side after School, and in all respects giving satisfaction to the teacher. leaving Stein, on the road to Basle, show the traveller that he "R. M- a girl of eleven years of age, came to the School is still in Argovie. These Catholic insults to the Redeemer after a second conviction for theft;—fatherless, and the eldest always move my indignation. Sometimes the thing to which of five children, all dependent on a worthless drunken stepthe Catholics bow down is made with the face of a simpleton, father;—could not read;- was at first unmanageable;—is now sometimes it is as black as a brigand; often the figure is mis- making good progress at her lessons, and has become a good shapen, occasionally it wants an arm or a leg, sometimes it steady girl. seems to have the yellow jaundice, and not frequently it is as "J.H—-, a boy seven years old, sent from the Police Court dirty as though it had not been washed for half a century. And as a well-known juvenile mendicant, whose residence was in to this they bow down, as though it represented the glorious, stairs, or wherever he could find shelter;-deserted from almighty, omnipresent, and eternal Son of God, the Monarch School thirteen times, but either returned of his own motive, of nations, the Maker of worlds. May he forgive them !" or was sent back by the Police. All hope of reclaiming this Mr Noel met, at Geneva, with a red-hot Residuary, who, be appeared with a sister of nearly his own age. Both have

boy seemed past, when, after an absence of nine or ten weeks, after charging John Calvin with "atrocious bigotry and exe

done well, and are now good and orderly children. crable cruelty" in the matter of Servetus, proceeded to fasten “J.T—, a girl eleven years of age, known to the Police as upon the Free Church:

a thief and vagrant;-was sent from the Police Office;-had “ My friend of the table d'hôte then fell upon the Free previously slept in stairs in company with a brother about the Churchmon. They were desperate bigots, and especially Can.

same age;-deserted once, but returned of her own accord, on dlish, who had said, that in the largest Highland parishes, the brother being apprehended for stealing ;-has since reguwhere there was no Free Church congregation, a Free Church | larly attended; and seems now a good and clever girl.” man should rather go nowhere to church, than go to hear a These cases afford true specimens of the children composing minister of the Establishment. My defence of my Scotch the School, and of the general result of attendance. The brethren was of course easier than that of the reformer: * How did their accuser know that Candlish had said so? If this Committee have not expected, and do not expect, in all cases was said in a moment of excitement, when great sacrifices had decided and permanent reformation to follow; but in the just been made, when one part of the Establishment was un- great majority, the effect of attendance for any length of time evangelical, and when the other part had just deserted their has been seen to be, even on those at first apparently most avowed principles respecting Church government, it was not to hopeless, a marked change of character; and they cannot but be taken as Dr Candlish's fixed opinion. I had known that think that the charity has already turned into useful members Dr Candlish had nobly renounced position and income for conscience' sake; I had shared with him in delicate discus- of society many, who, but for it, would have proved its worst sions, in which I admired his moderation and self-possession; enemies. The good seed, which, by the blessing of God, has and till we had made great sacrifices for the truth ourselves, been sown, is already seen advancing. we should be slow to accuse some of the best men in our day, The Gospel in Advance of the Age : Being a Homily for the who had made them.'

“ • But at least," said another friend at the table d'hôte, Times. By the Rev. ROBERT MONTGOMERY, M.A. * they effected the Disruption of the Church for a point of dis

Edinburgh. cipline, and not for any fundamental doctrine of Christianity.' *** Still,' I replied, ' we must maintain Christ's commands,

This is a third and carefully revised edition of Mr Montwhether relating to doctrine or discipline: and one of the gomery's work. A formal review of it would involve a points for whicâ they contended was the veto of the congre- general discussion of the author's literary merits and defects gation upon the appointment of the pastor-a point which they -a task for which, at present, we have neither leisure nor believed to be essential to doctrine, as well as discipline, For, inclination, the more especially as we observe that the subject let the paper creed of an Establishmont remain untouched, yet, if bad men are appointed to be pastors, the living doctrine is handled with spirit and judiciousness in the last Number of becomes false, while the written doctrine remains true: and our respected cotemporary, the Presbyterian Review, in whose the appointments in Scotland being gonerally in the hands of criticism we, for the most part, concur. “ The Gospel in strangers to their Church, many of whom were irreligious Advance of the Age” is, in our opinion, the reverend gentlemen, they believe that they might have had false doctrine in man's best work, although marked by very glaring defects, half the pulpits of Scotland, if the congregations had renounced both in style and sentiment. Perhaps we ought to advert their old right of call, or consented to let it becone again a nullity.' ..

particularly to an extraordinary discovery which he has made

regarding the Free Church. He says:-Eight Months' Experience of the Edinburgh Original Rogged or Industrial Schools, conducted on the prin in Scotland, when the Establishment of that country was

“ Having been present at the Disruption which took place ciples advocated by the Rev. Thomas Guthrie.-Reported split into two bodies, and intimately acquainted with many of by the Committee of Monagement.

those who were considered leaders and guides on both sides

of the controversy; the writer can attest, from personal witWe have perused this report with extreme interest and

ness, that perhaps a greater amount of religious earnestness pleasure. It is drawn up with tact and judgment, and pre- never heaved and convulsed the heart of a great aud thinking sents us with a most encouraging prospect of the good likely to people. An Episcopalian, then, who differs toto caló from be effected by this new device of our religious philanthropy. the Geneva ideas of ecclesiastical polity, can yet admire the

heroism and revere the self-sacrificing magnanimity of those Various individual instances of benefit are mentioned :- members of the Free Kirk,' who contended for the Headship

"A. 8--, a girl of twelve years of age, fatherless, and her of Christ, as the Spiritual' King of the Church. Still, he

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hopes, his Scottish friends will not take umbrage, when he and departing again during the summer; and, as each brigade regrets that, in their contention for the headship of Christ is commanded by a chief factor, trader, or clerk, there is a over the Church, they did not remember that Christ is head constant succession of new faces, which, after a long and dreary over political society also. In their fiery zeal against winter, during which the inhabitants never see any stranger, Erastian encroachments and laical patronage, some of our

renders the summer months at York factory the most agree brethren drew so dangerous and deep a contrast between a able part of the year. The arrival of the ship from England, political and ecclesiastical society, as virtually disenthroned too, delights them with letters from home, which can only be the Redeemer from his headship over ali civil and social in- received twice a-year. stitutions. They seemed to forget, that Christ is not only a “ The fort (as all establishments in the Indian country, spiritual head, but a universal monarch.” (P. 74.)

whether small or great, are called) is a large square, I should We hope Mr Montgomery “ will not take umbrage ” when should think about six or seven acres, enclosed within

high we say that he evidently knows nothing of Free Church prin- miles from its mouth. The houses are all of wood, and of

stockades, and built on the banks of Hayes River, nearly five ciples. If he had known them he would never have written course bave no pretension to architectural beauty; but their anything so grossly and discreditably incorrect. Had he read clean white appearance, and regularity, have a very pleasing any of our authoritative documents, he would have been effect on the eye. Before the front gate stand four large brass aware that, so far from “dethroning the Redeemer from his field-pieces; but these warlike instruments are only used for

the purpose of saluting the ship with blank cartridge, on her headship over all social and civil institutions," that sacred

arrival and departure, the decayed state of the carriages ren“Headship”-involving, as it does, the subjection of the nations dering it dangerous to load the guns with a full charge. to Christ, and their obligation to legislate in all things accor- “The country is flat and swampy, and the only objects that ding to his will—is formally and solemnly founded on by us as rise very prominently above the rest, and catch the wandering a chief plea against the conduct of our Legislature.

eye, are a lofty "outlook' of wood, painted black, from

which to look out for the arrival of the ship; and a flag-staff, Theocracy: or, the Principles of the Jewish Religion and

from which on Sundays the snowy folds of St George's flag and Society adapted to all Nations and Times. By the flutter in the breeze." Rev. R. CRAIG, Rothesay.


The climate, we are told, is very disagreeable in the warm We have not as yet had time to peruse this work with the care which would enable us to review it as it deserves, but months of the year; but during the winter, which lasts four hope to be able to do so before next month. We may, how- months, the intensity of the cold renders it healthy. ever, state at present that no one can read many pages of it “During part of summer the heat is extreme, and millions without discovering that it is a work of much ability and of flies, mosquitoes, &c., render the country unbearable. value.

Fortunately, however, the cold soon extirpates them. Scarcely

anything in the way of vegetables can be raised in the small Hudson's Bay; or, Every-day Life in the Wilds of North spot of ground called, by courtesy, a garden. Potatoes one

America, during Six Years' Residence in the Territories of year, for a wonder, attained the size of walnuts: and somethe Honourable Hudson's Bay Company.

times a cabbage and a turnip are prevailed upon to The Hudson's Bay Company was formed in the year 1669, grow. Yet the woods are filled with a great variety of wild

berries, among which the cranberry and swampberry are conunder the direction of Prince Rupert, for the purpose of sidered the best. Black and red currants, as well as goose prosecuting the fur-trade in the regions surrounding the Bay. berries, are plentiful, but the first are bitter, and the last The Company obtained a charter from Charles II., conveying small. The swampberry is in shape something like the rassto them the sole right of trading in all the country watered berry, of a light yellow colour, and grows on a low bush, by rivers flowing into the Bay, and authorizing them to pre

almost close to the ground. They make excellent preserves,

and together with cranberries, are made into tarts for the vent any other company from carrying on trade with the

mess during winter. In the month of September there are patives on their territories. The Company prospered exceedingly, and soon pushed their trade far beyond the chartered generally a couple of weeks or so of extremely fine went here

which is called the Indian summer; after which, winter, with limits; and now their forts, agents, and hunters are to be frost, cold and snow, sets in with rapidity. For a few weeks found from the Atlantic to the Pacific Oceans, and from within in October there is sometimes a little warm weather (or the Arctic Circle to the Northern boundaries of the United rather, I should say, a little thary weather), but after

that, until the following April, the thermometer seldom rises States. The territories are divided into four departments; these

to the freezing point. In the depth of winter the thermometer again into districts; and these into establishments, forts, posts, falls from 30° to 40°, 45°, and even 49° below zero of Fahrenand outposts. The latter, of course, are but thinly scat- heit. This intense cold, however, is not so much felt as one tered—so thinly, that our author, wishing to give an idea of might suppose, as, during its continuance, the air is perfectly their distance and solitude, asks his reader to imagine “popu- calm. Were the slightest breath of wind to arise when the lous Great Britain converted into a wilderness, and planted thermometer stands so low, no man could show his face to it

for a moment. Forty degrees below zero, and quite calm, is in the middle of Rupert's Land; the Company in that case

infinitely preferable to 150 below, or thereabouts, with a strong would build three forts in it—one at the Land's End, one in breeze of wind. Spirit of wine is of course the only thing Wales, and one in the Highlands ; so that in Britain there that can be used in the thermometers, as mercury, were it would be but three hamlets, with a population of some thirty exposed to such cold, would remain frozen nearly half the

winter._Spirit nerer froze in any cold ever experienced at men, half-a-dozen women, and a few children.” The following is the account given of York factory, one of the largest water; and even then, the spirit would remain liquid in the

York Factory, unless when very much adulterated with district establishments :

centre of the mass. “York factory is the principal depôt of the Northern de- “To resist this intense cold, the inhabitants dress, not in furs, "partment, from whence all the supplies for the trade are issued, as is generally supposed, but in coats and trousers made of and where all the returns of the department are collected and smoked deer-skins; the only piece of fur in their costume shipped for England. As may be supposed, then, the estab- being the cap. The houses are built of wood, with double lishment is a large one. There are always between thirty and windows and doors. They are heated by large iron stoves, forty men resident at the poșt, summer and winter; generally fed with wood; yet so intense is the cold, that I have seen the four or five clerks, a post-master, and a skipper for the small stove in places red-hot, and a basin of water in the room schooners; and the whole is under the direction and superin- frozen solid. The average cold, I should think, is about 15° tendence of a chief factor, or chief trader.

or 16° below zero, or 48° of frost. The eountry around is a " As the winter is very long, nearly eight months, and the complete swamp; but the extreme shortness of the warm summer consequently very short, all the transport of goods weather and the consequent length of winter, fortunately preto, and returns from, the interior, must necessarily be affected vents the rapid decomposition of vegetable matter. Another as quickly as possible. The consequence is, that great num- cause of the unhealthiness of the climate during summer, is bers of men and boats are constantly arriving from inland, the prevalence of dense fogs, which come off the bay and en

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shroud the country, and also the liability of the weather to to Stemaw's wigwam, and to throw the shadows of the neighsudden and extreme changes."

bouring trees upon the pale snow, which crunches under our The trade carried on by the Company is in skins of all

feet as we advance, owing to the intenso cold. No wind

breaks the stillness of the night, or shakes the lumps of snow sorts, oil, dried and salted fish, feathers, quills, &c. &c. off the branches of the neighbouring pines or willows; and

* Beaver, in days of yore, was the staple fur of the country; nothing is heard save the occasional crackling of the trees as but, alas ! the silk hat has given it its death-blow, and the the severe frost acts upon thoir branches. The tent, at which star of the beaver has now probably set for ever-that is to we soon arrive, is pitched at the foot of an immense tree, say, with regard to men; probably the animals themselves

which stands in a little hollow where the willows and pines fancy that their lucky star has just risen. The most profitable are luxuriant enough to afford a shelter from the north wind. fur in the country is that of the marten. It somewhat resem- Just in front, a small path leads to the river, of which an exbles the Russian sable, and generally maintains a steady price.

tensive view is had through the opening, showing the long These animals, moreover, are very numerous throughout most

fantastic shadows of huge blocks and mounds of ice cast upon part of the Company's territories, particularly in M'Kenzie's the white snow by the flickering moonlight. A huge chasm, River, whence great numbers are annually sent to England.

filled with fallen trees and mounds of snow, yawns on the left * All the above animals and a few others are caught in steel of the tent, and the ruddy sparks of fire which issue from a and wooden traps by the natives; while deer, buffaloes, &c., hole in its top, throw this and the surrounding forest into aze run down, shot, and spared in various ways, the details o deeper gloom. The effect of this wintry scene upon the mind which will be found in another part of this volume.

is melancholy in the extreme-causing it to speed across the " Trade is carried on with the natives by means of a stan- bleak and frozen plains, and visit again the warm fireside and dard valuation, called in some purts of the country a castor.

happy faces in a far distant home; and yet there is a strange This is to obviate the necessity of circulating money, of which

romantic attraction in the wild woods that gradually brings it there is little or none excepting in the colony of Red River. back again, and makes us impatient to begin our walk with Thus an Indian arrives at a fort with a bundle of furs, with the Indian. Suddenly the deer-skin robe that covers the which he proceeds to the Indian trading-room. There the aperture of the wigwam is raised, and a bright stream of warm trader separates the furs into different lots, and, valuing each light gushes out, tipping the dark green points of the opposite at the standard valuation, adds the amount together, and tells trees, and mingling strangely with the paler light of the moon the Indian (who has looked on the while with great interest

--and Stemaw stands erect in front of his solitary bome, to and anxiety) that he has got fifty or sixty castors; at the same gaze a few moments on the sky, and judge of the weather, as time he hands the Indian fifty or sixty little bits of wood in he intends to take a long walk before laying his head upon lieu of cash, so that the latter may know, by returning these

his capote for the night. He is in the usual costume of the in payment of the goods for which he really exchanges his Cree Indians : a large leathern coat, very much overlapped in skins, how fast his funds decrease. The Indian then looks front, and fastened round his waist with a scartet belt, protects round upon the bales of cloth, powder-horns, guns, blankets,

his body from the cold. A small rat-skin cap covers his head, knives, &c., with which the shop is filled, and after a good and his legs are cased in the ordinary blue cloth leggins. while makes up his mind to have a small blanket. This being Large moccasins, with two or three pair of blanket socks, given him, the trader tell him that the price is six castors; clothe his feet, and fingerless mittens, made of deer-skin, comthe purchaser hands back six of his little bits of wood, and plete his costume. After a few minutes passed in contemplaselects something else. In this way he goes on till all his tion of the heavens, the Indian prepares himself for the walk. wooden cash is expended, and then packing up his goods, de

First he sticks a small axe in his belt, serving as a counterpoise parts to show his treasures to his wife, and another Indian to a large hunting-knife and fire-bag which depend from the takes his place. The value of a castor is from one to two other side. He then slips his feet through the lines of his shillings. The natives generally visit the establishments of snow-shoes, and throws the line of a small hand-sledge over the Company twice a year-once in October, when they bring his shoulder. The hand-sledge is a thin flat slip or plank of in the prodoce of their autumn hunts, and again in March, wood, from five to six feet long by one foot broad, and is when they come in with that of the great winter hunt. turned up at one end. It is extremely light, and Indians in

"The number of castors that an Indian makes in a winter variably use it when visiting their traps, for the purpose of hant varies from fifty to two hundred, according to his perse- dragging home the animals or game they may have caught. Terence and activity, and the part of the country in which he Having attached this sledge to his back, he stoops to receive hunts. The largest amount I ever heard was by a man called his gun from his faithful squaw, who has been watching bis Piaquata-Kiscum, who brought in furs, on one occasion, to operations through a hole in the tent; and throwing it on his the value of two hundred and sixty castors. The poor fellow shoulder, strides off, without uttering a word, across the moonwas soon afterwards poisoned by his relatives, who were jea- lit space in front of the tent, turns into a narrow track that lous of his superior abilities as a hunter, and envious of the

leads down the dark ravine, and disappears in the shades of favour shown him by the white men.

the forest. Soon he reaches the termination of the track " After the furs are collected in spring at all the different (made for the purpose of reaching some good dry trees for fireoatposts, they are packed in conveniently sized bales, and for- wood), and, stepping into the deep snow with the long, regular, warded, by means of boats and canoes, to the three chief de firm tread of one accustomed to snow-shoe walking, he winds pots on the sea-coast-namely, Fort Vancouver at the mouth his way rapidly through the thick stems of the surrounding of the Columbia River, on the shores of the Pacific; York trees, and turns aside the smaller branches of the bushes. Fort, on the shores of the Hudson's Bay; and Moose Factory, The forest is now almost dark, the foliage over-head hav. on the shores of James' Bay, whence they are transported in

ing become so dense that the moon only penetrates through it the Company's ships to England. The whole country in in a few places, causing the spots on which it falls to shine summer, is consequently in commotion with the passing and with a strange phosphoric light, and rendering the surrounding repassing of brigades of boats laden with bales of merchandise masses darker by contrast. The faint outline of an old snowand fur; the still waters of the lakes and rivers are rippled shoe track, at first discernible, is now quite invisible; but still by the paddle and the dar; and the longs silent echoes, which Stemaw moves forward with rapid, noiseless step, as sure of have slumbered in the icy embrace of a dreary,winter, are now

his way as if a broad beaten track lay before him. In once more awakened by the merry voice and tuneful song of this manner he moves on for nearly two miles, sometimes the hardy voyageur.'

stooping to examine closely the newly-made track of some wild

animal, and occasionally giving a glance at the sky through The sketch of the Indian hunter is one of the best in the

the openings in the leafy canopy above him, when a faint volume. It is long, but we hope our readers will relish it. sound in the bushes ahead brings him to a full stop. He Our fair readers will find in it the history of all their boas

listens attentively, and a noise, like the rattling of a chain, is and beavers :

heard proceeding from the recesses of a dark wild-looking hol.

low a few paces in front. Another moment, and the rattle is "Sappose yourself, gentle reader, standing at the gate of again distinctly heard: a slight

smile of satisfaction crosses one of the forts in Hudson's Bay, watching a savage arranging Stemaw's dark visage, for one of his traps is set in that bis snow-shoes preparatory to entering the gloomy forest. place, and he knows that something is caught. ,Quickly Let us walk with this Indían on a visit to his traps.

descending the slope, he enters the bushes whence the sound " The night is very dark, as the moon is bid by thick clouds, proceeds, and pauses when within a yard or two of his trap, to yet it occasionally breaks out sufficiently to illumine our path 'peer through the gloom. A cloud passes off the moon, and a

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faint ray reveals, it may be, a beautiful black fox caught in scrapes away the snow with his snow-shoe. Silently but the snare. A slight blow on the sout from Stemaw's axe- busily be labours for a quarter of an hour; and then, having handle kills the unfortunate animal; in ten minutes more it is cleared a space seven or eight feet in diameter, and nearly four tied to his sledge, the trap is re-set, and again covered over feet deep, he cuts down a number of small branches, which he with snow, so that it is almost impossible to tell that any strews at the bottom of the hollow, till all the snow is covered. thing is there; and the Indian pursues his way.

This done, he fells two or three of the nearest trees, cuts them “ The steel-trap used by the Indians is almost similar to the up into lengths of about five feet long, and piles them at the ordinary rat-trap of England, with this difference, that it is a root of the tree. A light is soon applied to the pile, and up little larger, is destitute of teeth, and has two springs in place glances the ruddy fame, crackling among the branches overof one. A chain is attached to one spring for the purpose of head, and sending thousan Is of bright sparks into the air. No fixing a weight to the trap, so that the animal caught may not one who has not seen it can have the least idea of the change be able to drag it far from the place where it was set. The that takes place in the appearance of the woods at night, when track in the snow enables the hunter to find his trap again. a large fire is suddenly lighted. Before, all was cold, silent, It is generally set so that the jaws, when spread out flat, are chilling, gloomy and desolate, and the pale snow looked unexactly on a level with the snow. The chain and weight are earthly in the dark. Now, a bright ruddy glow falls upon the both hid, and a thin layer of snow spread on the top of the thick stems of the trees, and penetrates through the branches trap. The bait (which generally consists of chips of a frozen over-head, tipping those nearest the fire with a ruby tinge, the partridge, rabbit, or fish) is then scattered around in every mere sight of which warms one. The white snow changes to direction; and, with the exception of this, nothing distinguishes a beautiful pink, whilst the stems of the trees, bright and the spot. Foxes, beavers, wolves, lynx, and other animals, clearly visible near at haud, become more and more indistinct are caught in this way-sometimes by a fore-leg, sometimes by in the distance, till they are lost in the background. The a hind-leg, and sometimes by two legs at once, and occasion- darkness, however, need not be seen from the encampment, ally by the nose. Of all these ways, the Indian prefers catch- for, when the Indian lies down, he will be surrounded by the ing by two legs, as there is then not the slightest possibility snow walla, which sparkle in the firelight as if set with' diaof the animal escaping. When foxes are caught by one leg, monds. These do not melt, as might be expected. The frost they often eat it off close to the trap, and escape on the other is much too intense for that, and nothing melts except the three. I have frequently seen this happen: and I once saw a snow quite close to the fire. Stemaw has now concluded his fox caught, which had evidently escaped in this way, as one arrangements; a small piece of dried deer's meat worms beof its legs was gone, and the stump healed up and covered fore the blaze; and, meanwhile, he spreads his green blanket again with hair. When they are caught by the nose they are on the ground, and fills a stone callumet (or pipe with a almost sure to escape, unless taken out of the trap very soon wooden stem) with tobacco, mixed with a kind of weed preafter being caught, as their snouts are so sharp or wedge-like, pared by himself. The white smoke from this soon mingles that they can pull them from between the jaws of the trap with the thicker volumes from the fire, which curl up through with the greatest ease.

the branches into the sky, now shrouding him in their wreaths, “Having now described the way of using this machine, we and then, as the bright flame obtains the mastery, leaving his will rejoin Stemaw, whom we left on his way to the next trap. dark face and coal-black eyes shining in the warm light. No There he goes, moving swiftly over the snow, mile after mile, one enjoys a pipe more than an Indiau; and Stemaw's tranas if he could not feel fatigue, turning aside now and then to quil visage, wreathed in tobacco smoke, as he reclines at full visit a trap, and giving a short grunt when nothing is in it, or length under the spreading branches of the pine, and allows killing the animal when caught, and tying it on the sledge. the white vapour to pass slowly out of his mouth and nose, Towards midnight, however, he begins to walk more cautious- certainly gives one an excellent idea of savage enjoyment. ly, examines the priming of his gun, and moves the axe in his Leaving him there, then, to solace himself with a pipe, prebelt as if he expected to meet some enemy suddenly. The paratory to resting his wearied limbs for the night, we will fact is, that close to where he now stands are two traps which change the hour, and conduct the reader to a different scene. he set in the morning close to each other, for the purpose of " It is now day. The upper edge of the sun has just risen, catching one of the formidable coast wolves. These animals red and frosty-looking, in the east, and countless myriade of are so sagacious that they will scrape all round a trap, let it icy particles glitter on every tree and bush, in its red rays; be ever so well set, and, after eating all the bait, walk away while the white tops of the snow-drifts which dot the surface unhurt. Indians consequently endeavour in every possible of the small lake at which we have just arrived, are tipped way to catch them, and, among others, by setting two traps with the same rosy hue. The lake is of considerable breadth, close together; so that, while the wolf scrapes at one, he may and the woods on its opposite shore are barely visible. An perhaps put his foot in the other. It is in this way that Ste- unbroken coat of pure white snow covers its entire surface, maw's traps are set; and he now advances cautiously towards whilst here and there a small islet, covered with luxuriant them, his gun in the hollow of his left arm. Slowly he ad. evergreens, attracts the eye, and breaks the sameness of the vances, peering through the bushes, but nothing is visible; scene. At the extreme left of the lake, where the points of a suddenly a branch crashes under his snow-shoe, and with a sa few bullrushes and sedgy plants appear above the snow, are vage growl a large wolf bounds towards him, landing almost seen a number of small earthy mounds, in the immediate at his feet. A single glance, bowever, shows the Indian that vicinity of which the trees and bushes are cut and barked in both traps are on his legs, and that the chains prevent his fur- many places, while some of them are nearly cut down. This ther advance. He places his gun against a tree, draws his axe is a colony of beaver. In the warm months of summer and from his belt, and advances to kill the animal. It is an un- autumn, this spot is a lively stirring place, as the bea vers are dertaking, however, of some difficulty. The fierce brute, then employed in nibbling down trees and bushes, for the purwhich is larger than a Newfoundland dog, strains every nerve pose of repairing their dams, and supplying their storehouses and sinew to break its chains; while its eyes glisten in the with food. The bark of willows is their chief food, and all uncertain light, and foam curls from its blood-red mouth. the bushes in the vicinity are more or less cut through by these Now it retreats as the Indian advances, grinning horribly as persevering little animals. Their dams, however (which are it goes; and anon, as the chains check its farther retreat, it made for the purpose of securing to themselves a constant sufsprings with a fearful growl towards Stemaw, who slightly ficiency of water), are made with large trees; and stumps will wounds it with his axe, as he jumps backward just in time to be found, if you choose to look for them, as thick as a man's save himself from the infuriated animal, which catches in its leg, which the beavers have entirely nibbled through, and fangs the flap of his leggin, and tears it from his limb. Again dragged by their united efforts many yards from where they Stemaw advances, and the wolf retreats and again springs on grew. him, but without success. At last, as the wolf glances for a “Now, however, no sign of animal life is to be seen, as the moment to one side-apparently to see if there is no way of beavers keep within doors all winter; yet I venture to state escape-quick as lightning the axe flashes in the air, and de- there are many now asleep under the snow before us. It is scends with stunning violence on its head, another blow fol. not, reader, merely for the purpose of showing you the outside lows, and in five minutes more the animal is fastened to the of a beaver-lodge that I have brought you such a distance from gledge.

human habitations. Be patient, and you shall soon see more. "This, however, has turned out a more exhausting business Do you observe that small black speck moving over the white than Stemaw expected; so he determines to encamp and rest surface of the lake, far away on the horizon ? It looks like a for a few hours. Selecting a large pine, whose spreading crow, but the forward motion is much too steady and constant branches cover a patch of ground free from underwood, bel for that. As it approaches, it assumes the form of a man, and


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