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The time has fully come, however, when something | thus concede that their science opposes the current should be done to meet this infidel boasting. Men and common interpretation of the Mosaic Genesis. The may repeat a lie till they believe it, or till they in. sober and judicious among them are far from saying fect others with it; and to prevent that, we must that the Mosaic system is wrong—they only argue take care lest we leave the field open either to scio- that our interpretation of it is erroneous. lists in knowledge, or to infidels in religion. If the not the Word of God, but the expositions and deducfacts alleged by geologists be facts, it is vain to deny tions of men,” that the modern geology opposes.* them. They must be adopted, as surely as the facts But this subject, at which we shall only glance, of the Copernican system have been. And that may be made plainer as follows. Scriptural geologists these facts are what they claim to be is credible, view the first verse of Genesis as containing a general whether we consider the high standing of the men and independent proposition, not connected with what who advance them, or the wide range over which follows it-announcing what Jehovah did at the point geology bas roamed to explore and investigate, now when time began, without defining when that was theorizing, anon correcting theory by observation, The subsequent verses are regarded as describing not and at last testing all by methods of procedure purely what immediately followed that primal act when and essentially Baconian. It has been said that the matters that now forms our earth began, but a geological investigation has fully exhausted Europe description, accommodated to the capacities and unand the greater part of America. In consequence derstanding of the men to whom it was addressed, of that, its principles, and even very many of its de detailing in a series the operations by which the tails, are now considered as finally fixed. The theo- Eternal adapted the earth created "in the begin. rizings and world-manufacturing of former times ning” to his ultimate purposes, and eventually fitted have given place to extensive inductions; and we it up as the dwelling-place of man. In this view, Geomust despair of ever arriving at facts at all, if many logists argue that though geological investigations of those on which geology rests its claims or builds should suggest an antiquity which demands a million its system are not entitled to that character.

or ten thousand millions of years, the divine record As the result, then, of these investigations and re- does not forbid that conclusion or demand.t Deep searches, it appears that the deposits or materials within the earth as well as on its surface, they say, which form the crust or shell of our earth must have there are unchallengeable phenomena, which point occupied, in their formation into their present con- irresistibly to that conclusion; and through periods of dition, untold and immeasurable ages. Geologists time utterly beyond human power to assign, the allege, that in the nature of things, it is impossible matter of this earth has been the seat of life, and to explain the phenomena, except on that supposi- subject to innumerable vicissitudes and changes, all tion. Periods indiscribably prolonged were needed different from the common interpretation of Genesis, to accomplish certain transformations, which are now but not from the record of inspiration properly unas exactly ascertained as science or observation can derstood. To deny or evade this, geologists declare, make them. During all those periods, “the Cause is to injure Scripture precisely as the Inquisition of causes” was preparing and adjusting an abode for did, when it doomed Galileo to a dungeon. the crowning work of his hands—the creature man; Such in this respect is the fact which geology anand so clearly do geologists reckon this established, nounces. We know that questions like these cannot that they deem it impossible for any intelligent per- be settled by names or mere authority; yet it may be son to understand the facts, and believe that this interesting to inqnire what are the opinions of those globe was created out of nothing only six thousand who have given their days and their nights to the study years ago. The formation of even only one por- of geology. The facts have been gathered from the world. tion of the globe's mass--the Silurian system-is What are the opinions which they have suggested! calculated to have required myriads of ages; and if Professor Sedgwick of Cambridge, one of the most there be about thirty or forty different strata, it can accomplished men of our day, has saideasily be supposed how immense is the epoch needed “ The Bible instructs us that man and other living things for the whole. And that these strata have not been have been placed but a few years upon the earth,

and the assumed, but proved to exist, is plain from the fact physical movements of the world bear witness to the same --which geology accurately demonstrates that they

truth.

The geologist proves .... that there were ever occur in regular order and succession. In dif- former conditions of our planet, separated from each other ferent localities some members of the series may be by vast intervals of time, during which man and the other

creatures of his own date had not been called into being." absent, from causes which we need not tarry to explain ; but A is never found under B, por B under

AgainC, nor C under D. If they co-exist at all, they are

“ By the discoveries of a now science, we learn that the found in regular succession. It is not our object to

manifestations of God's power on the earth had not been account for this, but only to state the demonstrated logist .... counts his time, not by celestial cycles but by an

limited to the few thousand years of man's existence. The geofact; and as an inevitable inference, geologists as- index be bas found in the solid framework of the globe itself." sure us that ages of ages-years which our arith

Mr Babbage, one of the most scientific men in metic could scarcely count-bave been needed for Europe, has asked the construction of the whole.

“What have those men accomplished who have restricted Now, assuming these things to be physical facts,

the Mosaic account of creation to that diminutive period which DO ODe can be blind to the conclusion, that geology and is, as it were, a span in the duration of the earth's existence, revelation appear to conflict. Dr Hales of Dublin and who have imprudently rejected the testimony of the senses calculated that the age of our world is about 7250. when opposed to their philological criticisms ? " The chronology adopted in our Bibles makes it about Again, he adds 6000 years; but geology regards even the larger “ In truth, the mass of evidence which combines to prove period as only a day-a moment in comparison of The earth's duration through its various transforma

• See Dr Pye Smith's Scripture and Geology, p. 34, fourth edi.

doa, from which nearly allow extracts in this paper are taken, tions since its matter was first created. Geologists | Dr Pye Smith. D. 198.

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the great antiquity of the earth itself, is so irresistible and so į lege of Edinburgh. Referring to some parts of the
unshaken by any opposing facts, that none but those who are
incapable of observing the facts, and appreciating the reasoning, clares

Mosaic record, that thoroughly competent judge de-
can for a moment conceive the present state of its surface to
have been the result of only 6000 years of existence."

“I do not feel, though a clergyman, the slighest reason to Once again—

conceal my sentiments, though they are opposed to the notions

which a false philosophy has generated in the public mind—" “The evidence (by which the conclusions of geology are proved) is in many cases so irresistible that the records of the

-And then the professor proceeds to give his views past ages to which it refers, are traced in language more im

of the deluge, and other topics referred to in the reperishable than that of the historian of any human transactions cord of revelation, utterly opposed to the current the relics of those beings entombed in the’strata which myriads interpretations. of centuries have heaped upon their graves, giving a present We might quote the opinions of others on this vital evidence of their past existence with which no human testi- subject. Sharon Turner, for example, though not a mony can compute." Sir R. I. Murchison says

very competent judge,concedes that,“whether months,

years, or ages, occurred between the first creation “The great truths of geology are sustained by the display of of the material substance of our globe and the manforms which mark the period when the first vestiges of life date for light to descend on it, is not in the slightest can be discovered, as well as the following successive

creations; degree noticed” by Moses. Even Granville Penn and thus, whilst with the exception of one sacred record, we can truly say that the origin of the greatest empires of man is

makes concessions of a similar kind; and, on the buried in fable and superstition, the hard and indelible register, whole, we cannot but notice a wondrous harmony as preserved for our inspection in the great book of ancient on the subject. Theory is now abandoned-it is natare, is at length interpreted and read off with clearness and superseded by facts. Philosophy has taken the place precision."

of fancy, induction of baseless speculations; and

geoOur own Hugh Miller speaks of the incalculable logists, at least, entertain no doubt, even with the periods which are indicated by the stratification of Bible in their hand, and regarded as the Word of his favourite district, and the living creatures which God, in arriving at the conclusion, that ages upon have successively characterized the formations which ages, untold, and beyond the reach even of the rehe has so geographically described.

motest guess, intervened between the primal act of Mr Lyel, perhaps the most devoted geologist alive, creating our globe, and fitting it up as a mansion for says, that thirty-four thousand years have been re- man—the arena on which to display the glory at once quired for the Falls of Niagara to accomplish certain of the Creator and the Redeemer. effects by erosion in the channel of their waters. But along with this attractive subject, various

According to the same author, the delta of the others should be conjoined, did our space allow; but Mississippi, and the plain connected with it, have they must, at least, be reserved. The Deluge-was required more than 100,000 years for their formation it universal! Does it explain the geological phenoby the detritus borne down by that mighty river. mena that meet us on the earth's surface? Both of

To concludo this list, Professor Hitchcock, one these questions were once answered in the affirmaof the ablest living geologists in America, has said tive; but the modern geology alleges that it can

“Why should we hesitate to admit the existence of our utterly disprove such beliefs, and that in entire har. globe through periods as long as geological researches require, mony both with the letter and the spirit of Scripture. since the Sacred Record does not declare the time of its ori- Volcanic remains, the age of existing trees, and other ginal creation ? . Instead of bringing us iuto collision phenomena, alleged to be unchallengeable, are quoted with moses, it seems to me that geology furnishes us with some of the grandest conceptions of the divine attributes and deluge. "It destroyed the whole human race-but

to modify the absolute universality of the Noachian plans to be found in the whole circle of human knowledge.” But these are the sentiments of avowed geologists.

the question still remains-Did it absolutely and utTheir evidence is perhaps ex parte. Let us therefore terly environ the globe ? Further, the notion that the appeal to divines, qualified by study, for judging of six days assigned by Moses to creation were figuratite the facts of the science.

days, implying periods indefinitely protracted, is now Dr Chalmers says

also exploded, like the visions of Burnet, the cosmo“We conclude with adverting to the unanimity of geologony of Penn or Fairholm, and the more cautious gists on one point--the far superior antiquity of this globe to

speculations or corrections of Gisborne. Facts read she commonly received date of it as taken from the writing off from the Stony Legend,” to which a key was of Moses. What shall we make of this? We may feel a

furnished by “the Magician of the Charnel House,” security as to those points on which they differ, and confronting Cuvier, or rather by Stratum Smith, the father of them with each other, may remain sale and untouched be geology, have demolished these reveries, and estatween them. But when they agree, this security fails.”' blished the legitimate throne of the inductive philo

The present Archbishop of Canterbury has writ- sophy in a region where wild and dream-like specuten

lation was once all in all. “ There is nothing in the Mosaic records either to gratify

At the same time, various other opinions have been the curiosity or repress the researches of mankind, when corelatively established by such inquiries. It has brought, in the progress of cultivation, to calculate the motions been held, for instance, even by those who believe of the heaveuly bodies, and speculate on the formation of the globe. The expressions of Moses are evidently accommodated

the Mosaic record, that there would have been death to the first and familiar notions derived from the sensible ap

to organized bodies (exclusive of man), even though pearances of the earth and the heavens, and the absurdity of

Adam had not sinned_and on this inviting subject mpposing that the literal interpretation of terms in Scripture

we would fain, but dare not, enter. Again, geology ought to interfere with the advancement of philosophical in- demonstrates, in harmony with the Mosaic account, quiry, would have been as generally forgotten as renounced, that man was the last of God's creations. It points, if the oppressors of Galileo had not found a place in history.' in its speculations, to a central fire, and argues as

We might also quote from Dr Conybeare, the dean to the probability of the ruin which it may yet inof Llandaff; but we hasten to close with a single flict on the earth all in accordance with Revelation. citation from Dr Fleming, professor in the New Col- | Moreover, in accounting for the vast mountains of

our glabe, this science makes it not improbable that apostle Paul in a style so life-like, so grand and the space now occupied by the Alps was once a marsh, speaking, that one expects for a moment to hear his with a climate approaching to that of the tropics. voice, till reflection dispels the illusion. It returns, But on these, and kindred topics, we dare not dwell

. however, as you study the exhaustless production. Enough, if we have suggested to our readers what One of the texts is the stone with the words, “To will show that we must not leave this inviting field the unknown God;" the pulpit is Mar's Hill; the to the Infidel. Thorns and thistles will grow unless hearers are Athenians; the preacher, Paul, the painter culture be bestowed, of which a specimen has already Rafaelle, and where in the world's history, among appeared in." The Vestiges of Creation," so anti- mere men, was ever a group so noble, or associations philosophical and shallow, yet so well adapted to so varied, or topics so exciting and suggestive as are confirm in their ignorance and delusions the men thus presented to the eye? who wish revelation to be untrue. Geology, we say, But pass through a few apartments, any one of must be studied. It must be Christianized, as astro- which would signalize a country where the objects nomy, and other once suspected sciences, have been. of art are more rare, and you stand before the TransIt will not do to supersede investigation, or cherish figuration by Rafaelle. In the Sistine Chapel, you indolence and error by the sweeping charge of aberra. find the Last Judgment by Michael Angelo, in fresco. tion or Infidelity. Facts demand explanation; and if It is awful and appalling, though in some respects its they be not interpreted aright, they will only foster er details degenerate into the grotesque; but you can ror. The Bible is fearless, and so may its friends be— turn from it without emotion, at least there is no indeed, it has nothing to fear; and, though some of drawing forth of deep feeling by all the painter's the opinions of geologists may require correction, by power. Before the Transfiguration, on the other still greater painstaking and more careful inductions, hand, one feels attracted, and actually loves the prowe cannot too soon enlist this new handmaid in the duction. The chief figure is so exquisitely beautiful service of the truth. Some of the highest minds of and ethereal, that it appears not a thing of earththe age long strove against the evidence of facts, “His face shines as the sun, and his raiment is white but they yielded at last, and were repaid by the dis- as the light.” Those apostles so stunned, those atcovery, that the Bible, which they prized yet more tendants, Moses and Elias, so ethereal, like their than science, gave ample scope and verge for the Lord, (1 John iii. 2), are all so inexpressibly lovely system, once so much suspected and traduced. Why and perfect, that one can form no adequate estimate should not we participate in a pleasure which has of the power of painting till objects such as these been shared not merely by Sedgwick, and Buck have been seen. We do not forget that criticism has land, and Conybeare, but by a nobler than they all, pronounced certain censures on some details in this our own lamented Chalmers? A system which, in painting, and there may be truth in them; but that its general principles deduced from unchallangeable conceded, we speak of the effect of the whole, and facts, has commanded the assent of minds so philo- that effect we describe by saying, that the genius is sophical, and so gifted as those of Herschell, and so visible and so great, that it subdues while it Whewell, and a host besides, cannot be superseded delights the on-looker. " It is raised a spiritual except by counterfacts, and Christianity will be body," has a simpler meaning, after studying the strengthened by another buttress when her friends Transfiguration by Rafaelle. shall have enlisted this new ally.

Would we hold converse with some of the most noted of modern Italians ?-_They may be met in the

halls of the Palace, the chapels of the Pope, or the A VISIT TO THE VATICAN.

corridors of the Library and Museum. Or all the edifices in Rome, the Vatican is by far the But pass to another section of this vast pile. It most extensive, rivalling in its magnitude ihę resi- is a chamber in the form of the segment of a circle. dences of those emperors who were masters of the The view from it is one of the grandest in Italy. world, when a palace covered a hill. Do we resort to The Castle of St Angelo, the Campus Martius, the it for objects of art ?-It is enough to say that the Tiber, Rome, the Sabine Hills, the Campania, TusTransfiguration by Rafaelle, and the Apollo Belvidere culum, Frascati, Tivoli-a thousand objects of inare there. Do we wish to become acquainted with terest meet the eye as it roams from scene to scene, the treasures of ancient lore, Ms. or printed ?-Its beheld from the Palace and its halls. But in that library opens up riches which many life-times could not chamber, small in comparison of maby beside it, exhaust. Or do we wish to wander over the chief re- stands another amazing creation of art, the Apollo. sidence of him whose predecessors at least, trod on the It was found at Antium towards the close of the necks of emperors, and upturned the thrones of kings; fifteenth century, and placed in the museum of the while even now, shorn and diminished as he is, the Vatican by Buonarotti. Perhaps there are some Pope, as the head of Antichristianism, enthrals the who feel, or think they feel, all the beauty of this minds and the consciences of millions :-- Then here, wondrous statue, when they first gaze on it--and the with St. Peter's on the east, the gardens of the Palace first look, no doubt, conveys a distinct impression of to the south, the church-tipped Monte Mario (Clivus its grandeur and symmetry. But the expression, the Cinnae) to the west, and the yellow Tiber and Rome real greatness of the mimic god, are not discovered to the north, we find the abode of that Man of Sin to their full extent except by visit after visit. He who still supports the system which vies with the has just discharged an arrow, and gazes after it to grossest superstitions in corrupting and debasing mark its effects; and the attitude, haughty yet mankind. But let us turn for a little from polemics, reposeful, the anger felt and expressed, yet not rufto examine in detail this wondrous pile, and record Aling the countenance, the expeotation of righteous the impressions which a visit conveys.

retribution evident in the countenance, combined First, as to the arts-where shall we begin! We with the perfect proportions of the work as a human are in the chamber of Rafaelle, and on that frescoed figure, hold us in a kind of awe in its presence-an wall the master has depicted the history of the awe which we felt deepened and enhanced by each

reiterated visit. Except in that marvellous and creations of the artists of Rhodes leave a deeper immighty pile the Pantheon, nowhere in Italy did pression than even the lines of Virgil :man's power affect us so much as in the presence of

Laocoonta petunt: et primum parva duorum' the Apollo. We have traversed the field of battle

Corpora natorum serpens amplexus uterque at Thrasymene, and tried to realize the feelings of

Implicat, et miseros morsu depascitur artus.

Post, ipsum auxilio subeuntem ac tela ferentem the combatants when they struggled so intensely

Corripiunt, spirisque ligant ingentibusthat they felt not the earthquake which rocked the ground on which they fought; we have followed

But there are other stores in the Vatican besides Bonaparte over the Great si Bernard with its gla- the treasures of art. It is said that there are 60,000 ciers and snows, and explored with care the battle statues in Rome, and many of them adorn the halls field of Marengo; we have heard the British huzzas, of this Papal palace, but we turn from them all to and seen the French disasters at Waterloo -and the Library, there to glance at the treasures which these have drawn forth emotions which one would it contains. It was founded by Pope Nicholas V., in not wish to repress, and could not tell ; yet the 1447, who transferred to it from other quarters the Apollo in effect surpasses them all, at least, it is sui MSS., which had been in course of collection for ten generis

. The mind versant in moral loveliness, learns centuries before. The present pile dates from 1588, before it, that even in things as they exist in our

and the contents of the library have been augmented wrecked world, there lie concealed the elements from time to time, and from innumerable sources. Leo and copies of beauty as it exists in the Divine Mind, X. was an active collector, and added largely to the waiting the appointed time when all the redeemed stores. Yet the interior of this magnificent pile has venusta che da Dio deriva, conduce a Dio—is the its treasures are so buried or immured in presses, and shall be morally lovely-literally like God. Quella little of that erudite appearance which its character

as a depot of lore would lead us to expect. Indeed, aphorism of an Italian. It is true, at least in spi- these presses are so bedizened with ornament, that ritual things, so that one carries to his ultramontane home, from the hall of the Apollo, a figure of loveli- except in its vastness, it is more like the library of a ness, which it requires no effort for the mind to well-conditioned and rather pretending citizen's villa, reproduce; and which it is nothing more than in than the depository of so much that is antique and stinct to admire. Strange that the mind that con

invaluable. It would be endless to attempt to cataceived, the hand that chiselled that exquisite embodi logue the treasures and true curiosities of literature ment of thought, was Pagan, worshipping, if it wor:

that are here. Romish partiality or pride estimates shipped at all, a stock or a stone, and seeking

pleasure the printed works at 100,000 volumes--the MSS. in the objects which the true God abominates, and at 35,000; but even though we make an abatement bids man abjure! The form, however, is only the from these, the collection is still noble, and worthy more admirable on that account. It is the idealized of a more dignified proprietor than the head of a creation of some high mind, the transcendentalism system which has wrought with such fell and ruinous of taste, the absolute ideal of manly beauty, and effects upon the consciences of men. The volume prompts us to wonder more and more at the charac. which chiefly attracted our attention was the treatise ter of ancient Rome. To-day, its Vestal virgins were

De Republica, by Cicero. It is not complete, but has presiding at a massacre in the circus; to-morrow, under the version of Augustine's Commentary on the

been wonderfully restored by Angelo Maio, from adoring, after their fashion, in a temple worthy of Athens; now, the majestic people consigned a city to Psalms, which had been written over the ancient the flames; anon, they re-peopled it with statues just MS. The monks of the middle ages are often eulonot living !

Madame de Stael somewhere asks, gised as the conservators of literature during the Whether ro, loo! on such perfection, would not dark midnight of Europe; and men are rising up in have foregone somewhat of his ferocity? She knew hundreds to spread their celebrity in that respect. not that it is not that kind of beauty that can tame

What evidence do the palimpsests of Angelo Maio man's heart into tenderness. It is, nevertheless,

bear to the taste, and learning, and conservative

tendencies of the monks ! A production of “ Rome's A form of life and light, That, seen, became a part of sight;

least mortal mind," effaced by some shaveling scribe,

to make room for the production of one who, though The morning star of memory."

much to be honoured, had yet been copied, and In the neighbourhood of the Apollo, though in a copied again, on less precious vellum, is surely not separate hall, stands the group of the Laocoon, an- an argument in favour of monkish enthusiasm in the other marvellous creation, though less imposing than cause of letters. the simple majesty of its companion. It is assigned The living literature of the Vatican is not the to three artists at Rhodes; it formed one of the orna- least attractive portion of its stores; we mean the ments of the palace of Titus, on one of the seven Italian literati, who are met with there, add a charm hills, and was discovered there amid the ruins in the to that storehouse of learning. Our first visit to it time of Pope Julius II. In complexity, it resem- was in quest of an early production of Calvin (a prebles the group of “ Niobe all tears," in the gallery at face), which we knew was in the Vatican, but which Florence; but the concentration or convulsion of the subordinate officials could not discover. Angelo feeling that is visible in the Laocoon draws one back Maio was called in, and with equal intelligence and to study it again, and again, and again-it is a tra- politeness, produced the stranger from its hiding. gedy in stone. The struggle, yet resignation, as if to place. In his appearance, Maio is a favourable speinevitable fate, of the old man; the helpless and im- cimen of Italians. With rather more of grave and ploring resistance of the sons crushed, maimed, and portly sedateness than they generally exhibit, he has tortured as they are by the coils of the serpents, and their frank and ready politeness, and withal, their their sympathetic inclination towards their parent, communicative volubility. It cost no effort to lead even as they writhe in agony, all speak to the soul him into his favourite themes, and there he was more than to the senses. Criticism is disarmed while loquacious, as few but Italians can be a thorough we behold the Æneid surpassed in marble; for the enthusiast -a very devotee. Maio began his career

And rose where'er we turn'd our eye

To pro

as keeper of the Ambrosian Library at Milan, where , of greater changes still. “ I will overturn, overturn he signalized himself by his discoveries in ancient overturn, till He comes whose right it is to rule," manuscripts, which had been effaced and written embodies the death warrant of Rome. It has been over by monks with their lying legends, though for said of the past, and will be said of the futuresome time he anonymously published his discoveries.

" And thou art she, the ghost of that proud Rome, Having attracted the notice of Pius VII., he was Whose eagles fattoned on the million corpses promoted to the office of librarian of the Vatican,

of nations prostrate. Far as wind-rocked Thule

Was felt thy crushing grasp-thine iron car, and eventually exchanged the ruby-coloured robe of Swift as the thunder's fiery messenger, a Monsignore for the purple of a Cardinal. He has Rolled on and on, in triumph, till the suckling's scream

Bereft of her who bore it-Eld's hoary head been called the Hero of the Palimpsests, and deserves Doomed to a childless dotage-the widowed maid, the title. He is chiefly famed for his edition of Who had but dreamt of joys she ne'er could know, Cicero de Republica, which is reckoned the most

Heaved their deep curses from their broken hearts,

And imprecated on thy ruthless butchers powerful production of the orator. Maio is now The vengeance which has scathed thy scarry brow. sinking into the feebleness of age. His policy as

How the heart weeps and joys to see thee fallen thus !

Weeps-that a thing so mighty as thy sway librarian is said to be illiberal, and the glory of his Shonld veil its glory to a shaveling's mumbling; setting does not correspond with the promise of his

Joys, that retribution, sure as were thy conquests,

Hath come at last to lay thy Neroes prostrate." rising, or the vigour of his meridian power.

Another of the Italian savans whom we have met in those storehouses of literature is the Abate Mezzo.

THE LARGE FARM SYSTEM. fante, now, like his friend Maio, a cardinal. He first became famed at Bologna, where he was professor of IRISH evictions have of late occupied a considerable Greek and the Oriental tongues. In that chair he share of attention. Public sympathy has alternated had for his colleague the noted Signora Clotilda between the ejecting and the ejected, both participaTamborini. Strange as it may seem, she combined ting in it in almost equal measure. The wretched her stores with those of Mezzofante in training the outcasts themselves, and the landlords, who in atItalian youth in the knowledge of Greek; thus carry- tempting thus to rid themselves of a profitless ing us back to the days when Olympia Morata, Lady tenantry, provoked a terrible retaliation, are, at first Jane Gray, and others, their contemporaries, rivalled sight, equally objects of commiseration. their brothers and husbands in their knowledge of nounce impartially on the merits of the controversy language, their literature, and philosophy. At her is a task of extreme difficulty. It may, however, be death, about the year 1821, Mezzofante profoundly safely affirmed, that in this, as in almost every quarlamented her removal—and evinced, by his regrets, rel, domestic, social, and national, blame attaches to how congenial were their studies and tastes.

both parties. The victims of the extreme legal reIn our day, as in that of Tacitus, every thing in medy of eviction have, in too many instances, been Italy that is either very good or very bad soon finds the victims of their own indolence, improvidence, and its way to Rome, and in due time, Mezzofante was turbulence; while the landlords, by pursuing a syscalled up by the head of that Church which has been tem of management but too much calculated to foster :80 wise through all its generations. It was there and encourage all this, have reaped the fruits in the that we made his acquaintance. On a cold February reaction upou themselve of the wild,” and, in a morning, we were seated in the compartment of the sense, retributive “justice of revenge." All of library where he usually studied, when an uncouth course, with the exception of that curse of Ireland and not prepossessing figure took possession of the her demagogue priests—are thrilled with horror at adjoining table. He was busied with a work on the remembrance of the bloody barbarities of the

Turkey, which soon became our topic. He speedily ignorant and misguided peasantry; still, we should discovered, from our mode of pronouncing Italiaci, not suffer ourselves to be transported by our horror that Britain was our home; and, without any fore- or indignation into a forgetfulness of the gross miswarning, addressed us in our vernacular. Ilis readi. management, under which the existence of such a ness and accent surprised us. He is reputed the state of things has ultimately led to the expulsion of master of forty languages, but he himself smiles at the tenantry, was tolerated so long that the wretched the assertion. That he has an amazing aptitude for creatures, familiarized with the system, and utterly acquiring them, however, is certain; but he does not unprepared for a change, recorded their resentment pretend to be master of more than a few. With of its alteration in characters of iod. Greek and the Oriental tongues, he is familiar. We make these remarks preliminar; to the state. Polish, Hungarian, German, Bohemian, Spanish, Eng- ment and reprehension of a system fast caining lish, French, and others, he knows well, having ac- ground in this country, closely assimilated to that quired them mainly by intercourse with natives of which has been so unsparingly denounced when acted those countries in Italy. But the accounts of his out in the sister kingdom of Ireland. There is a linguistic power are exaggerated, while, at the same class of landlords in Scotland, with we believe the time, his knowledge in other departments is limited. Duke of Richmond at their head, ardently bent on We once showed him a precious volume, marked, in the adoption of the large farm system on their estates, the catalogue of the library, Rarior ipsa raritate, but who, in prosecuting this favourite scheme, are produthe Abate scarcely gave it a glance.

cing results scarcelyless to be deplored than those which But we must away from the Vatican, with all its flow from the policy of their order in that distracted treasures, artistic, literary, and living. Would they country. The Irish landlords have at least a plauwere in nobler hands than those who now pervert sible excuse for what they are doing; the Scottish, them! But the time will come. How vast the we conceive, have none. The former pursue their change that has passed over Rome since Augustus, policy openly, avowedly, and in wholesale; the latter or even Trajan, was its lord ! and how shorn and secretly, insidiously, and gradually. The one class subdued in our day, compared with what it was when acts with the boldness of the lion, the other with the Leo X. was its pontiff and prince! Harbingers these cunning of the fox, but both alike compass the de

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