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were contrived to secure to this coun. regular order, the changes and im. try the right and exclusive benefit of provements made by subsequent laws. her colonial and carrying trade, as well These details are interspersed with much as of ber fisheries, ip opposition to the information relative to the policy, that efforts of other maritime states, but dictated the several changes, and to the more particularly the Dutch, whose opinions given by eminent lawyers on rivalship and success had long been the construction of some doubtful ex. regarded as a national loss and dis pressions. grace. But his couclusion of the ac- To the introduction to the third part count is admirable: “ Such," says he, of this History, beginning with the set* was the scheme of navigation which tlement made by the peace in 1783, Mr. the bold reformers of that day de- Reeves takes notice of the revulsion signed for increasing the naval strength which had converted a great part of our and consideration of this country. It American colonies into independent nay be said to have originated in jea. states, and which made it expedient Jousy, and to have caused the decline to accommodate the laws of our foreign and diminution of a neighbouring na- trade to so material a change of cirLion; but it was founded in a policy, cumstances. Some modifications of which the necessities and the advan- these laws, which the exigency of the tages of an insular situation sug- moment required, were immediately gested ; and the nation having, froin adopted ; but it is principally, as he supineness or ignorance, permitted an observes, since the year 1785 that the active neighbour so long to take a share chief regulations respecting the fishe. in the fisheries and foreigo trade which gies and British shipping have been belonged to us, thought itself justified brought forward. At that time," in asserting, at lenglli, ils rights, and he observes, his Majesty was pleased carrying them into full effect by this to appoint a Conimittee of Council for legislative act. And although this mea. the consideration of all mallers relat sure brought upon the country an ob- ing to trade and foreign plaotations, alinate and bloody war; and though and soon after to place at the bead of it the authority on which it was founded a noble lord, whose services to this was unconstitutional and usurped ; yet country, in affairs of commerce and a plan so wise and solid was strenuously navigation, have already had effects so mainiained by those who formed it'; solid and extensive, as to promise to and it was not suffered to pass away be remembered when praise will have will the transient government from no appearance of fattery. It is to the which it derived its origin: the great superintendance and auibority of this Seatures of it were adopted by the law. coinmittee, and to the great knowledge Il government at the restoration of and unwearied exertions of the nobis Charles The Second, when a new Act of lord at the head of it, that we are Navigation rose out of the ashes of indebted for the very important im. this, and became the basis of all those provements in the law of shipping and laws that have since been made for navigation made during this short lapse the increase of shipping and naviga- of linie.”'t tion."
Afier so just a tribute of praise to the The second part of Mr. Reeves's work eminent abilities and public services of opens with general remarks on this new Lord HAWKESBURY, the avihor proceeds stalate, and on the additions that were to give an exact account of the various made to the scope of the former act. He improvements on our commercial sys. then enters into more particnlar details; tem, which had originated froin that and classes the several divisions of his illustrious statesman, and the committee subject under the heads into which the where he presided. This account is die great charter of our navigation system vided into six chapters : the first conis divided; namely, the Pluntation trade tains all the new regulations of the the trude with Asia, Africa, and Ame. Pantation trade, and of our intercourse ricambe Kuropean irade-the Consting with the United States as well as with Irade-the Fisheries-and, lastly, of our own settlemenis; the second, third, British Ships. He begios each head with and fourth, are very concise, being Staling the ground-work laid by the act severally confined to the few changes itself; after which he describes, in in the African, the European, and ihe
+ Part I. page 52.
+ lotroduction to Part 111. page 342.
Coasling trade, which have taken place the learned President. He adds some since 1783, and may be said to affect queries and doubts that have arisen the general policy established by the on certain parts of the act, which may Navigation Act : but the fifth and sixth become subjects of future discussion : chapters abound with a great variety of but he very properly observes, that important matter ; the former contain these little difficulties vanish from the ing the laws made for extending and mind, when we consider the many adimproving our fisheries ; and the latter vantages resulting from the policy of exhibiting a clear and comprehensive the act : such as the prevention of view of the alterations made in the frauds either to the underwriters or whole concern of registering shipping, to the revenue; the securing in future for the purpose of securing to ships to this country the building and equipof the buill and construction of this ping of all the ships that are to carry country a preference and superiority on its foreign and domestic trade; and which they had not enjoyed so com- the discovery of a great number of facts pletely before. The plan of regula. of the utmost political and commercial tions on this head which was proposed importance, which were vever brought to parliament in 1786, and every part of forward and authenticated before the which then underwent the severest scru. general register of shipping was made tiny, “ was the result," says Mr. Reeves, under this act.
of an ivquiry, and deliberation of The suminary with which Mr. Reeves great length before the Committee of concludes his work deserves particular Privy Council for the affairs of trade potice. A just idea of its utility may and plantations, and that inquiry was be formed from his own words. "Hav. commenced and carried on, and the ing," he says, “ traced the history of nieasure at length decided upon, prin- the changes in laws and opinions ibat cipally by the exertion and perseve. took place in different periods, we will rance of a noble lord, to whom I have now look back; and separating such bad occasion before to allude."'*
malter as is repealed, or become obso. Io conformity to the method which letc, we will endeavour to extract as Mr. Reeves bad followed in the other much as coustilules the law of the parts of his work, he subjoins to his present day; not, indeed, the whole of account of the plau for registering ii, fior that would be an uwarrantable ships, which was sanctioned by the repetition, but the outline, and leading Legislature, such information as he features, which may easily be filled up could collect from the judgments of by a reference to what has been before courts, the opinions of lawyers, or delivered. To assist in bringing the other sources, respecting the sense and reader's mind home to the present state consequences of that law. Two cases, of the law of shipping and navigation, of which he gives a very masterly re- I will condense its governing principort, are equally curious and inte- ples into certain liules, and the Excep. resting. In the first of them, which lions to them, following the distribuwas in the Court of King's Bench, he tion that has all along been made of states the arguments used on both sides, the subject : and to each lule and and the judicial opinions of Lord Keno Exception shall be subjoined the grounds yon and Mr. Justice Buller, with their and reasons on which it is founded.”+ reasons at full length for giving judg- All those principles and exceptions ment in favour of one of the parties. are reduced to twenty-nine rules ; by The second was an appeal froin the which means, the entire system is sini. Vice-admiralty Court at Nassau, in the plified, and brought into one view, to Bahamas. Lord Carden, in deliver. serve as an infallible guide to the most ing the decision of the Council on this ignorant, and a satisfactory remem. appeal, thought proper to enlarge on brances to the best informed. Mr. the principle, the policy, the spirit, Reeves then closes the whole with a and ihe letter of the registering law, few remarks, which may be justly called in order to prevent any misconception the finishing touches of a great master, or false interpretations of it. Mr. “ Such," says he. " is the present state Reeves, in reporting this judgment, of the laws which the Legislature has does ample justice to the acuteness, seen fit to provide for the encouragethe perspicuiiy, and the cloquence of ment and inerease of Britishi sbipping
* Part 111. page 111.
+ Conclusion, page 5l5.
and oavigation. It is a series of re- narrative, in order to examine them, strictions and probibitions, and it tends may not be deemed irrelevant to our to the establishing of monopoly ; but main design. it is a plan of regulation which our Some modern pretenders to liberality ancestors, wbo were more versed in the and political reasoning have taken a practical philosophy of life than the great deal of pains to remove what they speculative one of the closet, thought call vulgar prejudices in favour of the necessary, for the welfare and safety Navigation Act. They have represented of the kingdom. Reasoning from the it as a monopoly equally unjust and self preservation of an individual to unproductive; alike incompatible with the self-preservation of a people, they the real interests of the colonies and of considered the defence of this island the parent state. It checks, they say, from foreign invasion as the first law the spirit of improvement in the plantain the national policy; and judging iions, by subjecting the proprietors to that the dominion of the land could the arbitrary terms of our merchants, Dot be preserved without possessing that and at the same time deprives the of the sea, they made every effort to mother-country of numberless advanprocure to the nation a maritime power tages, which would arise from the upof its own. Tbey wished ibat the mer. restrained competition of foreign carchants should own as many ships, and riers. Repeal tbis obnoxious act they employ as many mariners, as possible. cry, and your trade will flourish; the To induce, and sometimes to force price of freight, of labour, of provithem to this application of their capi. sions, and of merchandize, will be tal, restrictions and probibitions were brought to its just standard ; and Great devised."
Britain will profit more by encouraging
the rivalship of other nations, than by “ This policy was porsued by those the narrow reserve of any exclusive who came after them in directing the privileges. public councils; and in the last cen- But it requires something more than tury, wben many institutions of our vague declaration to make us acquiesce ancestors fell a sacrifice to the rage in such extraordinary doctrines. We of ipporation, the wisdom of the oavi. have long been in the habit of ascribing gation system was respected ; measures the increase of our shipping, our seawere even taken for rendering it more men, and our commerce, to the nebarrow and restrictive."
cessary influence of the Navigation
Act; and till other independent causes “ Experience has shewn the advan- are clearly poioted out to us, we must tage of adhering to this maritime policy. adhere to an opinion which we think The inducement and obligation to em- confirmed by experience. Were the ploy British ships had the effect of colonial and carrying trade confined increasing their number. The increase by the legislature to particular ports, of their number became a spur to suck or lo any particular set of men, it might out employment for them. Foreign then be regarded as a pernicious monotrade, and ibe fisheries, were, by va. poly; but the beneficial provisions of rious expedients, made subservient to the act are extended to the whole Briadvance the interests of shipping: tish nation : it only precludes foreignTrade and shipping thus contributed ers from ingrossing the produce and reciprocally to advance each other; supply of our plantations, and from and, thus combined, they constituied interfering in the most essential parts very considerable sources of national of our muritime traffic. wealth."
If thoxe states, that have different set. To these remarks Mr. Rceres adds tlenients, were to throw open their trade several argumenls and facts, illustra. to the whole world, Great Britain might tive of the same truth, that the in
then risk her territorial advantages in crease of our shipping, the extension a common adventure with other pa. of our trade, and the strength of our tions: but when the spirit of exclunavy, are the effects of a wise adhe- sion is predominant withi all our rivals, rence to our Navigation system. But would it not be an act of the most as, notwithstanding the evidence of inconsiderate generosity, not to say such facts, objections to the system madness, to grant them free access to are often urged with plausibity and our colonies, without enjoying the like couldeuce, a short suspension of our liberty to trade to theirs; and while
we feel the pressare of a heavy load was the right road; and to his great of debt, to run, as it were, a mer. astonishment received for answer that cantile race with every less incumbered the conductor did not know, but he competitor
had heard there was a very near cut to Aš to Ireland and the West Indies, his master's house through the thicket; we readily admit, that nothing more and he certainly thought, as Mr. Heylia effectually defeats its own end than selfish had written the " Geography of the policy, when carried to excess ; and that World," that such a road could not systems framed with a view of promoting have been unknown to him. the prosperity of une part of an empire at the expense of another, are no less illusory than unjust: but we are not, on that account, to divest ourselves
His eloquence was of every kiad, of all regard to the exigency of our tranquil, vehement, argumentative, or own situation and circumstances : our
moralizing, as best suited the occasion. Jaws of commercial restraint may be In 1761, he maintained the illegality of occasionally relaxed, but not abolished; general warrants with great energy in and the mother country, in every act of the House of Commons. distributive benevolence to all her chil. tish Coustitution,” said he, every
By the Bri dren, should not wholly forget the prior man's house is his castle ; not that it is claims, or peculiar distresses of the surrounded with walls and battlements, elder born.-But it is time to return
for it may be a straw.built shed. Every to our biographical account of Mr. wind of heaven may blow around it, Reeves.
all the elements of nature may enter (To be continued.)
in; but the King canoot, the King dares
not."'-- Purliumentary Debales.
A stupid person one day seeing a man
of learning enjoying the pleasures of EXTRAORDINARY CIRCUMSTANCE. the table, said, "So, sir, philosophers I
Na German Journal, called the Mis. see can indulge in the greatest delications of Foreign Literature, we find “ do you think Proridence intended all the following remarkable, but not im- good things for the ignorant ?" probable, account:-A merchant not only heard the pame of Buonaparte
A well-known learned Platonist, the in the deserts of Tarlary, but also saw
translator of Aristolle, Proclus, &c. was a biography of this tyrant in the Arabic tongue, which contained a great many succeed in restoring the Platonie Philo.
asked, a short time since, “If he should falsehoods and exaggerations, and ended
, what was to be done with Bacon, with his marriage in the year 1810. This Biography was printed in Paris, then," said he, you must make Bacou
Newion, Locke, aud Boile?"-" Why and thence it was sent to Aleppo, to be circulated in the East. It may be boil, and luck Newton.” presumed, that this was not done merely to spread the glory of the hero, but most At the recent feast of the Sons of the probably to prepare the way for soine Clergy, the son of a vencrable Clergygreat undertaking
man was passing or endeavourirg to pass, from Ludgate-street into St. Paul's Church yard, hurrying on business of
consequence into the City, but was This celebrated man, soon after pub- stopped for some time by carls, coaches, Jishing his “ Geography of the World," &c. and foiled in every attempt to accepted an invitation to spend a few thread their mazes.-"Pray,” said he weeks with a gentleman who lived on lo a Mercer standing at a shop door, the New Forest, Hampshire, with direc- " what is all this bustle and stoppere tions where his servant should meet for ?"-" For the benefit of the sons of him to conduct himn thither. As soon the clergy," replied the Cockney:--as he was joined by the gentleman's ser- “ That is impossible," said the inquirer. vant, they struck off into the thick of “ I am a clergyman's son, and I never ig the forest, and after riding for a consi. my life fel a greater inconvemence!" derable time, Mr. Heylin asked if that
MEMBER OF PARLIAMENT.
Ax OLD MAN'S ADVICE TO A YOUNG employed as agent in an election, which
was not only strongly contested on the Enter the House of Commons as the spot, but the proceedings were, on the Temple of Liberty; do not dishonour ground of some irregularity, brought by that Temple; preserve your freedom as petition before the House of Commons. the pledge of your integrity. Read,
To the bar of the House Mr. Ellis was inquire, hear, debate, and then deters brought, on the part of the petitioning mine. Do not without inquiry approve candidate, when he underwent across of, nor without good cause oppose, the examination, of which the following is measures of the Court. The true pa.
the substance : - * We understand, Mr. triot will lend his assistance to enable Ellis, that a very considerable sum was the King to administer justice, to pro. expended in this election, and that great tect the subject, and to aggrandize the part of it was directed to the purpose of nation. Avoid bitter speeches ; you corrupling the voters. Do you know of meet not to revile, but to reason. The any such application of money, or of best men muy err, and therefore be not any bribes being actually accepled on ashamed to be convinced yourself, nor the part of the electors :" -" Indeed, be ready to reproach others. Remem. sir, I do: as agent, I know that our ber that your electors did not send you parly bribed all that we could get to to Parliament to make your own for. accept our money."-At this acknow tune, but to take care of theirs. When ledgment a pause of astonishment şou do speak, take especial care that it seemed to pervade the House; a mura is to the purpose; and ralher study to mur succeeded, which only subsided on confine yourself to the subject with
a member's saying to The witness, brevity and perspicuity, than to indulge “ Your party did not carry the elecyourself in the unnecessary display of tioo !”-“ No," relurned Ellis, with a dowery imagination. If you feel all great composure, we did not." right within, you will scorn to look * Well, but Mr. Ellis," said the first round the House for support; for be querist, “is it pot extraordinary, as assured that God, your conscience, and you say you bribed all that would take your couotry, will support you.
your money, that you wid not retura your member !"-" Not in the least," said Ellis.- Nol-why how do you
account for it?"-" Easily-The oppo. Amoog the members of the late site party oulbribed us.” - At this there House of Commons, were, a Baker, was an universal burst of laughter.-two Butlers, a Porler, a Cooper, a " I shall not ask you any more ques. Carter, a Farmer, a Shepherd, a Fal: tions, Mr. Ellis," said the interrogator, coner, a Forester, eleven Smiths, and with great indignation. four Taylors; four Woods, a Birch, a Beach, a Brooke, a Marsh, a Flood, a Longfield, Three Hills, and a Greenbill: Cole and Coke; Iwo Pilts, two At the consecration of a Cardinal, Poles, two Fellowes, and two Bastards; there were a great number of Bishops a Rose and a Lenyon: a Bruin, a Lamb, sitting in an amphitheatre under the a Hart, a Hare, a Talbot, and a Crickelt; dome of the Sorbonne, where the cerea Swall, a Heron, two Drakes, two Cocks, mong was performed ; when a lady prea Fisch, two Martins, and a Croker ;
sent, astonished at the spectacle, ex. Long and Round, Sharpe and Keene. claimed, “What a fine sight is this The House likewise possessed the fol.
to see so many Bishops sitting in sueb lowing literary names, of which Engorder! Methinks I am in heaven!"land has more or less reason to be
“In heaven!” replied a gentlemao who proud :-Milton, Spencer, Butler, Par
sat next her, " why, madani, There are nell, Wharton, Lyttleton, Collins, not in heaven half so many Bishops as Thomson, Phillips, Campbell, Rowley, you see bere.” Scott, Moore, Somerville, Falconer, Fitzgerald. Bloomfield, Richardson,
, Boswell, Blair, and Hume.
Beasts and babies remember, i. e. ELECTION EERING.
recognize; inan alone recoliecus. This The late John Ellis, Esq. who was distinction was made by Aristotle. terined "a violent party man," was Ethics of Aristotle. Europ. Alag. Vol. LXXIV. July 1815.
TAE LATE PARLJAMENT.
MEMORY AND RECOLLECTION.