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“your daughter's safety should excite The sun rose in its accustomed splen. feelings of gratitude, not expressions dor, and Nature was arrayed in her of revenge. Shew yourself superior to liveliest garment, when the lriple unions the rascal who has endeavoured to of George Manning and my cousin wrong you, by a proper elevation of Maria Heartly and William Somerssentiment, and banish all traces of with my own, were solemnized in the harsh feeling from your mind. His parish church. Need I recount the own conscience will be a sufficient smiles and blushes usual on these occa. punishment, without your harbouring sions. Suffice it to say, that the accus. ideas of revenge.

Remember, also, tomed ceremonies were observed ; and that you are commanded to forgive; setting aside Mr. Plausible's attempts and as you have sustained no real io. at wit, we faced the ordeal as well as jury, it cannot be a very great effort to could be expected. dismiss your angry feelings."

Three years have now elapsed, and “ True,” rejoined the farmer ; “but the transports natural to youth are melis a rich profligate to insult a poor cot- lowed into those endearing enjoyments tager ? I mean harm to no one, but which increase witb age and strengthen must protect my daughter."

with connexiou ; onr several choices • Protect and cherish her, but forget are justified by their anxiety, and re. not that invaluable precept wbich forms gard for our happiness. It is our muthe brightest jewel in the Christian dia- tual endeavour to promote the happidem, «Returo good for evil;' a recur. ness of each other, by occasionally sacri. rence of this appears improbable at ficing our own inclinations to preserve least, and it would be better to dismiss unimpaired those livile tributes of af. all thoughts of it at once.”

fection which, forming the chief at. “ I will, then," said the farmer, “and traction of the wover,

are too often soon put it out of Sir Edward's power neglected in the husband. The will of to attempt her injury, by giving her a one is the will of the other; vor are tri. better protector in William Somers.” fles ever made the subject of dispute.

The worthy Rector left the cottage The true end of matrimony is lusmooth, praising his intentions, and bearing not increase, the difficulties of life; with bim the thanks of its inmates. and while its votaries will but remem

A few days past over and Sir Edward ber how much they gain by a mutual was forgotten by all, except Miss Thrif. attention to each other's wishes, they ty; who, unable to endure the mortiti

divest it of the forbidding appearance cation of her ill success, left the village it assumes, and renders ils yoke once for a time on a visit to an aunt in the easy and delightful. neighbouring county.

But I have already trespassed beyond Every day now approached nearer to the bounds of your partiality, and in the confirmation of my wishes. On a bidding you adieu, bope the recital of consultation with Mr. Mapping, Mr. my memoirs previous to marriage may Plausible was retained to draw up not be entirely upinteresting: One view the pecessary papers, and prepare every I have had iu it is, to uphold the intething that was expedient. The day was rests of virtue and destroy those of vice fixed, and the arrival of a few remain- -experience having already taught me ing friends anxiously expected.

that nothing but shame attends the Our society was soon enlivened by footsteps of the one, while honour and the addition of one of tbem-George self-approbation follow the other. And Manning, who not only congratulated though deceit may amuse us for a while, me as his brother-in-law, but addressed and be the means of securing us temme as the suitor to my cousin Louisa. porary advantages, there is nothing like This union I had long contemplated ; a course of cousistency to render us and, from a knowledge of their respec. happy in our cornmerce with the world. tive disposition, augured well of their It may not be amiss to add, that lithappiness. The double tie about to be tle Peter, my first-burn, is at this informed, still more endeared our fami- stant smiling before me ; and though lies to each other; and in the mutual he cannot speak for hinself (if you will interchange of friendship and affection, allow me to put a construction on his I could not help depicting to my imagi. smile), thanks you, my readers, for the nation as happy a series of years as mor. attention and kindness you have shewa tality could bope for.

their friend, PETER PLIANT.

CLIMATE AND AGRICULTURE.

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IRISH EXTRACTS.

made doubly productive, first in fuel,

and afterwards in corn. There is great CONTAINING A CONCISE DESCRIPTION OF

reason to suspect, that turf bogs in SOME OF THE PRINCIPAL PLACES IN IRELAND ; WITU TIE ANTIQUITIES, many instances, have been found by the

ruins of forests overwhelmed by floods, CUSTOYS, CHARACTER, AND MANNERS

or prostrated by hurricanes; between OF THAT COUNTRY.

the branches of whose trees a nidus was BY TAOMAS STRINGER, M.D. afforded for the accumulated growth of (Concluded from page 407.) fibrous plants, of which, with the admix

ture of a small proportion of eartbly

particles, the turf or peat of the counThe climate of Ireland is humid, try is almost uniformly formed. The

yet agues and dropsies are not solid stems of trees less subject to decay, very common; one of the first phy- are commonly found in bogs at a great sicians informed me, that he knew of depth, and sometimes in such excellent no disease peculiar to Ireland. This preservation, that they are esteemed moisture of climate is attributed to the equal to any other timber for substanexposure of Ireland to the Atlantic stial buildings. I have seen some very ocean, in which slate it operates as beautiful and expensive pieces of fure

to England- The earliest niture made of solid bog yew. The notice in Roman writers of the name pine and fir woods, tbough ivapplicable of Ireland (Hibernia) is io Julius Cæsar, io such valuable purposes, are not and was given probably by bim or his devoid of use; amongst others being countrymen from its supposed cold. highly inflammable, splinters of theru NICSS The verdure is vivid -the cli. are substituted for candles among the male salubrious. The climate of Ire. poor. The bogs and their neighbourland does not seem to have altered hood, instead of being insalubrious are much since the days of Giraldus, who healthy; they are antisceptic and prein the twelfth century, describes it servative. Some of them are very as subject to continual rains and clouds. extensive. The Bog of Allen, resembles Dr. Beaufort observes, that it is rather at a distance, a vast brown lakie, was more variable, and perhaps milder, than once covered with the finest forest in England; the suinmor less hot, the trees, “now buried under its dreary winter less severe. The air is certainly surface; this bog crosses several coundamper, but this quality is not to be ties, and contains three hundred thouattributed entirely to the bogs which sand acres, and is the largest in Ireland. are scattered all over the kingdom, but lo a country, where, owing to a want ebiefly to its insular situation, and to of capital and a contracted system of Me great quantity of moist particles agriculture, enıployment cannot be that are wafted from the ocean by the found for the peasant, his idleness is in westerly winds which most frequently some degree palliated, and becomes an prevail. This moisture however, is not act of necessity. Until a

new and prejndicial to health, neither is the more advantageous system of letting Deighbourboud of boys unwholesome. estates is adopted; and until the class The bog waters, far from emitting of middle-nien is annihilated; and until putrid exhalations, like stagnant pools the land holder condescends to look and marshes, are of antiseptic quality, with his own, and not bis agent's eyes, as appears from their preserving for over the plans of his estates; the agricul. ages, and even adding to the durability ture of the country can never be imof timber, which we tind universally proved to that degree which the great buried beneath their surfaces, and from fertility of its soil demands; nor can the their converting to a sort of leather, wretched situation of the labouring the skills of men, animals, &c. that poor be materially amended. have been lost, or remaining in them There are several persons to be for any length of time. The boys in supported between the land proprietor Ireland present in general, an extended and the worker of the land ; hence the surface of dry beath, nor after that the extreme poverty of these miserable torf has been cot to a cousideraile people. Even the clergy farm their depth for fuel, are they to be considered iythes to middle men, called proctors, as useless; for nature has been so whose infamous extortions were the liberal of her gifts ip fertilizing this original cause of the insurrections country, that even the bog can be among the white boys. Europ. Mag. Vol. LXXIII. June, 1818.

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It is much to be regretted, that if left uncut, fiorin affords excellent more attention is not paid to the plant green food, through the whole winter. jog system ; the more important as the At Rathfarobam house, resides George whole island is so peculiarly destitute of Grierson, Esq. one of the first experiwood. I am surprized, that it has not mental farmers in Ireland. I visited one been more generally attended to, as of his farms called Woodlands. The there is a most excellent regulation success of this gentleman holds out the established by parliament; both to strongest invitation to agriculture in encourage and benefit the planter. Ireland. Nature, as if pleased with I never saw a country better adapted to attentions, never fails to remunerate by the growth of timber, both in climate her bounties those who pay court to and soil.

her. Mr. Grierson, by pursuing the In travelling unvaried monotony improved system of agriculture, has prevails, for want of hedge-rows, trees, brought a rude farm of two hundred. and woods; which would so much acres originally occupied by wbios, improve and beautify the country, iu into a state of bigb cultivation. This the room of the distiguring small plots farm lies on the side of a bill, a north and earthen fences. They are generally east aspect, and is an inclined plain from confined to the immediate neighbour: top to bottom, about two miles from hood of gentlemen's seats.

the village of Rathfarobam, and five In surveying the state of agriculture, from Dubliu. and the different crops with which the The soil of Ireland in general is soil is ufled, we shall find that the oat fruitful, perhaps equal to that of Eng. and potatoe prevail over every other land itself when properly cultivated. grain; here also a large species of Pasturage, tillage, and meadow ground barley, that ripens the first of all grain, abound in this kingdom. Their meadow is cultivated.' The mode of planting grounds are fine and prolific from the potatoes is as follows. The potatoe great and frequent moisture of this is cut into several pieces, each of wbich climate. Till of late, tillage has been has an eye: these are spread on ridges too much discouraged, though the of about four or five feet wide, which ground is excellent for the culture are covered with the mould at different of all grains; and in some of the northtimes, dug from the furrows on each ern parts of the kidgdom abundance of side, which are, when completed, about hemp and flax are raised, a cultivation half the breadth of the ridge, this com- of infinite advantage to the linen manupletely lets off the water, and they are facture. Ireland rears vast numbers of alwas sufficiently dry.

black cattle and sheep, whose wool " While bleak December hears the mowers

is good, the trade and improvemen blythe,

of wbich would bear encouragement In new born meadows whet the shining The prodigious, and indeed, incredibl scythe."

supplies of salt provisious shipped a The agricultural world is much Cork, and carried to all parts of the indebted to the Rector of Clonfeckle, world, are proofs scarcely to be ex Dr. Richardson, for the celebrity he has bibited in any other country, of th given to the Fiorin grass, Agrostis natural fertility of the Irish soil. Stolonifera. This grass - is found in every climate, it is more capable of The earliest notice in Roman write resisting the injuries of the weaiher thart of the name of Ireland (Hibernia) any other grass, and has been found in Julius Cæsar, and was given probab eminently useful in reclaiming bogs. from him or his countrymen from i

Ja quantity of produce and in quality supposed coldness. Another writ it has no rival; an Irish acre will observes, that more conjectures as produce eight or nine tops. The the latin Hibernia, Irish Erin, as w flavour of the milk produced from as the English name of this islan fiorin grass, or from cows fed upon have been formed than tbe subje fiorin hay, is very remarkable, the deserves. It propably takes its r result of the abundance of saccharine froin a Phænician or Gaulic' ter matter with which this vegetable is sigoifying the farthest babitation we loaded. The quantity too is much ward. increased by the superior succulence of The topography of Ireland by Gir fiorin bay, as it can be used in a dus Canbrensis is perhaps as curie greener slate than any other hay; and a literary monument as any where be found; displaying the natural history the constant objects of the tyranny and and pbilosophy of the age, in which contempt of the latter. Hence they was written Giraldus Cambrensis; or, differ little from a horde of Hottentots ; Gerald Barry was a Welsh ecclesiastic, their cabins or huts present the most who twice visited this isle; first, with hideous picture of misery and filthiness, his brother Philip Barry, and his uncle they are extremely superstitious, and Fitz Stephen; and secondly, with King subject to their priests; and their indoJoba, A. D. 1185. He was a man of lence is extreme. Such is the natural genius, ambition, and vanity; these consequence of poverty, ignorance, and urged him to the pursuit of literature, depression. These inhabit, or rather and to such superiority in its various exist upon, the interior and western departments, as would leave him with parts. The conquerors, the descendants out a rival. He added to his topogra: of the English; the superior class, are phy another work, which he entitled refined by the introduction of arts, the Conquest of Ireland by the first commerce, science, English education, Adventurers, and important chapters and English connections, are superior on the government of the nation, and to their teachers in energy and elohow it was to be retained in subjection. quence. These inhabit the northern, This he designed to do for John, then eastern, and southern coasts in the Earl of Poictou, Duke of Normandy, larger towns, and are distinguished by and future King of England. Consi- romantic gallantry towards the fair sex, dering the novelty and difiiculty of the and the spirit of chivalry, by convivial commission with which he was charged, hospitality, and a spirit of refinement. he accomplished his object with uneom. The gentry and better sort of the Irish mon ability. He has been accused by nation in general, differ little in JanIrish antiquaries with gross falsehoods guage, dress, manoers, and customs, and fictions, and represented as totally from those of the same rank in Eng. uodeserving of credit. I desire to ap- land. Notwithstanding the polished pear peither his apologist or panegy, minority of the nation is one century rist, but candour certainly demands of behind England, and the rude majority us not rashly to condemo a man, who of it at least five. Oar brethren on the solerunly addressed a work to a wise other side of the water, will not, we Sovereign, and who for three days, read fear, be satisfied with this description ; it before the University of Oxford. yet, let them reflect, that the blemishes Such a one must be regardless of every

in their character arose from temporary mural sense and attention to character, and unavoidable circumstances ; and premeditately to be guilty of forgery their merits must not be omitted." I do and lies: this would hardly apply to an not know of any country where the ignorant, bigoled, and cloistered monk, character of the people is more fitted much less to an ecclesiastic of distino by nature, than is that of the Irish, for guished liberality and eminence, the the highest attainments in moral or infavourite and confidant of an enlighte tellectual excellence. ened court. Cambrensis tals us, that GOVERNMENT OF IRELAND. Under be came to Ireland in 1182, with his a good government, the middle ranks relations and other Welsh adventurers, of the people always most abound; and and that being of a literary turn, he under a government well administered, set about making collections. He con. it is always difficult to ascertain to which tinued in the island for two years, and of the three simple forms of governon his return to England communica- ment the constitution most approxited his observations to King Henry, mates. Tried by these rules, the govern. who esteemed them so highly, that he, ment of Ireland is found to be very defi. 1185, sent our author with his son Jolin cient; there is scarcely any middle rank to the isle. Cambreosis carried back in the country; and though there was with bim, and completed what he had the appearance of the English constibefore skeiched oui, and dedicated his tution, it was a phantom, not a reality : topography to the King --Levhoich. neither the King nor the Commons had

The Irish nation may be divided into any real share of the public authority two classes ; one consisting of the des- but a tyrannizing junio, formed by a cendants of the unfortunate aborigines, coalition amongst certain members of the other of their barbarous conquer- bold Houses, constituted an odious ors, the mixed race of Saxons and Nor- aristocracy. The effect of ihis aristomans. The former have hitherto been cracy is to be seen at Dublin, iu ilie

face of beggary, misery, and starvation, memoir forms an exception to this oh. which every where presents itself, and servation on the general tenor of the in the magnificence of the public build. lives of literary men, for Mr. Gifford's ings, and the splendor of the palaces of enibraced a very wide and variegated the wealthy.

field, chiefly in the character of a poli. Religious distinctions increase the tical writer and an active magistrate. wretchedness of the country. The In the introduction of this gcotleman stigma of religion is altached to more to the police of our readers, we bring than three million of catholics, and to forward a man wol more distinguished nearly one million of dissenters. Not by the eminence of his learning and more than five hundred thousand pro- talents, than by the goodness of his testants can be said fully to enjoy the heart. At a time when the kingdom benefits of civil government. So glaring was so seriously divided with anarchy, an inconsistency produced its patural republicanisin, and treason, he most fruits, jealousy and oppression on the zealousiy aided those who e opinious part of the minority, and hatred on the and principles were truly loyal and conpart of the majoriiy-effects which it stilurional, displaying his talents in deis to be hoped, may yet be subverted by veloping and counteracting the plans an act of universal ivleration.

and machinations of levellers against The immediate causes of the rebellion the government of his native isle, which are to be seen in the preceding state of has so long been the envy of the religion and government; the proxi- world. mate causes in the two factions, created Mr. Gifford was principally educated during the adininistration of Lord at Repton, under the late Dr. Prior, lo Westinoreland. The Orange party was whose care he was consigned by his fornied to perpetuate the abuses and grandfather, his father dying when he the oppressions of the government, by was only a few months old. He was discountenancing every innovation. afterwards sent to Oxford, where his The United Irishmen marshalled them. mind, naturally vigorous, was muchaug. selves on the other hand, not merely to mented in its powers, and much enlar. reform all abuses, bul also to carry in- ged in its capacities, by the very ample novation to the extent of separating range wbich his studies embraced in the country from Great Britain, and of that renowned seat of academical learnmaking it a free, integral, and indepen- ing. He inherited a very large patrident republic.

monial estate, but his grandfather dying Notwithstanding the political union in 1772, when he himself was only fourof Ireland with England, little has yet teen years of age, bis property was left been done to amcliorate the condition in the hands of guardians during his of that country, but we will entertain minorily. Mr. Gifford was intended the pleasing hopes, that the union of for the bar, and the liberal nature of the Sister Isles will in time be of advan. his studies, together with the strong tage to both countries.

bent of his maiural genius, eminently qualified him for obtaining the higbest

honours in ibat noble profession, which BIOGRAPHICAL REGISTER

his father had embraced before him ;

but, although in 1781 he took EMINENT PERSONS

chambers in Lincoln's-lon, he was diverled, soon after, from the continued

and regular prosecution of his profesNo. XXVIII.

sional pursuits, by circumstances of a

private and domestic nature, which it is JOHN GIFFORD, ESQ.

immaterial to detail, but which, in a T

the lives of literary men are enli. susceptible mind, determined him upon vened by few incidents, and therefore returning to France, where those high seldom afford any great scope for bio- powers with which he was gifted were graphical remark; for, variety of action still further matured, and where, pro. is not to be expected in the closest, or fiting alike from the conversations of in the privacy of study: a simple nar- the learned, and the cuitivation of let. rative, therefore, of their writings and ters, his character assumed that com. opinions, is all that we can hope to find manding energy which distinguished him in their bistory. The subject of this so much anongst his contemporarics.

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