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played throughout Asia, the descend. rhyme. Undoubtedly: but this dispoants of the first Arabian sbepherds, silion to accuse every nation of robbery became the cultivators of the gentle and plagiarism, is not the proper way to arts of peace. The Saracens discovered consider the subject. Verse is the and invested little, but they formed the simple and original manner of embodylink which unites ancient and modera ing thoughts, because men are naturally letters. The Moors were the great de joclined to barmonious associations of positaries of science.

language; and, by a continúance of “Literature emanated from Italy and the principle, rhyme will sooner or later Spain, and passed into the other Euro appear in their compositions. Every pean states. The Saracenian schools rude nation is poetical, and turns its were attended by students from all parts

verse into measure. As well night it of Christendom. The establishment of be contended, that the art of poetry the Saracens in tbe peninsula, was com- was trausferred from one country to pleted in the eighth century, and the another, as that rhyme was borrowed, elder Spanish romances are strongly The sources of the Muhammedan tinctured with Arabian ideas. When theology, morality and laws, are two three ages afterwards, Provence was fold- the Koran, or written law, and the annexed to the throne of Raymond Sonda, or traditionary law. Whether Berenger, Count of Barcelona, and the the Koran was written in the time of Catalonians and Provençals became in. Muhammed seems doubtful, and the termixed; a direct and immediate im. conjecture of Mosheim, may not be pression of oriental sentiments and man- very far from the truth, “that the true ners was made upon the christian world. Koran was an Arabic poem, which The Provençal poets are indebted for Muhammed recited to his followers some of their most beautiful images to without giving it to them in writing, their acquaintance with Arabic litera-ordering them ooly to commit it to ture. The notions of honor, the mys. their memory. Such were the laws of ticism of love, the harmonious blending the Druids in Gaul, and such also those of opinion and seoliment, the romantic of the Indians, wbich the Bramins re. grace of manners, and the character of ceive by oral tradition and get by ihe female sex, which the Troubadours heart. The lex scripta of the Moslems, describe, are in accordance with the has long been accessible to the general general strain of oriental poetry: and reader, by the transfusions which have rhyme, one great characteristic of mo- been made of it into the vernacular dern verse, was derived by these bards idioms of Europe; and the liberal policy from the Arabic measure." p. 404, of our merchant kings has opened to 405.

us the Mischat and the Hedaya, two This last assertion requires a com- books of bigh authority in the East, on ment. If rhyme were not an original subjects of traditionary law.

Liko invention of the Provençal poets, the Brahma, Confucius, and Zoroaster, the claims of the Franks and ihe Latios Arabian Prophet blended his religion, are at least equally strong with those of his morality, and his law; be legislated the Arabians. The Spaniards of the only for one people, and his permission twelfth century, called rhyming verses, of polygamy, and his prohibition of a lei Francesca. The life of Sancta wine, sutlicieolly shew bis want of foreFides, written in the Catalan dialect of sight to the extensiveness of his relithe Spanish longue, is io rhyme. Now gion's influence. The favorable chathis dialect is, with some exceptions, racleristic of this system, is its conthe Ronan lauguage current in Gaul, ceptions of the attributes of God*before and after its conquest by the Franks. This Rustica Romana, as it * Any one who reads the Koran will was called, Dearly resembles the Pro- see, that the Moslems hold most exalted vençal dialect, and the basis of the ideas respecting the attributes of God, and Provençal was the Latin language. Its that those ideas are expressed in the words corruptions were words froin the Celtic of the Jewish and Christian scriptures, or Gaulish idiom, and afterwards from canonical and apochryphal. The Greek the Visigoth or Frankish. In a pole contended, that in the judgment of the

Christians, however, of the twelfth century under the before quoted passage, our Moslems, God was a material and spherical author seems to question the opinion being: the God of the Mussalmans was expressed in the iext, and says, that therefore anathematised. This strange cirother sources may be found for modern cumstance begat a controversy, and much

i

its hatred of Paganism and Idolatry in jurisprudence is the best general one in every shape. Intolerance is its great which has bitherto been made. We and striking vice.

are not disposed to question the accu" That war is an ordinance of God, racy of his statements, but we object to

and that success is a mark of Divine his mode of illustration; he is indeed ho fator, are the natural principles of peo- more fond of comparisons than argu

pike sbose religion was fouoded by the ments, 'nor are bis illustrations always word-lordly pride, savageness, and happily chosen. Io writing on the

ferocity, must be the strong and pro- Jaws of the modern kingdoms of buy nicent features of the characters of Europe, it is necessary to refer to the

men who are influenced by a religion civil law; because in cases where the which breathes war and persecution. feudal law spoke not, the public reason The stamp of divinity and eternity of the Romans was generally resorted shich lolainism fixes on every instituti: to. Mr. Mills'illustrations are very en bas preserved the principles of Asiatic entertaining, but are all too classical; despotism, and the evils consequential he should have drawn from Oriental,

to such a state of society are sufficiently and not from Grecian, sources. , rimerous and dreadful to prevent, or We cannot agree with our author,

at least to check, the practice of mora- that the Moslem's religion has suffered lity, however pure and beautiful such no diminution of followers. He bimmorality may be." p. 368, 369.

self admits, that Spain has been lost to Feu objections can be raised against them, and that their progress in Rusthe moral code of Muhammed. All sia and Tartary has been checked by imposers have collected from other the Greek churches. Where are the ystems, some few wise inaxims; and it proofs of bis assertino, p. 414, tbat“ in s not too much to say, that as Cbris. the middle and lower Asia, and also 'in tunity had been esiablished in the East Africa, the professors of the Moslem's for six centuries, much of its spirit creed have gradually increased." His may be found in Islamism. The rule own statements are against his opinion; of reciprocal benevolence is stated in at least they prove, that with the exthe Koran nearly in the words of ception of Africa and India, the MosChrist

. With a few exceptions, Islam- lems are iodifferent about their reli. ia is a wretched compilation of all gion; and want of zeal is not the way the false religions of the East. The to gain proselytes. Jostances of the teoreal Paradise was borrowed from ferocity of the African Moor are with. the Persian and Indian schools; the out number; but we know little of the readers of the Hindoo abode of bliss success of their endeavours at couver. aralmost literally copied in the Koran; sion; even in India the Muhammedans Mubaramed's notions on demonology and Hindus have very much amalga. are all taken from Zoroaster; and in mated, and live in as social habits as his consecration of Friday for the Sab- their

faith will permit. bath, he followed tbe example of the “ The disciples of Muhammed in idolatrous Arabs, who sanctified that Jodia, have not only become more lax day by adoring on it the Goddess of in the performance of their religious

duties, than their brethren in the faith The theology and morality of the in Persia, Arabia, and Turkey, but Moslems, as deduced from the Koran, seem gradually to have adopted some are known to inost people. Mr. Mills' of the minor usages of the Hindus,” view of the subject is more extensive p. 423. than that which is generally taken, for In Arabia, the champions of orthoit comprises both the wriiten and the doxy could not repel' the beretical unwritten law. His survey of their Wahabees ; and the Bedoweens say, the

religion of Muhammed could never learning and charity were wasted. Peace have been intended for us. We have at length was restored; it was declared, no water in the deserts, how then can that the God of the Christiaos, and of the Tork, were the same; and the anathema

we make the prescribed ablutions? es the Deity of the Moslems was trans

We have no money, how then can we ferred (an anatbema in the church, like a give alms: The fast of Ramadan is trust in egairy, is sever lost for want of an

an useless command to persons who object) frou that awful being to the Pro- fast all the year round; and if God phet kimeelf, bis doctrine, and bis fol- be every where, why should we go to lona.

Mecca lo adore bim?'

Lore.

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In Persia, Islamism is the national regular lessons already in use. The and nominal religion ; but in that true author states, that the principal object seat of despotism, tbe moral character of every one, should be to make his of the people is formed inore from the pupils thoroughly comprehend one nature of the government than from question, before they proceed to anoreligion.

ther; for this purpose, they should each « The Persian citizens are but nomi- be provided with a music slate, upon nal Muhainmedans, and the wandering which, or the instrument, the teacher tribes have even less virtue. The should first give and then require from Kurds, for example, honestly confess, them, other examples than those set that they more nearly resemble Euro- down; for instance, though only one peans than Muhammedans; and on example is inserted of major and minor being questioned on the points of simi. tbirds, the pupils should be required to larity they reply, We cat hogs' flesh, write or play major and minor thirde keep no fasts, and say no prayers.' to any given note; and proceed in the p. 429 note.

same manner with all the other quesIn Turkey, too, every thing denotes tions. a falling religion. Proselytism is but After being made thoroughly aclittle thought of; and a freedom of quainted with the contents of this book, conversation, bordering on infidelity, the pupils may proceed to the study of iş mentioned by every traveller. The harmony, and the practice of playing number. of the Meccan pilgrims ad• from figured bases. nually declines, and the stern laws of the Prophet against intoxication are bent to the wishes of the people.

Family Annals; or the Sisters. By " All the kiogdoms of the world

Mary Hays. 12mo. pp. 183. 55. shall become the kingdoms of our Lord and of his Christ.” Such was the lofly To Miss Edgeworth, whose name strain of the holy men of old. May ought never to be pronounced without “thy kingdom come,' is the daily gratitude and respect, the public is inorison of every follower of Jesus. in debted for a revolution in works of the councils of the Lord, the total imagination. Delineations of real chadownfall of Islamism may be reserved racters and manners, pictures of the for some distant day; but the signs of age and times in which we live (to the times point to Constantinople as which future historians and philosothe scene of some approaching tremen. phers would be glad to refer) good dous change. From Russia, or speake sense, sound principle, and unaffected iug to Moslem readers from Tartary, feeling, have in these lighter produce the torrent of horror and devastation tions of literature, been substituted for again shall flow; and if by the bene. the wonders of ancient romance, for ficent and politic ioterposition of the the intricate incidents, inflated descripEuropean potentates Greece shall once tions, and still wore inflated sentiments more flourish the seat of liberty, reli- of the modern novel. Amusement and gion, and letters, the repentant nations instruction are thus happily and inseof the South will mark and owo the just parably blended ; and from their conjudgments of God, and rise from their nexioa, wore widely and generally diflong slumbers in grateful acknowledg- fused. meats of his mercy.

The author, it appears, bas been

induced to resume a pen long throwu The Piano Torle Primer: containing than that of co-operating, in some

aside, by no other view or solicitude the Rudiments of Music, calculated degree, with the admirable writer beeither for Privale Tuition, or Teach

fore mentioned, and others of her ing in Classes. By J. F. Burrowr's.

own sex who have entitled themselves 1 2mo. pp. 554.

to a portion of the same grateful res. Tois Book is not intended to inter- pect. Thongh only one talent should fere with the mode of instruction which have been citrusted, we are taught by any master has already adopted, but to the purest of moralists, that one canbe used either in private tuition or not, with impunity, be folded in a nap. teaching in classes, in additiou to the kiu, or suưered to rust disased.

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The French Scholars' First Book ; com- The reading lessons in the third part, prising & copious Vocabulary, a Colo bave been arranged with particular atlection of Familiar Phrases, Reading tention. Endeavours appear to baye Lexons, and a concise View of French been used to adapt them to the capacity Granmer. By Ph. Le Brelon, A.M.

and taste of children, for whose use Maler of the Academy in Poland- they are chiefly intended. They are ured. 12mo. pp. 92.

also designed to exercise the learner in

translating, and with this view, the This little work is comprehended assistance at the bottom of the page is under four divisions. The first part gradually abridged, as the student is contains a vocabulary of the words in expected to acquire a knowledge of the most common use, and the second words of most common recurrence. part a collection of familiur phrases.

THEATRICAL JOURNAL.

. der

DRURY-LANE. VE audience of this Theatre were supposing her crime completed, dies presented with a novelty which has been with the help of Dougal (Wallack,) a loog in preparation-a romantic drama trusty Highlauder, far surpassing in in three acts, called Rob Roy; or The jotellect his namesake in the novel, and Gregarach. It is from the pen of Mr. the best character in the piece, is'carSoane, the ingenious author of The Falls ried by the seer into a cave, and resClyde, and some other popular pieces. tored to life. Rob Roy whose advenThe following are the leading incidents, tures do not blend sufficiently with which, it will be seen, owe little to the those of bis mistress, is impeached by story from which the title is derived :- Sir Rasbleigb, taken prisoner, suffered

Diana Vernon (Miss Smithson) be. to escape, kills his betrayer, is purtrothed to, but hating Sir Rashleigh sued, surrounded, and on the point of Oxbaldistone (Mr. Rae), and secretly in being shot, when General Vernon aplove with Rob Roy (Mr. H. Joboston), pears with bis pardon, procured by the chief of the clan Gregarach, is urged threat of resigning his commission ; by ber father, General Vernon (Ben. Diana appears, roshes to the arms of googh), on accouot of a large fortune, ber busband, and the curtain drops. which will be lost to both if the union This drama, on the whole, has condoes not take place, to a precipitate siderable merit, but it is not without fulfillment of her contract. The mar- material faults. The most obvious of riage ceremony is interrupted by Rob the latter consists in annexing characRoy and his followers, who takes the ters to particular names, wholly differplace of Sir Rashleigh, and intimidating ing from the previous associations we the priest by his threals, becomes bim. had formed of them: a character like self the husband of Diana Veruon. Diava Vervon or Rob Roy resembles Helen Macgregor (Mrs. Glover), the an acquaintance: once aller the feamother of Rob Roy, considering her tures of which they are composed, asdan degraded by this alliance with sign Dew attributes or different modes , Southera blood, 'is indignant at the of conduct, ihe identity is destroyed, marriage, and forms a design to carry and our sense of propriety violated. of and destroy the bride by poi', 1. We may tolerate General Vernon share The seer Morvyn (Holland), to whom ing a fate like that of Captain Thorn she applies for the drog which is to toi, ensnared and caplured by the Higheffect her fatal porpose, deceives her Janders; and even a Helen Macgregor, hy a plan similar to that which is prac. as the mother of Rob Roy, and the lised in Romeo and Juliet. The sup- murderer of his wife; but not a delipneed prisva is adıninistered, with every cate, bigb minded creature, similar to addition of atrocious cruelts and malig. Diana Vernon, volontarily sharing from bant invective, by Helen herself, wbo, aus conceivable motive the fortunes of Europ. Hlag. Vol. LXXIII. April 1818.

Xx

a robber and an outlaws and still less succeeded by a new lyterlude, of the can we imagine Rob Roy, the bold burlesque or bombastic species, called free-booter, the chief instrument in a Amoroso, King of Little Britain. The daring rebellion, wasting his time, and author of this dramatic trifle, wbich in ruining bis purposes, in the pursuit of the style bears some resemblance to a love iotrigue.

To distort characters Borbastes Furioso, has shewn much thus, is in some measure to pervert ingenuity in its composition; and has the truth of bistory; a few steps far- carefully avoided in his mock reprether, and we might have Julius Cæsar sentation of royalty, every thing that represented as a coward, and Cicero as could be interpreted into offence; it is an idiot. The piece is much too long, written in rbyme, and is interspersed and some incidents of minor impor-, too thiekly with songs: a serious song, tance occupy by far too much space ; from its nature, scarcely admits of burbut, on the other hand, there is great lesque; and, unless the words are disroom for recommendation. Many of tinctly heard, produces no effect. We the situations are uncommonly striking decidedly object too, to any burlesques and dramatic, and the dialogne, espe- on Shakspeare. If the author will omit cially in the serious part, is nervous these entirely, which were the worst and appropriate. The characters of executed parts of his Interlude, and Dougal, mentioned before, and that of curtail the number of his songs, the Sir Rashleigh, are drawn with much piece will prove, we think, one of the force and discrimination ; , and even most successful of its kind. Harley, Diana Vernon, had she appeared with a who played Amoroso, was irresistiby different name, would have possessed ludicrous. The characters in general strong claims to our favor.

were well dressed, in the style of the The conclusion of the piece was not mock heroic drama, and were performupattended with marks of disapproba ed with much spirit. The first scene tion, but the applause greatly predomi- is the best. The new interlude was nated.

announced for repetition with universal APRIL 8.

This evening we were approbation from one of the fullest bigbly gratified to witness the return audiences of the season. of that excellent and popular actress APRIL 23. This evening the comic Miss Kelly, to the boards of this theatre, opera of The Lady of the Manor was after her long absence. She was re. revived. The plot is simple, the cba. ceived with the greatest enthusiasm by racters possess some liveliness, and the the audience. The character selected language is unaffected, but in neither for the occasion was that of Lucy respect does the drama often rise above Lockit, her just delineation of which is mediocrity. The music is sometimes too well known and admitted to require very pleasing, and Miss Byrne, Miss any comment. It is certainly one of the Kelly, and Mr. T. Cooke, exert themmost finished and forcible exhibitions in selves with success in the vocal part. its kind that ever was represented on the We need scarcely observe, that Miss stage; she looked extremely well, and Kelly was of still greater service in the performed with as much spirit as we delineation of character, in which sho remember to have observed in any of acquitted herself with that spirit and her former undertakings.

judgment which never desert her. We APRIL 21. This evening the histori. cannot, however, pronounce any sabcal play of Deaf and Dumb was revived guine expectations of the ultimate sucat this theatre, when the part of Julia cess of this opera as an acting-piece, was performed by Mrs. Bartley with judgiog from the reception of this considerable pathos. The Play was evening.

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PERFORMANCES.

1818.

Mar. 26. Rob Roy-Devil to Pay.

97. Ditto-Review.
88. Ditto-What Next?
30. Ditto-Honest Thieves.

$1. Ditto-Follies of a Day.
April 1. Beggars' Opera-Sleeping Draught.

2. Double Gallant-Ditio.
3. Confederacy-Ditto.
4. Heir at LawDitto.
6. Rob Roy-Ditto,

7. Busy Body-Sleeping Draught.
8. Beggars' Opera-Diito.
9. Confederaci-Diito.
10. Pollies of a Day-falls of Clyde-Sleeping

Draught.
11. Ways and Means Ditto-Ditto.
13. Richard the Third-Ditto.
14. Macbeth-Ditto.
13. The Rivals-- Diuto.
16. Iron Chest-Ditto.

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