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used by the Christians, besides the un- the Jews to occur about the 25th of willingness of the latter to appear as March. But sirce, according to the if celebrating the Judaic Passover, oc. Gregorian arrangement, the February casioned mucb confusion in the ob- of that year consisted only of 28 days servance of Easter; so that we find instead of 29, which, according to the in the year 387 and 577, some churches regular order of Bissextile years, it celebrated the Easter on the 21st ought to bave been), March became Warch, some on the 18th April, and anticipated a day, and that wbicb, some on e5th April, in the same year. according to the regular arrangement, The Council of Nice, however, settled ought to have been March 25th, was the arrangement to be, that Easter must by this means called 26th ; consealways be kept on the 1st Sunday on or quently, that day is now considered after the full moon immediately fol- as the commencement of the vernal loving the vernal equipox.
quarter by the Jews, whose calculation This regulation gives rise to great of periods has remained undisturbed. differences in the dates of the respective This difference of calculation by which Easters in different years, so as to make the Christians fix the veroal equinox its range to be from March 22, which is every year on the 21st March, without the earliest possible day, to April 25th, regarding the additional day of leap which is the latest, for the full moon year, and the consideration bý the Jews and the equinox do not always occur of the equinox not taking place before at the same time, and the Easter must the 26th, is the principal ground of always be on Suoday : nay, if it even the discordance of the Easter and the should occar that the moon bc full Passover. on the 21st March, the day of the Besides this, a difference exists with Equinox, and although that day be respect to the calculation of the new Sunday, yet not being the Sunday after moon, as attached to the lunar cycle tbe fall mooo, Easter is postponed till of 19 years, which, according to the: the month following. The same pro. Julian period, was set down to concrastination of Easter takes place if sist of 6939 days 18 hours, but accord. the moon should be full after 12 o'clock ing to the Judaic arrangemeat of 235 on March 22d, if ibal day should chance lunar months consists of 6939 days 16 to be on Sunday, as it is considered the hours 32 minutes. By this error in woon of that day, the lunar day being the Julian calculation, the day of new from 12 o'clock at noon to the follow. moon was made to anticipate the truth ing, as the solar day is reckoned from by one day in 3124 years ; and, in fact, midnight to midnight.
we find, that in the year 331 the golden From these preliminaries, it will very number was 9, and the new moon was clearly appear, that the discrepancies marked on the 25th of March; whereas continually occurring between the solar in 1623, the golden number being also and lapar calculation must necessarily 9, the new moon was calculated as prevent the constant agreement of the being on the 21st of March. This irreperiod of the Christian Easter with the gularity induced 'Pope Gregory to reJewish Passover, although in general ject the golden number as a guide according to principle, they occur about whereby to calculate Easter, and subthe same time: the difference is evi- stituted a scale of epacts for this purdent, that wbile the Christians calculate pose : but as these are regulated by according to the solar year, they are complete numbers, and cast off 30 days obliged to regulate their Paschal fes. without regard to fractional parts, they tival by the moon; and while the Jews cannot be esteemed completely correct. calcolate by the lunar year, they are
From wbat has been so particularly obliged to regulate their Passover by detailed, the arrangemeut by which , the course of the sup; a correction Easter is fixed, and its agreement or that proves mutually serviceable, and non-agreement with the Jewish Passfacilitates the ultimate agreement of over, can be made clear in few words ; years at the expiration of the several viz. that whenever the full moon occurs cycles.
between the 22d and the 26th of March, The Passover of the Jews can never Easter must always precede the Jewish take place until after the commence- Passover by vearly a month, as neither ment of the spring quarter, which be- of them can be celebrated but in the lore the year 1700 was calculated by vernal season, which the Christians fix
the commencement of on the 21st of iron by heat and cold when confined be March, and the Jews on the 25th or tween buttresses, which is found very 26th. A consideration of the minutiæ sensibly to affect bridges with small, beretofore laid down will give a correct arches, and how much more must it idea of the usual discrepancies of these large ones. Are there not principles festivals.
upon which iron bridges may be built to The precise circumstance of the dates coupleract these defects. There cer. of these festivals in 1818 occurred in tainly are. Or is this bridge to be a sort 1 693, when the Christians celebrated of secood edition, in point of expense, Easter on the .22d of March, while the similar to one lately completed by the Jews kept the feast of Parim ; but the same principal operator, which the
Abib not being considered as baving ar.. purses of many yet severely feel. • rived until the 25th, the year was inter- A deceptive idea has been held out as
calated, and Passover observed on the an apology for the Southwark Bridge, 21st of April.
stating, that when completed London According to calculations made on Bridge will be removed.' But this, as a these premises, it will be found, that citizen, I deny: for what then will beduring the nineteenth century, from cone of the property on Fishstreet-hill, similar causes, but with dissimilar dates, Bishopsgate street, and lanes and streets Easter will precede the Jewish Passover leading to London Bridge: No, nos nearly a month in the following years ; London Bridge, bad as it is, must either viz. 1807, 1815, 1818,1826, 1837, 1845, be patched up or rebuilt, with a tempo1858, 1856, 1864, 1872, 1975, 1883, rary bridge alongside of it, whilst exe1891, 1894, each of these years being cuting: I am one that acknowledge either the 8th, 11th, or 19th of the the bad and decayed state of London, Jewish lunar cycle and embolismal year, Bridge: neither can any person dedy it, of which the Christian epacts will be who will look at the engraved plan of found to be 20, 23, or 22.
the surveys made for the select committee of the House of Commons, by
Mr. Dodd, the engineer, as they will SOUTHWARK BRIDGE.
see the whole of the south pier of the To the Editor of the European Magazine. great arch split in two places, and only
held togetber with bars of iron. As it ANY public animadversions have is the revenue of all bridges that pay and Waterloo Bridges: but I have never see bow the Southwark Bridge is to pay yet seco any on the Southwark Bridge, without a direct North and South road, Dow so nearly finished. Permit me to and which it can never possess witbout state my opinion, in your publication, pulling down our ancient Guildhall of which is open to all parties
London: besides, it being so mearly siIo the first place, why was the prin tuated between two free bridges i viz. ciple of that bridge similar to the iron- Blackfriars and London, and being but bridge at Boston, with all its faults, as little more than a quarter of a mile the same engineer who executed the one from the latter, surely no one would is employed in the olber, which, if any prefer paying, when they may so reabody will take the trouble to inquire, dily cross the river free of expense ; will be found, I believe, to be split in and although I am a great friend to nearly forty places, and the money ex. bridges, I like to see them placed pended in its repairs, it is said, to fall where they will be useful to the public. little short of its original cost: this in-> By inserting this in your valuabie formation I obtained during my last publication, you
will oblige, journey through Lincoloshire.
Your constant reader, of this I am certain, that both struc.
A CITIZEN. tures are hanging their dreadful heavy. King-street, Cheapside, weights of iron on their buttresses, and Nov. 15, 1817. should this weight thrust them away, they must inevitably fall into the river, We have given a place to the preced-, as did Staines Bridge into the Thames, ing leller, in the hope of its eliciting a and one at Yarm, io Yorkshire, into the reply from some one qualified to adv0river Tees. Another disadvantage is, cate the cause of the Southwark Bridge, the contraction aod expansion of the - EDITOR.
Totke Etier of the European Magazine. 'at any rate it could not be wholly STR.
uoproductive of good. And here it "THE enclosed is submitted to your may be remarked, how short a time decision, for insertion in your ex•
does the circle of a year seem to be, cellent Miscellany, by
when retracing its finished course, but Your most obedient,
how fearfully long wben looking forJar. 91, 1818.
ZAMANA. ward to the conclusion of the next.
This has generally been admitted to be RECOLLECTIONS.
one of the greatest blessings afforded ** Har bas another day to swell the past,
to man, that he can recur so summarily Asd leads him near to little but his last.”
to past pleasures, while the future are Byron's " Lara," held in abeyance, and only bestowed " I slow and gradual decrease the from day to day, to confer a more lasttime-glass has exhausted its numerous
ing and real joy on their unexpectant saads, and in ioverting its position to have silently sighed to break the ber
possessor. Yet how few are there but trace the course of another hour, a new year has opened, and brings along with her inmensurable plains, in all the wild
metical seal of futurity, and bound over it a thousand Recollections, many of which Memory woaldegladly efface from tle dreaming how suon that radiant sun
ness of present ecstasy and delight, litber tablet, whilst few, if any, she can
which now enlivens would be overnow dwell on with unmixed satisfac
shadowed with the clouds of darkness, Loc."-Such was Euromio's exclama. tioa upon the close of the last, and
fraught with “ danger and distress."
The sacred Eva:gelist bath expressed commeacement of the present year. this in words which speak more to the The feelings which attended it he feelings than the most studied language would gladly have exchanged for any
or ornamented slyle could have done, others, which, even of a more poig:
suflicient into the day is the evil pant nature, would, he thought, per thereof." This truth, however, did laaps have been more tolerahle. For the
not bear upon the thoughts of Eunomio cse be had experienced, the other he
at the present time, for it was in the could only anticipate. To sketch Eu. somio's character would be more than a coutemplation of the future that he dificult task, as few, if any, knew it recalled the past. An opportunity had
presented itself, in the commencement istimately. It was, to draw a brief of the preceding year, to stimulate bis Gatline, a compound of virtue and vice, ambition, to rouse bis exertions, and of candour and dissimulation, of good call into action his intellectual facul. prisciples and perverled action. He ties. But bad his ambition been impossessed a feeling heart, which would pelled forward, had his exertions gained Bot willingly disturb another's peace; yet if that beart sustained an injury, strove to obiain the reward held out
energy, or bis intellectual faculties be erulted in the gratification of the
to their reach ? No-tajated by false balice of reveoge. The worm will
actions, deludce by specious argu. tero in writhing agony against the foot ments, he had spurned the means of of its beedless destroyer. He would
his aggrandisement in literary fame. listen to the undisguised tale of woe,
He had deemed it the reward only sod, if bis means aliorded ii, dispense of the most servile drudge, the prize the bumble pittance of his purse; but only of the meanest book-worm.' He to the fergued wailing of assumed dis, had heard, and fancied. he bad seen tress
, he turned away with deaf aud it verified, that the honour extended ubdurate ear
not beyond the precincts where it was * In bin inexplicably mixed appeared confiped; that it was a short-lived Msch to be loved and bated, sought and reputation, which was not adequate feared."
to the risk hazarded in its acquircTo return, however : in reviewing his ment. How far such a conclusion was course of life during the last year, much justified, he did not then stop to conoccurred to harrow up bis ipinost soul, sider-He did not give hiinself ibe white little appeared to tranquilise or trouble to fathom the sophistry of the saites the review-yet be shrunk pot argument, or weigh quieily and disfrom the task be bad voluntarily im- passionately its component parls. He prend upon himself: it might speak did not consider by wbom it was upa malatary lesson to his future conduct; held, or the materials upon which its Eus op. Naz. Fol. LXXIII. Jan. 1818.
foundation was reared. He never sus- and dissipation.
and dissipation. Nothing is more pected that disappointment would strive pleasing to the youthful mind, in eoto undervalue the reward, and incapa. tering upon life, or more seductive in city exert its ulmost influence to keep appearance, than the caresses of acdown all others upon the same level quaintance, and respect of strangers. with itself. It appeared plausible on An universal introduction to society a first view, and as such fixed his deter. is the first wish and object of a young mination. Subsequent reflection bas, man, which the former may be willing however, shewn him the fallacy of such from kindness to shew, while a personreasoning. He bas disappointed the able exterior, easy address, and ready fondly-raised hopes of affectionate pa. flow of conversation, may wrest it from rents, and defeated their most sao. the latter. Eunomio was not now, howguine expectations. Yet if these were ever, beginning life, as, from certain the only resulis, time might wear away circumstances, in an earlier period, he the recollection of them. But can he, had entered the world. He had seen while he thinks as a man, or as a sen- society, he had indulged in pleasure's sible being, ever forgive himself such revelry, and if not one of the foremost, unwarrautable inanily of character ? was at least not the most unresisting Is it not the peremptory duty of every of her votaries. Still, however, be exman to soar above mediocrity, to strive perienced that the circle of his acin competition for the foremost prize, quaintance was increasing, and that to aim at the victor wreath. If indi. he was sailing on a more expansive vidual gratification canoot urge on- sea of gaiety and fashion. Tbough he ward to the attemple ought not the floated with the tide, yet his spirits pride of family and kindred to assert a did not always rise in equal buoyancy. claim irresistible? It unquestionably The method and course of life was not ought; for where exists such honour wholly congenial to his feelings. Each as ibat acquired by talent and genius? night of pleasure brought back its kinWhere such fame as that adjudged to dred day of ennui, and, like spirits merit, or bestowed on learuing? For to the habitual drunkard, each added this purpose was man endowed with draught seems only to exhilarate, to reason, for this was it given him to create afterwards a weightier depresexplore the hidden treasures of un- sion. lo this state of life and temperevealed science - And this Eunomio rament of mind, an incident occurred, had relinquished, had considered be- by wbose consequences, if persisted in neath his potice. Strange infatuation! with all the ardour Eunomio commenced which could hold captive the mind in it, his best prospects would have been such weak and slender chains. Con- marred, his future happiness would have fined in this thraldom then, he suf- been for ever blighted and destroyed. fered to escape an opportunity or sig. Thisescape, so fortunate, he cannot attridalizing himself, which can never be bute to his own foresight, or assign to recalled. Yet let it not be supposed bis own caution and wisdom. Led on that Eunomio indulged in slothful idle. by visionary schemes, he painted to ness, or despised literature. On the bimself, in glowing and vivid colours, contrary, he was greatly addicted to scenes, wbich, if prudence had posreading, and enjoyed the intercourse sessed any sway, or reason held any of clever men. But his present regret controul over his thoughts and actions, was, that he had not strove to obtain would have instantly declared delusive, honour and reward when the oppor. and imaginary. At first view, all tunily offered ; that he had not aimed seemed fairy land, peopled with subat distinction, but had suffered him. jects of his own arbitrary creation : but self to be numbered in the herd of the upon closer inspection. fertility yielded numerous many. Such was the circum- to barreuness, beauty dwindled into stance that marked the commencement deformity, deceit resumed her station, of the preceding year in distinct cha- whicb bad only womentarily been racters upon his mind's memory. The usurped by candour, and the creatures words of a great master may here be realized by fancy, wasbed into the applied to Eunomio's conduct, " Con. empty void of nothingness. Motives tempt previous to investigation." of delicacy compel the restraint of any Time now wore on, and Eunomio direct exposition of the nature of the changed the still silence of science and circumstance which is referred to, and literature for the busy scenes of pleasure which must form a sufficicot excuse for
any ambiguity in which the relation is sometimes succeed beyond the most dethed. This clear insight ioto the sanguine expectations of its employer ; nature of the affair in which he was yet more frequently defeats its own about to engage, has been already said, intentions, and while preparing to euwa hot produced by his own unassisted circle the unsuspecting victim in its discerament, or foresight Prejudice intricate toils. entangles itself in diffiand misconception cannot, therefore, culties, which require more skill aud be alleged to have caused this change ingenuity than it is master of, to rein his sentiments, neither call caprice be move. Then, if ever, is the time, it brought forward in evidence against must feel its own weakness, must too him. suspicion had sometimes invaded plainly perceivetbe dark and disgraceful bis thoughts, but the batred and avere turpitude of its own ineffectual efforts. sios in which he beld that most odious Theu must the pareut author loathe of buman passions, always impelled the nature of its production, avd tura him to senmon to his aid,' the utmost wiib aversion and disgust from the off. efforts he could master, in the combat spring of its baseness. Duplicity may of such an jlliberal feeling. This libe- wear the form of honest candour, and pality of sentiment however has alınost even for a wbile impose its smiles of become an outcast from the catalogue ingenuousness, but when the mask falls, of human virtues. In the modern day all its hidden deformity appears more shen dissimulation forms the consti- odious fron its former concealment. tueat ingredient of nearly every cha- 'To support the character requires a racter, it may reasonably be questioned, more than common address, and intiwhelber candour and sincerity are not macy with mankind. It does not ad. mistaken potions,
or mere words, unit of suddenly layoching out into exwholly abstracted from human prac. tremes, or privately receding into retice. To tread the same level with tirement. Its step must be continued society, the same habits must be and covaried, experiencing no change, adopted, the same actions enter. liable to no alteration. It demands lained, and rather than become the time, and place, and action, as its subdape and cheat of others, first exercise servient ministers, and skill and device upon thein the experiment of your own as its directing counsellors. Can it be machinery. That a fraok and ingenu. wondered then that its success should ous disposition should only be gradually be so wholly disproportionale to its atdeveloped, and vot reveal itself imme. tempts. That the main spriogs of the diately, is a truth which once would engine should so often clog and refuse have staggered the most credulous dis- to perform their functious? It indeed ciple. But all man's second wature, cannot, for these defeats ought to be now readily admits the force, and daily calculated on and guarded against.habit coufirms the reality of the posi- Happy then are they who, doomed to tion. Had Eonomio pursued this' lioe be the victims of its macbinations, are of conduct he would not now have released by its owo inconsiderate folly, had to record this circumstance. Had and avoid the destructive ruin into he studied buman nature, and followed which it would pluuge them by its own her through all her dudalean cireuils, jutemperate impetuosity. Like the and windings, had he not considered angler who, at the first wibble, snatches himself the standard by which he should his line with excessive eagerness, luscs try the essay of others, he would not his expected prey, 80 scheming, conto sensibly discovered ine alloy which trivance, and deceit, rapidly pursuing was intermised with the metal. But their first success, betray too inanifestly he bas gained a valuable experience; the object of their intentions, which it and though. perhaps, bought at the was otherwise their dearest interest to price of much feeling, yet the satis- conceal. Such Eunomio in the present faction he pow derives, and still ex. jostance discovered to be the case; and pects to derive, will amply repay the darkened indeed must have been his
Throughout the visual organs bad they not admitted the whole he never har had cause to re- ray of light which burst upon them. prvach bimself. except for bis 100. To retire was then a duiy inperatively Feady credulity, a pardonable error. imposed upon himself. Ile was already JI any reproach is utiered, it must liberated by every rule of honour, vý
upon the author of the con. every principle of reclitude. Feeling trivaace. Scheiding contrivance will would iherefore no longer be permitid