« AnteriorContinuar »
that part of Old Greenland where the of the Privcess of Wales of Aberde Danish colonies were supposed to be that “the reckoning in his log-bo established, and which are immediately was worked at the end of every wato opposite to Iceland. Here it would. A practice which is also common amo seein those masses became a kind of British whalers after making the ice fixed nucleus, round which a succes and that “both the master and m: sion of floating fields of ice attached were very intelligent navigators." themselves, till the accumulated bar. Since that time, we bave received fro rier, probably by its own weight and Hainburgh a copy of Captain Ocke magnitude, and the action of the im. log, a chart of his route, and a leti peded current, at length burst its fet addressed by him to Messrs. Elliott a ters, and has been carried away to the Co. of Hainburgh; from all which southward. This at least appears to be appears, that he coasted Greenland wi the most probable conjecture, though the land in sight, ainoog loose ice, b another circumstance will bereafter be that the most northerly point which adverted to, pot unworthy of attention, saw was 80 deg. N. latitude. in endeavouring to account for the phe But we have the direct testimo nomenon.
of Mr. Scoresby the younger, a ye It had been conjectured by philoso. intelligent navigator of the Greenla phers, that the remarkable chilliness of seas, for the disappearance of an is the atmosphere during the two last sum inense quantity of arctic ice. lo iners, and more particularly with westletter to Sir Joseph Banks, he say erly winds, could only be owing to the “ I observed on my last voyage (181 accumulation, or rather to the approxi. about two thousand square leagu mation of tbe polar ice to the south. (18,000 square miles) of the surface ward. The reports of the Greenland the Greçoland seas, included bel wet fishermen, on their return in August the parallels 74. deg. and 80 deg: pe 1817, connected with accounts of the fectly void of ice, all of which h ice seen in the Atlantic, corroborated disappeared within the last two years. this hypothesis. Io that month there And he further states, that tbough c appeared in the newspapers a paragraph, former voyages he had very rarely bec stating, that " in the course of the sea able to penetrate the ice, between th son, the commander of a brig from Bre• latitude of 76 and 80 degrees, so fart men, after making Jan Mayen's Island, the west as the meridian of Greenwich in about 71 deg. N. stood to the west " on his last voyage he twice reache ward in quest of seals ; that in 72 deg. the longitude of io deg. west ;” that i be found land to the westward ; that be the parallel of 74 deg. he approached th then sailed nearly due north along this coast of Old Greenland ; that there wa coast without seeing ice, observing the little ice pear the land ; and adding bays and inlets and other appearances
" that there could be no doubt bu of the land, till he came to lat. 81 deg. be might have reached the shore, har so min. when he found that he could he had a justifiable motive for navi: steer to the westward, which he did gating an unknown sea at so late a for several days; that he then lost season of the year."
He also found sight of land, and directed his course the sea so clear in returning to the to the south ward and eastward, and in southward, that he actually landed on 78 deg. N. fell in with the first fishing Jan Mayen's Island, which is usually vessels he had seen.” We took some surrounded with a barrier of ice, and pains to ascertain the truth of this state. brought away specimens of the rocks. inent, and found it corroborated in Another faci deserves to be menalaost every particular by five different tioned. Dr. Olintbus Gregory, who masters of whalers belonging to Aber sailed from Shetland to Peterhead in deen and to London, to whom, at the Neptune of Aberdeen, on her return different tinies, Olof Ocken (the per- from the fishery, is said to have report: son alluded to), master of the Eleanora cd, that Driscole, the master, not only of Hamburgh (not of Bremen), had landed on the east coast of Greenland given an account of the course which about the latitude of 14 degrees, but he steered along the eastern coast of found and brought away a post bearing Greenland, from Jan Mayen's Island
ao inscription, in Russian characters, to the degree of latitude above-men that a ship of that pation had been tioned ; and it appears, from the joint there in the year 1774; which post
; testimony of the captain aud surgcon with its inscription, was seen on board
Gregory. It would seem indeed doubt on this question. The Isle of te porthern part of the east coast Ely was named, in the early times of de Greenlaod has been approached at the Normans, lle de Vignes, the bishop 73 times by different nations, of which received three or four tons of kh, Danes, and English. Hudson, wine, yearly, for his tenth. So late 1191. saw the coast nearly in the as the reign of Richard II. the little e latitude as that where Driscole park at Windsor was appropriated as a apposed to have landed; and actually a vineyard, for the use of the castle :
a boat on shore in 80 deg. 23 min. and William of Malmsbury asserts, that its from Hudson's - Hold with Hope,” the vale of Gloucester produced, in the is about 12 degrees, to Cape Farewell, twelfth century, as good wine as many But be ice fixed itself to the land from of the provinces of France.
"" There is that it has recently been detached. no province in England bath so many,
Phot tbis is the case we can state or such good vineyards, as this counhas the best authority: - Intelligence try, either for fertility or sweetness of sa received at Copenhagen, frow Ice the grape; the wine whereof carrieth
in September last, of the ice hav- no unpleasant tartness, being not much broken loose from the opposite inferior to French in sweclness." It is cast of Greenland, and floated away remarkable enough, that in a park near to the southward, after surrounding the Berkeley, in this country, tendrils of stores, and filling all the bays and creeks vines are found springing up yearly e that island; and this afflicting visita among the grass, from one of which lion was repeated in the same year: a culling is now flourishing in the gariareomstance hitherto unknown to the den of Sir Joseph Banks. But wine est inhabitant.
is known to have been made in Eng.
lapd at a much more recent period. (The writer then attempts to antici
Among the MS. notes of the late Peter peate the effect of this great revolution Collinson (to whoin the European world of nature on the climate of this conn- is indebted for the introduction of some
of its choicest plants), is the following The invention of the thermometer memorandum :-“ Oct. 1812, 1765, I and the registry of the temperature are went to sce Mr. Roger's vineyard, at of too recent a date to enable us to com Parson's Green, all of Burgundy grapes, pare the state of the atmosphere, before and seemingly all perfectly ripe. I did and after the accumulation of ice on the not see a green half-ripe grape in all coast of Greenland! but tbere are rea. this great quantity. He does not exsous for believing that, previous to the pect to make less than fourteen hogsfifteenth century, England enjoyed a heads of wine. The branches and fruit Farmer summer climate than since that are remarkably large, and the vines period. It is sufficiently apparent that, very strong:" These facts completely at of time, vineyards were very com
set aside the idea that the vineyards mon in England; and that wine, in very of England were apple-orchards, and considerable quantities, was made from that the wine was cider. them. Tacitus states, that vineyards
Nor is England the only country were planted by the Romans in Bri that has lost its wincs by deteriora. tajn; and Holioshed quotes the per- tion of climate ; as the following fact, mission given by Probụs to the natives on which we can depend, testifies :to cultivate the vine, and make wine “ Between Namur and'Liege, the Meuse from it. The testimony of Bede-the flows through a narrow valley, which, old notices of tythe on wine, which for picturesquc scenery and high culwere common in Kent, Surrey, and tivation, is perhaps unequalled by any other soutbern counties-the records country in the world. The richest corn. of suits in the ecclesiastical courts fields and plantations of tobacco, and the inclosed patches of ground attached other luxuriant vegetables, occupy the to numerous abbeys, which still bear space on both sides close to the river ; the name of vigeyards—the plot of while bop plantations and a series of ground called East Smithfield, which vineyards are seen creeping towards the Fas converted into a vineyard, and held very summit of the rocks on the left by four successive constables of the bank, The vincyards appeared to be Tower
, in the reigns of Rufus, Henry, in a most luxuriant state when I saw and Stephen, “ 10 their great ensola. them (in September, 1817), but there ment and prosti' sçem to remove all was not a siogle bunch of grapes on
any of them. I had conversation with the rest. That cause being now remany of the people, wbo all assured me, moved, we are disposed to join in the that formerly they made most excellent recommendation of the Latin poetwine, both red and white; but that for
“ Insere nune, Melibae, pyros, pune ordin the last seven years they had not made
viteis." a single bottle ; yet they still went on from year to year in the cultivation of
We subjoin the following article, ex the vine, in the hope that favourable
tracted from the literary tazelle of the seasons might again relurn to what they 281h of February had known them; or, which would be still betier, to what they are said to
“ Extract from an unpublished Lellei have been some forly or fifty years
of the varuralist 11. Bon Chamisso ago.” But to us, at least, a prospect
the Companion oj 0110 l'on Korsebut far more gloomy than the mire loss
It is address d 10 a Triend in Berlin of wine had begun to present itself, We have,” he writes, “ experi by the increasing chilliness of our sum. enced none of the dangers and bard mer months. It is too well known, ships in the North for which I wa that there was not sufficient warnih prepared, and our voyage was like in the summer of 1816 to ripen the paris of pleasure. In Behring's Strail *** grain ; and it is generally thought, that there is no strong current. Along th is the ten or twelve days of hot weather American coast there extend large sand at the end of June last had not occurred, banks before the higher land ;-the se most of the corn must bave perished. is here shallow, and the whole Strai This come more home to the business along this coast may perhaps be one da and bosoms of the present generation, filled up by ihem, so as to render i than the loss of " those golden days possible to go to America by land. when Bacchus smiled upon our bills.” ** The difference in the depth four It was sufficiently alarming to be told by Cook and by us, is altogether to that “ Pomona is about to desert our great to be ascribed to this gradua orchards; and that on ground where filling up; bui Cook only saw the Ame the clustering vine once flourished, therican coast at a distance, and marked i appie has, of late years, scarcely ri. as uninterrupted on his map; wherea pened," and that “it is now sixteen the lower land is broken by man years since the orchards have afforded a creeks, and in the 630 of north latitude plentiful crop ;” that " at no very re we penetrated into Kotzebue's Sound to mole period, our posterity may, in the length of Norton Sound, from the all probability, be in the same situa. back of which we were not far distant tion in regard to cider that we here a chain of original land surrounder now placed in with respect to wine; On the south side of the entrance when the apple-tree, like the vine, will we, however, Jeft one iulet into the lor only afford a penurious supply of sour land unexplored, which, as is said by thx fruit, and will be cultivated in forcirig. vatives, leads, in nine days of their savi houses to supply the tables of the gation, into the open sea. According rich."
to our experience, it may be hoped Froin these melancholy forebodings, that it would be possible to penetrate however, we feel ourselves considerably into the Icy Sea without doubling the relieved by the removal of the principal ley Cape, which consequently (like the cause, in the destruction of ihe vast Terra del Fuego) would be separated felds of ice, of which we have been from the main land. Then, depending speaking; and think it is not unreason. on the accounts of Mackenzie and able to presume, that our summer cli- Hearne, we might penetrale through any male (and winter too, when the wind 'Repulse Bay into Hudson's Bay.
This blows from the westero quarter) may 'would be highly interesting to geohenceforward improve; for though w graphy and the knowledge of the earth, are aware that the changes of tem but not open any new road to naviga. perature depend on a variety of causes, tion. But as the intrepid adventurer yet the single effect of an almosphere who should undertirke it, would find chilled and condeused over a suitace the sea opeo for two months at the of at least 50,000 square miles of ice, most, he must be prepared to winter rusling directly upon the British Islands 'several times in these high latiludes. from the westward, may have been Besides, the fogs which hang over the equal in its diminishing power to all sca during the summer moniks, would
FORMER APPROACHES TU
reader bis researches more difficult, and think of 520, for I am cold bere under laen the certainty of those already the 34th degree, where the Great Bear side. We had good luck, and frequent dips his tail in the ocean. Ad vocem
observations are the basis of our bear: we have bad here the diversion akcalations.
of seeing a combat between a bull and * The mould is here about one foot a bear. I shall bring the skin of the dorp. The ground thaws to the depth latter with ine. They fetch living bears i ogly a few inches In the hills of from ibe forest here in a uoose. to and sand, which are washed up by the sea, there is found wood ; and tirphiats' teeth are common on the berican coasts. The people of the fra toasis, as the Aleutian and St.
Colonel Beaumont, in his edition of Lutece Islands, belong to the Asiatic
the work of the Hoi. Daines Barringpate. Their navigation, customs, dress, ton, upon the possibiliiy of approaching uk, are all the same, or very much
the Norih Pole, after recording, at some ke: and the celebrated Tschuktschi length, the different latitudes which are kare pot only no superiority over their
said to have been reached by naviga. brethren, but are even inferior to thein
tors referred to, recapitulates them as in Dany respects. They and their Ame. follows, taking credit for nearly a de. rican brethren hale each other heartily. gree to the porthward of their several The former told us that the latter, as
situations, became the blink or glare they themselves do, fetch blue glass of the packed ice is distinguishable beads and iron from Kolima. But how
at this distance when the weather is do tney do this? According to the testi- pretty fair. doty of the Russian navigators, Bil
Deg. Min. lingi and Saritscheff, the potar glaciers Caplain John Reed ......80 45 are stated to lie close to the land. How
Captain Thomas Robinson have they made their way between the (for three weeks) ......81 ice and land :
Captain John Phillips ....81 odd min. * The coast of California affords, in James Hutton, Jonathan the same latitudes as Chili, a very scanty Wheatles, Thomas Ro. Vegetation. The flora appears poor, binson, John Clarke (four and still almost unknown : Autumn has instances)
81 30 almost destroyed it. The iris changes, Captains Cheyne and Thew in spring, the plains to a flower-bed.
82 We gathered many seeds. Spain sup. Clymy and David Boyd perts these settlements at a great ex (lwo instances)
.82 odd min. pease, in order to convert the Hea
Mr. George Ware...... 82 15 thers; but this good work ia badly Mr. John Adams and James undertaken and executed. They begin Montgomery (two inby boundless contempt of the people stances)..
..83 whose souls they desire to save : and Mr. James Watt, Lieut. the priests are neither acquainted with R.N....
.83 30 the language of their popils, nor the Five ships in company with arts in which they are to instruct them. Har's Derrick
.86 The Indians in the missions soon die. Captain Johnson and Dr. It is calculated that 300 die out of 1000 Dallie (two instances, to every year. The military and missiona which, perhaps, may be ries cannot agree together. The added Captain Monson as English and Americans negociate about a third).
.98 a settlement at the mouth of the river Relation of the two Dutch Colombia, and the Russian Kuskoff Masters to Captain Goul(of the American Company) built, tive der
89 years aso, a few miles from here (St. Dutch relation to Mr. Grey 89 30 Francesco, in California), a fort, from whieh the sea.uiter is hunted along the whole Spanish coast.
The following are some details upon "Tonly wish that there was less sand the subject :in Berlin, and more summer and green The Isabella, Captain Ross's ship, Berbs. i am really freezing when I is now filling out in the duck of Messrs.
EXPEDITION TO THE NOKTHERN REGIONS.
Dowson, Limehouse; a fine roomy ves. the first time that the problem was pracsel, of 350 to 370 tons. She is there un tically solved, with which the learners dergoing mucb more than a complete of geography are sometimes puzzledrepair ; for the shipwrights are increas that of going the shortest way between ing lhe strength of the hull, by addiog a two places lying east and west of each new skin to the outside, and a liniog to other, by taking a direction of north the inside, each of five or six inches and south. The passage of the Pole thick, while many beams of large di- will require the undivided attention of meusions are placed on the bow and the navigator. On approaching this stern. The expense of this extraordinary point, from which the northern coasts preparation for a peculiar service, esti of Europe, Asia, and America, and mated at nearly 50001. will be paid by every part of them, will bear south government. The bire of the vessels is of him, uothing can possibly assist at the rate of 10s. per ton per mooth ; him in determining his course, and but as government take the insurance, keeping on the right meridian of his which is fixed at 3s. 6d. the price to the destined place, but a correct knowowners, upon the return of the vessels, ledge of the time, and yet no means is 6s. 6d. The crew of the Isabella will of ascertaining that time will be afbe about 50 : the officers and passengers forded him. The only time he cau about 20. No expense is spared to pro have, with any degree of certainly, vide for the comforts of both classes. as long as he remains on or near the Stauncheons are fixed on board for the Pole, must be that of Greenwich, erection of a roof over the deck, in the and this he can know only from good event of their being locked up in the chronometers ; for from the general ice. The berths or bed-places are capa. hazy state of the atmosphere, and ble of being removed on shore, and can particularly about the horizon, and vass and tarpaulins of large size are pro the sameless in the allitude of the vided to be fixed over them. Coals to sun, at every hour in the four-andthe amount of 150 tons, and flour for twenty, he must not expect to obthree years, will be carried out ; with tain an approximation even of the sour kraut, vinegar, and lime juice, in apparent time, by observation, and abundance. A new kind of log is fixed, he will have no stars to assist him. the machinery of which runs from the All his ideas respecting the Heavens, cabin down the side of the rudder, and the reckoning of his time, will nearly to the kcel. The purpose is to be reversed, and the change not gra. shew, by a dial in the cabin, the rate of dual, as in proceeding from the east the vessel's sailing; but doubts are en to the west, or the contrary, but tertained, whether it may not impede instantaneous. The magnetic needle the steeriog of the ship, and otherwise will point to its unknown magnetic fail of its purpose, so that no great reli. Pole, or Qy round from the point ance is placed upon this experiment of the bowl from which it is sus. The voyage, if unsuccessful, is expected pended, and that which indicated to terminate about September, 1819 ; Dorth will now be south ; the east if it be successful, and that the naviga- will become the west, and the hour of tors return by the Indian seas, a reward noon will be that of niidoight. -EDITOR. of 20,000l. will be distributed amoogst the crews. Notwithstanding this, and an allowance of 3), per month, a difficulty is found in obtaining suitable hands for He is the grandson of the celebrated the voyage, and tbe vessels will com London banker, 'Thelusson, who died in plete their crews at the Orkneys, the 1797, and who, after having deducted great reodezvous of seamen for the an immense som from his fortune, for Greenland service. Spare rudders, an. the benefit of his widow and her chors, capstans, masis, spars, and boals, children, disposed of the remainder, are carried by the vessels.
amounting to 876,0001. sterling in the
public funds and in the purchase of If an open navigation should be dis- estates, ordering that it should accucovered across the Polar Basin, the pas mulato, and that it should be applied in sage over the Pole, or close to it, will the same manier, until the time that be one of the most interesting events to his great grandson, having arrived to scicuce that ever occurred. It will be the age of thirty years, should be put