« ZurückWeiter »
ned by the Christians, besides the un- the Jews to occur about the 25th of willingness of the latter to appear as March. But sirce, according to the if celebrating the Judaic Passover, oc- Gregorian arrangement, the February casioned much confusion in the ob- of that year consisted only of 28 days serrance of Easter ; so that we find instead of 29, which, according to the in the year 387 and 517, some churches regular order of Bissextile years, it celebrated the Easter on the 21st ought to bave been), March became March, some on the 18th April, and anticipated a day, and that wbicb, some on 25th April, in the same year. according to the regular arrangement, The Concil of Nice, however, settled ought to have been March 25th, was the arrangement to be, that Easter must by this means called 26th ; consealways be kept on the 1st Sunday on or quently, that day is now considered after the full moon immediately fol- as the commencement of the vernal lowing the vernal equinox.
quarter by the Jews, whose calculation This regulation gives rise to great of periods bas remained undisturbed. differences in the daies of the respective This difference of calculation by which Lasters in different years, so as to make the Christians fix the veroal equinox its range to be from March 22, which is every year on the 21st March, without the earliest possible day, to April 25th, regarding the additional day of leap which is the latest, for the full moon year, and the consideration bs the Jews and the equinox do pot always occur of the equinox not taking place before at the same time, and the Easter must the 26th, is the principal ground of always be on Suoday: nay, if it even the discordance of the Easter and the should occar that the moon bc full Passover. oo the 21st March, the day of the Besides this, a difference exists with Equinox, and although that day be respect to the calculation of the new Sunday, yet not being the Sunday after moon, as attached to the lunar cycle tbe fall mooo, Easter is postponed till of 19 years, which, according to the the month following. The same pro. Julian period, was set down to concrastioation of Easter takes place if sist of 6939 days 18 hours, but accordthe moon should be full after 120'clock ing to the Judaic arrangement of 235 on March 22d, if tbal day should chance lunar months consists of 6939 days 16 to be on Sunday, as it is considered the hours 32 minutes. By this error in moon of that day, the lunar day being the Julian calculation, the day of new from 12 o'clock at noop to the follow- moon was made to anticipate the truth ing, as the solar day is reckoned from by one day in 3124 years ; and, in fact, midnight to midnight.
we find, that in the year 331 the golden. From these preliminaries, it will very number was 9, and the new moon was clearly appear, that the discrepancies marked on the 25th of March ; whereas continually occurring between the solar in 1623, the golden number being also and lapar calculation must necessarily 9, the new moon was calculated as prevent the constant agreement of the being on the 21st of March. This irreperiod of the Christian Easter with the gularity induced Popc Gregory to reJewish Passover, although in general ject the golden number as a guide according to principle, they occur about whereby to calculate Easter, and subthe same time: the difference is evi. stituted a scale of epacts for this pur. dent, that wbile the Christians calculate pose : but as these are regulated by according to the solar year, they are complete numbers, and cast off 30 day's obliged to regulate their Paschal fes- without regard to fractional parts, they
fival by the moon; and while the Jews cannot be esteemed completely correct. calcolate by the lunar year, they are From wbat has been so particularly obliged to regulate their Passover by detailed, the arrangement by which the course of the suo ; a correction Easter is fixed, and its agreement or that proves mutually serviceable, and non-agreement with the Jewish Passfacilitates the ultimate agreement of over, can be made clear in few words ; years at the expiration of the several viz. that whenever the full moon occurs cycles,
between the 22d and the 26th of March, The Passover of the Jews can never Easter must always precede the Jewish take place until after the commence Passover by nearly a month, as neither ment of the spring quarter, which be- of them can be celebrated but in the fore the year 1900 was calculated by vernal season, which the Christians fix
the commencement of on the 21st of iron by heat and cold wben confined ben, March, and the Jews on the 25th or tween buttresses, which is found very 26th. A consideration of the minutiæ sensibly to affect bridges with small beretofore laid down will give a correct arches, and how much more must it idea of the usual discrepancies of these large ones. Are tħere not principles festivals.
upon which iron bridges may be built to The precise circumstance of the dates counteract these defects? There cere, of These festivals in 1818 occurred in tainly are. Or is this bridge to be a sort 1693, when the Christians celebrated of secood edition, in point of expense, Easter on the 22d of March, while the similar to one lately completed by the Jews kept the feast of Parim ; but the same principal operator, which the
Abib not being considered as baving ar.. purses of many yet severely feel. • rived until the 25th, the year was inter- A deceptive idea has been held out as
calated, and Passover observed on the an apology for the Southwark Bridge, 21st of April.
stating, that when completed London According to calculations made on Bridge will be removed.' But this, as a these premises, it will be found, that citizen, I deny: for what then will be during the nineteenth century, from cone of the property on Fishstreet-hill, similar causes, but with dissimilar dates, Bishopsgate street, and lanes and streets Raster will precede the Jewish Passover leading to London Bridge ? nearly a month in the following years ; London Bridge, bad as it is, must either viz. 1807, 1815, 1818, 1826, 1837, 1845, be patched up or rebuilt, with a tempo1858, 1856, 1864, 1872, 1875, 1883, rary bridge alongside of it, whilst exe1891, 1894, each of these years being cuting: I am one that acknowledge either the 8th, 11th, or 19th of the the bad and decayed state of London, Jewish lunar cycle and embolismal year, Bridge: neither can any person deoy it, of which the Christian epacts will be who will look at the engraved plan of found to be 20, 23, or 22.
the surveys made for the select committee of the House of Commons, by
Mr. Dodd, the engineer, as they will SOUTHWARK BRIDGE.
see he whole of the south pier of the To the Editor of the Europeun Magazine. great arch split in two places, and only
held togetber with bars of iron. As it ANY public animadversiops have is the revenue of all bridges that pay
taken place upon the Vauxhall: for their erection, I must confess I don't and Waterloo Bridges: but I have never see bow the Southwark Bridge is to pay yet seep any on the Soutbwark Bridge, without a direct North and South road, now so nearly finished. Permit me to and which it can never possess witbout state my opinion, in your publication, pulling down our ancient Guildhall of which is open to all parties
London: besides, it being so nearly sia In the first place, why was the prin- tuated between two free bridges , viz. ciple of thal bridge similar to the iron- Blackfriars and London, aud being but bridge at Boston, with all its faults, as little more than a quarler of a mile the same engiueer who executed the one from the latter, surely no one would is employed in the olber, which, if any prefer paying, when they may so reabody will take the trouble to inquire, dily cross the river free of expense ; will be found, I believe, to be split in and although I am a great friend to Dearly forty places, and the money ex. bridges, I like to see them placed pended in its repairs, it is said, to fall where they will be useful to the public. little short of its original cost: this in- , By inserting this in your valuabie formation I obtained during my last publication, you wilt oblige, journey through Lincoloshire.
Of this I am certain, that both structures are hanging their dreadful beavy. King-street, Cheopside, weights of iron on their buttresses, and Nov.15, 1817. should this weight thrust them away, they must inevitably fall into the river, We have given a place to the precedas did Staines Bridge into the Thames, ing leller, in the hope of its eliciting a and one at Yarm, in Yorkshire, into the reply from some one oxalified to advoriver Tees. Another disadvantage is, cate the cause of the Southwerk Bridge the contraction aod expansion of the - EDITOR. .
Your constant readerizen.
Magazine. at any rate it could not be wholly Tothe Ediler of the European
unproductive of good. And here it STR. ITVE enclosed is submitted to your
may be remarked, how short a time
does the circle of a year seem to be, cellent Miscellans, by
when retracing its finished course, but Your most obedient,
how fearfully long wben looking forJan. 91, 1818.
ZAMANA, ward to the conclusion of the next.
This has generally been admitted to be RECOLLECTIONS.
one of the greatest blessings afforded * Har bas another day to swell the past,
to man, that he can recur so summarily Aad leads him near to little but his last." to past pleasures, while the future are
Byron's " Lara," held in abeyance, and only bestowed " IN slow and gradual decrease the from day to day, to confer a more lasttime-glass has exhausted ils numerous ing and real joy on their unexpectant saads, and in inverting its position to.
Yet how few are there but trace the course of apother hour, a new
have silently sighed to break the beryear has opened, and brings along with her inmensurable plains, in all the wild
metical seal of futurity, and bound over it a thousand Recollections, many of which Memory wouldgladly effacefroin
ness of present ecstasy and deligbt, litber lablet, whilst few, if any, she can
tle dreamiog how soon that radiant sun
which now enlivens would be overnow dwell on with unmixed satisfac
shadowed with the clouds of darkness, Lion."-Such was Eunomio's exclama.
danger and distress." tioa upon the close of the last, and fraught with "
The sacred Eva':gelist bath expressed commeacement of the present year. The feelings which attended it he feelings than the most studied language
this in words which speak more to the would gladly have exchanged for any others, which, even of a more poig:
or ornamented style could have done, dant bature, would, he thought, per- thereof."
“ sufficient unto the day is the evil
This truth, however, did kaps have been more tolerahle. For the use he had experienced, the other he not bear upon the thoughts of Eunomio
at the present time, for it was in the could only anticipate. To sketch Eu. somio's character would be more than a
coutemplation of the future that he difficult task, as few, if any, knew it presented itself
, in the commencement
recalled the past. An opportunity had istimately. It was, to draw a brief of the preceding year, to stimulate bis outline, a compound of virtue and vice, ambition, to rouse bis exertions, and of candour and dissimulation, of good call into action his intellectual facul. principles and perverled action. He ties. But bad bis ambition been impossessed a feeling heart, which would pelled forward, had his exertions gained bot willingly disturb another's peace: energy, or bis intellectual faculties yet if that heart sustained an injury, strove to obiain the reward held out be erulted in the gratification of the balice of reveoge.
to their reach ? No-tajuted by false
Tbe worn will tera in writhing agony against the foot actious, deluded by specious' argue of its beedless destroyer. He would ments, he had spurned the means of
his aggrandisement in literary fame. hutes to the undisguised tale of woe, and, if bis means aliorded ii, dispense of the most servile drudge, the prize
He had deemed it the reward only the bumble pittance of his purse; but only of the meanest book-worm. He to the feigned wailing of assumed dis, had heard, and fancied he had seen tress, he turned away with deaf and it verified, that the honour extended obdarate ear
not beyond the precincts where it was * In bin ibexplicably mixed appeared coufipcd ; that it was à short-lived Much to be loved and bated, sought and reputation, which was not adequate feared."
to the risk hazarded in its acquircTo return, however : in reviewing his ment. How far such a conclusion was course of life during the last year, much justified, he did oot then stop to conoccurred to harrow up bis inmost soul, sider-He did not give himself tbe bile bottle appeared to tranquilise or trouble to fathom the sophistry of the saites the review-yet he shrunk pot argument, or weigh quieily and disfrom the task he bad voluntarily im- passionately its component parls. He pound upon himself: it might speak did not consider by wbom it was upa alatary lesson lo bis future conduct; held, or the materials upon which its Europ. Maz. Vol. LXXIII. Jun. 1818.
foundation was reared. He never sus- and dissipation. Nothing is more pected that disappointment would strive pleasing to the youthful mind, in eoto undervalue the reward, and incapa. iering upon life, or more seductive in city exert its ulmost influence to keep appearance, than the caresses of acdown all others upon the same level quaintance, and respect of strangers. with itself. It appeared plausible on Án universal introduction to society a first view, and as such fixed his deter. is the first wish and object of a young mination. Subsequent reflection bas, man, which the former may be willing however, shewn him the fallacy of such from kindness to shew, while a personreasoning. He has disappointed the able exterior, easy address, and ready fondly-raised hopes of affectionate pa. fow of conversation, may wrest it from rents, and defeated their most san. the latter. Eunomio was not now, howguine expectations. Yet if these were ever, beginning life, as, from certain ibe only resulis, time might wear away circumstances, in an earlier period, he the recollection of them. But can he, had entered the world. He had seen while he thinks as a man, or as a sen- society, he had indulged in pleasure's sible being, ever forgive himself such revelry, and if not one of the foremost, unwarrautable inanity of character ? was at least not the most unresisting Is it not the peremptory duty of every of her votaries. Still, however, he exman to soar above mediocrity, to strive perienced that the circle of his acin competition for the foremost prize, quaintance was increasing, and that to aim at the victor wreath. Jl' indi. he was sailing on a more expansive vidual gratification cannot urge on- sea of gaiety and fashion. Though he ward to the alternfile ought not the floated with the tide, yet his spirits pride of family and kindred to assert a did not always rise in equal buoyancy: claim irresistible? It unquestionably The method and course of life was not ought; for where exists such hodour wholly congenial to his feelings. Each as that acquired by talent and genius: night of pleasure brought back its kinWhere such fame as that adjudged to dred day of ennui, and, like spirits merit, or bestowed on learuing? For to the habitual drunkard, each added this purpose was man endowed with draught seems only to exhilarate, to reason, for this was it given bim to create afterwards a weightier depres. explore the hidden treasures of un- sion. In this state of life and temperevealed science - And this Eunomio rament of mind, an iocident occurred, had relinquished, had cousidered be- by wbose consequences, if persisted in neath his notice. Strange infatuation with all the ardour Eunomio commenced which could hold captive the mind in it, his best prospects would have been such weak and slender chains. Con. marred, his future happiness would have fined in this Ibraldom then, he suf- been for ever blighted and destroyed. fered to escape an opportunity of sig. Thisescape, so fortunate, he cannot attri. palizing himself, which can never be bute to his own foresight, or assign to recalled. Yet let it not be supposed bis own caution and wisdom. Led on that Eunomio indulged in slothful idle. ' by visionary schemes, he painted to ness, or despised literature. On the bimself, in glowing and vivid colours, contrary, he was greatly addicted to scenes, wbich, it prudence had posreading, and enjoyed the intercourse sessed any sway, or reason held any of clever men. Buit his present regret controul over his thoughts and actions, was, that he had not strove to obtain would have instantly declared delusive, honour and reward when the oppor. and imaginary. At first view, all tunily offered ; that he had not aimed seemed fairy land, peopled with subat distinctivo, but had suffered him. jects of his own arbitrary creation : but self to be numbered in the herd of the upon closer inspection. fertility yielded bumerous many: Such was the circum- to barreuness, beauty dwindled into stance that marked the commencement deformity, deceit resumed her station, of the preceding year in distinct cha- whicb had only womentarily been racters upon his mind's memory. The usurped by candour, and the creatures words of a great master may here be realized by fancy, wasbed into the applied to Eunomio's conduct, “ Con- empty void of nothingness. Motives tempt previous 10 juvestigation.” of delicacy compel the restraint of any Time now wore on, and Eunomio direct exposition of the nature of the changed the still silence of science and circumstance which is referred to, and literature for the busy scenes of pleasure which must form a sufficieat excuse for
hey ambiguity in which the relation is sometimes succeed beyond the most dethed. This clear insight joto the sanguine expectations of its employer ; nature of the affair in which he was get more frequently defeats its own about to engage, has been already said, intentions, and while preparing to eua Rot produced by his own unassisted circle the unsuspecting victim in its discerameat, or foresight. Prejudice iutricate toils, entaogles itself in diffic and misconception cannot, therefore, culties, which require more skill aud be alledged to have caused this change ingenuity than it is master of, to rein his sentiments, neither can caprice be move. Then, if ever, is the time, it brought forward in evidence against must feel its own weakness, must too him. Suspicion had sometimes invaded plainly perceive the dark and disgraceful bis thoughts, but the batred and aver. turpitude of its own ineffectual efforts. sion in which he held that most odious Theu must the pureut author loathe of buman passions, always impelled the nature of its production, and tura hiin to summon to his aid, the utmost wild aversion and disgust from the offefforts he could master, is the combat spring of its bascness. Duplicity may of such an illiberal feeling. This libe- wear the form of honest candour, and rality of sentiment however has alınost eveu for a while impose its smiles of become an outcast from the catalogue ingenuousness, but when the mask falls, of human virtues. In the modero day all its hidden deformity appears more sben dissimulation forms the consti- odious from its former concealment. tueat ingredieot of nearly every cha- 'To support the character requires a racter, it may reasonably be questioned, more than common address, and intiwbelber candour and sincerity are not macy with mankind. It does not ad. mistaker potions, or mere words, mit of suddenly layoching out into exbolly abstracted from human prac- tremes, or privately receding into retice. To tread the same level with tirement. Its step must be continued society, the same habits must be and covaried, experiencing no change, adopted, the the same actions enter. liable to no alteration.
It demands tained, and rather than become the time, and place, and action, as its subdape and cheat of others, first exercise servient ministers, and skill and device upon thein the experiment of your own as its directing counsellors. Can it be machinery. That a fraok and ingenu- wondered then that its success should ous disposition should only be gradually be so wholly disproportionate to its atdeveloped, and vot reveal itself imme. tempts. That the main springs of the diately, is a truth wbich once would engine should so often clog and refuse bare staggered the most credulous dis- to perform their functions? It indeed ciple. But all man's second nature, cannot, for these defeats ought to be now readily admits the force, and daily calculated on and guarded against.habit confirms the reality of the posi. Happy then are they who, doomed to tion. Had Eonomio pursued this lioe be the victims of its macbinations, are of conduct he would not now have released by its owo inconsiderate folly, had to record this circumstance. Had and avoid the destructive ruin into he studied buman nature, and followed wbich it would pluuge them by its own her through all ber dædalean cireuils, joteipperate impetuosity.
Like the and windings, had he pot coosidered angler who, at the first sibble, snatches bimself the standard by which he should his line with excessive cageruess, luscs try the essay of others, he would not his expected prey, so scheming, conto sensibly discovered the alloy which trivance, and deceit, rapidly pursuing was intermixed with the metal. But their first success, betray too manifestly he bas gained a valuable experience; the object of their intentions, which it and though, perhaps, bought at the was otherwise their dearest interest to price of much feeling, yet the satis- conceal. Such Eunomio in the present faction he non derives, and still ex. instance discovered to be the case; and pects to derive, will asuply repay the darkened inderd must bave been his dearest purchase. Throughout the visual organs had they bot admitted the whole he never has had cause to re- ray of light which burst upon them. proach biru self, except for bistvo. To retire was then a duiy inperatively ready credulity, a pardonable error. imposed upon himself.
ile was already If any reproach is ritiered, it must liberated by every sule of honour, by tecoil upos the author of the con. overy principle of reclilude. Fecling trivaace. Scheiding contrivance will evuld iberefore no longer be permitid