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will supply us with this fact in sup. A young man may have reaped suffiport of such a conclusion-that we cieot benefit from an excellent edugenerally see a young man who has cation bestowed upon him by his pathrown off all regard for parental ad. rent's liberal kinduess, to be able to monition, pluoging deeper and deep- acquit himself with credit in the assoer into the guilty excesses of a vi- ciations of men, and to acquire a cercious inclination, and setting at nought taio degree of repute for his intellectual every authority, both human and di. acquirements ; he may pride himself vine.
upon the high opinion which he supe To this commandment is attached a poses others have formed of his abi. condition of providential inercy- lities, and he may feel himself conuLength of days is promised to the pious paratively superior to his compeers in observer of it.
any situation or employ in which be Long life, G, can then only be may be placed-he may have a certain considered as a blessing when it is off-hand facility of conversation, and accompanied with a consciousness of may even render binself necessary to having fulfilled our religious and mo those who are not so well informed, ral duties. Without this it becomes or have not possessed the same oppora curse, for then we are placed un tunities as bipself-he may carry an der the judicial ban of ihe die exterior of self-satisfaction, and may wrath, and we increase our guilt with affect to consider bis future prospects out onc efficacious interval of repentant of advancement as dependent upon bis reflection. It is no contravention, own powers of exertion ;-but, G therefore, of this command, that the if he has to accuse himself of filial disa vicious may live longer than the vir- obedience-if he has augn.ented the tuous member of society; for the lin- burdens of a parent struggling with the gering remnant of a life passed in the sorrows of life-if he has heaped upon gratification of vice, is that portion of a tbat parent's calamity the additional miserable existence which by its pains grief of a child's ingratitude-if he has and privations involves the self-con- abused the indulgence, rejected the addemned sufferer in the most bopeless monitions, scorned the reproofs, and anticipation of a dreaded hereafter 5 laughed at the anxieties of him who ma state of foreboding wretchedness, cherished such an jugrate in his infancy, which no prosperity, however exten watched over his youth, nurtured his sive in possession, bas power to pre mind, gave him every elementary boon vent or alleviate.
of education, opened to him an access to If, therefore, you should meet, among progressive attainments, and, in order to the wealtbiest or the gayest of this fit him for some eligible station, has world, persons who have broken through trespassed upon his own pecuniary. reevery amiable qualification which serves sources, even to the consequent imto support the union between the pa- plication of his convenience that son rent and the child, you will grossly de- cannot feel himself justified, either in ceive yonrself if you suppose them to be his own heart, or in the sight of God. the happiest ; it is as impossible for And when bis insensibility to filial obli. them to be truly happy, as it is for gation becomes known to the commuthe body to be in health under the nity in which he moves, neither his influence of any organic disease ;-and talents, nor his extrinsic acccptability by a more intimate knowledge of their of general intelligence, will ensure him real condition, you will find more cause the respect or attentionate esteem of for pity than for envy.
society. And I will take upon me to It has ever been my opinion, G assert, that to be beloved by the good that retribution begins in this life ; and for one virtuous qualification of the I am well persuaded, tbat it may be heart, is a more honourable testimony traced throughout many of the adverse to our character, than to be praised by circumstances of our personal or re.
the wise for a tbousand intelligent proJative situation ; so that no man can perties of the understauding. If it be wilfully violate one of the Divioe laws, said of a young man, that he is a good and persist in the violation, without son, an obedient considerate child, the experiencing, sooner or later, in the grateful and affectionate comforter of forfciture of some part of his worldly å father's declining years,-more is said ease, this rctributive progress of divine to bis honour than if he were declared judgmont.
to be the greatest genius and the pro
1918) Letters from a father to his son in a Public Office. Letter IX. foundest scholar of his age ;-for by the God, Grosuyêns, govtvou émolis former expression of poblic opinion, be and doubtless he is righily so classed, is instantly introduced into the world, since he who contends the law of God with the assent of the estimable part of by opposing the authority of his parents it, as a youth of moral worth ; as one is guilty of ingratitude to boih-for who can be depended upon, and who do those whom we love, we delight to obey sertes encouragement for his goodness and there cannot be a stronger eviof heart; the friends of sirtue will take dence of hatred than the disobedience. bim by the hand, and the rotaries of of ingratitude. vice will pay him the homage of unwil. But here, perhaps, you will stop me. ling acquiescence in his advancement. with alarm, and will ask me, “ How I In short, — sucb is the universal can apply all this as advice to you !”feeling in behalf of filial affection, that I hope, G-, and it is a hope wbicb is good and bad men alike insist upou it as recorded in my morning and evening iodispensable in a child at every age- petitious to the Throne of Grace in Heathens and Christians are equally your behalf, that it never will apply to agreed upon it-nas, indeed, I think it you—but I am aware, that when a may be said, that the former bad much young man becomes the arbiter of bis. more exalted notions of tbis doinestic own condition in life, and this convirtue than what the latter seem to dition withdraws him from the perhave displayed in their conduct. This, sodal intercourse, and necessarily, therehowever, certainly must not be ascribed fore, from the relative influence of a to may defect in Christianity, which has parent, that he is apt to allow other sablimed the morality of the Heathen views of things to take possession of his into a spiritual obligation, and bas mind, and is by degrees seduced into the made it a debt which we uot only owe adoption of sentiments wbich he chooses to our fellow.creature, but to the Divi- to iry by the modern test of their nity Himsell:-No! it may rather be acceptability with bis associates, rather regarded as a consequence of the present than by the old-fashioned standard of state of civilization, by which we see that morality which had been industhe buman spind brought into a state of triously inculcated into his heart, while, forwardness that gives to the facultiesand in the docility of his early days, it mangers of the youth of our day a certain was open to parental dictate only, precocity which leads to a self-reference In such a case, words lose their pris, ibat shews itself more frequently in a tine meaning, and are perverted into a disputatious than an obedient disposi- sense quite opposite to that which be. tion :-and when we are in the habit of had been once taught to attach to hearing the dogmata of unbelief upheld them-be will hear them laughed at and argued for by stripliog io fidels, we by his gay companions ; and the former cannot wonder, if while the doctrines plastic nature of bis heart, which bent of our Faith are thus insulted, that its it in willing attention to the will of precepts should first be questioned and a parent, he will find to be the subo theo disregarded.
ject of their derision and reproach, I have said, that there is more spi; Authoritative precept of any kind he rituality in Christian morals than could will be told is nothing but “ parental possibly subsist in those of the Hea. des potism", and if he falls into any. thens ; yet it is worthy of remark, that breach of moral decorum, the comamong these the Romans attached a plaipt on the part of a parent will be, degree of impiety to the disobedience called “illiberal"-". Poh !" they will of the child towards the parent; and tell him, “ the old fellow has forgolten, by the word impius branded the cri- that he was once young himself.” minality with að infamy which was sure And as to all restraint or conformity to meet with universal execratiqu. to such precept, he will learn, that This word, which in this instance they “ Obedience is abject submission, aod applied as unnatural aod disobedieni, surely he is old enough to be his own was also, as you well know, synonynıpus master !"-(It will be well, G- , if he with wicked and cruel It would seem, be wise enough.)– Now these maxims thes, that eveo among Heathéus a dis. continually repeated in his ears, and obediest child was looked upon as a urged upon bis adoption by the prosmosster, and the Apostle of the Gen- pect of some desired gratification, to, tiles, when writing to the Roman con secure which be must stop aside from vorts, ranks bim among the baters of the former course of his prudential
reserve, is very likely to carry him est destination of our being, and not away with the tide of unwarrantable to regard, is to be negligent of our pursuits and improvident engagements, own bappiest interests and those of so. and to wean him by degrees from all ciely. Religion, my dear Gdependence upon, or concern for, the teaches us, that we are not only the monitory opinion and counsel of those mortal inhabitants of this world. but who would faio prevail upon him to also the immortal expectants of the keep in the good old paths of virtuous Dext; and therefore we have not only consideration in which they brought to calculate for our advancement in
the one, but to provide and prepare I know, G, that you have suffi- for our condition in the other. If here cient knowledge of the folly of such we would be prosperous, hereafter we procedure, not to pronounce yourself may be blest - whoever, therefore, neg. hastily the advocate of its propriety; lects and despises the obligations of but if this knowledge be not accom bis Christian character, or admits them panied with a proportionate degree of only as matters of secondary concern, resolution, you will be imperceptibly and to be submitted to his temporal drawn within its vortex. I would, views, will sooner or later discover his therefore, spare you the violeat strug
What this error is, it shall be gles which must ensue should you find the purpose of my next letter to point yourself likely to be so dangerously out to you :-in that I shall take up the implicated; and while you are forming subject as it peculiarly applies to young to yourself friends (as the courtesy men conditioned as you are :-and I of the world calls them) among the bespeak your patient consideration of less thinking part of the community, it, upon this ground, that what we can I have gone thus far in my present alone depend upon at our death, it is subject, that your application of it, indispensable we should cultivate during te: Nvi reddat amicum. And believe our life :-and none but the most fool me, dear G -, a young man is never ish part of mankind would siake upon more his own friend than while be the possession of a moment the hopes retains the friendship of the good and of eternity. This moment is as unwise. That he should do so, you will certain in youth as it is in age, and admit may be the anxiety of a parent ; the risk therefore is equally greatand this anxiety will plead in favour of for one of those moments of which our my present letter, and substantiate the years consist, must be the last; and claim of its subject to your maturer when this shall be, neither you nor reflection ;- for be assured of this, I can take upon ourselves to deterpot a single individual who has any mine. One thing we know, that while title to either of these qualities will be we live we have duties to perform, found among the defenders of unglial both towarde God and man, and those neglect, either as it refers to the advice which we owe to him must not be of a parent or to that attention which thrown aside for the fulfilment of those is due to the parent himself. But there whicb we owe to our fellow-creatures is another reason for ny present ad. so that in whatever station of life dress to you: 1 bave in iny former we may be placed, whether we be letters written to you merely as an young or old, religion demands from employè, and in reference to the value us an essential portion of our concern. of your time as it respects your offi. - In my next, therefore, I shall encial prospects and your hopes of rising deavour to convince you, that he who jb the world ; and a young man who calls himself a Christian should prove enters it without the help of pecu- himself to he so, and that no condition niary resources, and the influence of of life is exempt from the obligation. interest, ought to consider Time as - What I have written in this letter bis banker, and Industry as bis patron. I have designed as introductory of this
There are, however, two other sub topic, and as preparing the way for jects of importance to which it is my more solemn reflections than what the duty to call your attention, as they former part of my communications' affect your personal and relative respon- contain. sibilities. You are, G, a Christian Do not conclude that I am about and a citizen-both relations compre.. to present you with a sermon, this bend privileges and duties which not I leave to ibe ecclesiastic; I would to know, is to be ignorant of the bigh- only strengthen the conviction which
I hope I have formed in your mind,
wbich will clearly show the source of that so long as you have a father upon
the variety of its periods. earth's vow are bound to reverence his
The arrangement of the Jewish Calenadvice, as the result of maturer judg.
dar is certainly a surprisiug phenome. ment and greater experience than what
pon ; it has held out the test of ages, . a youth at your age can possibly pos to prove its correctpess ; while every sess; and that it is incumbent upon
other system has either necessarily been you to keep in mind, that you have
subjected to ameodment, as the Juliaa á Father in Heaven, who, as your Crea.
period by Pope Gregory the XIIIth ; tor and Preserver, ooght to have a con
or remains faulty this day, as the stant place in your thoughts, as He,
Mahometan and Indian : tbis wonderwborn to know, is the profoundest wis
ful arrangement, which correctly keeps dom, and to obey, is the chief hap the regular lunar festivals concordant piaess, and ought to be the constait
with the solar period, during so great purpose of our life - And while tbe pre a length of time, is by the Jews firmly cepis of the former are given wiib a believed to bave been of Divine origin, jost reference to that obedience which and to have been handed down by Moses you owe to the latter, I would wil. to the Sanhedrim; who kept it as a sacred lingly trust, that the affection which mystery until after the destruction of prompts them will be accepted with Jerusalem : when the regular official that cordial acquiescence which your promulgation of the appearance of the good sense induces me to expect as new moon, from the report of the dele. the purest proof of it, and as substan gated inspectors delivered to the synod, tialing my most consolatory satisfac. ceased, and the system of calculation tion.
W. was published for the use of the na.
tion, now dispersed jo various distant To the Editor of the European Magazine.
The Jewish year consists of 19 ludar ste,
mouths, which if divided into strict To following question having more equal divisions would yield an allot, T or less-attracied the notice of the ment of 29 days 12 hour
and 2 public, in various ways, it may possibly parts of an hour to each month, and prove amusing to your readers to see it altogether form a lunar year of 354 considered in the following form : if days 5 hours and to parts.' This, how. you think it not unworthy your atten. ever, is 10 days 21 hours in the parts less too, you will give it a place in your than the amount of the Jewish solar iastructive and entertaining Magazine. year. Your's, &c.
J. V. But as, in the arrangement of a Ca. Fenchurch-buildings, Jan. 9, 1818. lendar for the common purposes of life,
these fractional parts cannot be at. QUESTION.
tended to, it was deemed expedient to WHY does the Easter of 1818 oc. form an alternation of 29 days to one cur a month earlier than the Jewish mooth and 30 days to another, making Passover, when most commonly these together 59 days, the anjount of twice festivals are held in the same week 29 days 12 hours; the remaining fracand which indeed seems to be the pro- tional parts are likewise disposed of per period?
by being carried to account, and form. REPLY.
ing a future addition. From the accuBecause the different calculations mulation of these fractions, as well as which guide the arrangement of the on account of the necessity of detersolar fear, as followed in the formation miniog on the fitness of certain days of the Christian Calendar, are opposed for peculiar holy days, a systematic to those of the lunar year, as adopted by arrangement is made out for the regula. the Jews, this must naturally produce tion of each annual order of festivals, discrepancies in different stages of the and the year is accordingly fixed to different cycles, however they may be contain either 353, 354, oř 355 days made to accord in the end.
each, and the embolismal year either In order to make this clearly under- of 383, 384, or 385 days: a month of stood, it will be necessary to explain 30 days being in such' years intercathe nature of the Jewish Calendar, and lated. then to compare with it the results of
This intercalation of a month occa. the Christian calculation for Easter i sionally, to make up the deficit of a
of the year.
logar year with the solar, was obliged to according to either mode of reckonbe attended to, on account of the cele-, ing. bration of the feast of the Passover ; This important test of the agreement, which is commanded to be held in the of the Jewish luvar year with the mootb of Abib, that is the spring, in Christian or astronomical solar year, order to commemorate the exact period is the result of the express law laid when the children of Israel were deli- down in holy writ for the observauce of vered, and took their departure from the Passover in the month of Abib, Egypt; and it is accordingly appointed or the Spring. Hence the regulation to be celebrated on the 151h day of the of the Jewish Calendar has ever been, lunar month called Nissan, being the day so to manage the intercalation, that of the full moon.
the 16th day of the month of Nissan From the known deficiency of near shall always occur after the vernal equi. 11 days of the lunar year to that of
Thus the order of the embo. the solar, it is evident, i hat unless some lisnal year can be very clearly underregulation was instituted to prevent it, stood : for as in the course of 8 years this festival, celebrated in the lunar the deficiency of the lugar year commooth Nissan, wouid every year occur pared to the solar will prove to be at a different season, and every year 32 days 15 bours todo parts, a month aoticipating 11 days would, instead of of 30 days must be added to that year, its proper appointment in Abib, or the to bring the account nearly equal, or Spring, gradually go through all the the Passover would occur a month beother seasons : an instance of such a fore the vernal season, contrary to the consequence is to be observed in the express law on that head. Mahometan feast of the Bairam, which The remaining, 2 days 15 hours to regularly runs through all the seasons parts are carried on to the account
of the following years, till their accu-, In order, therefore, to obviate this mulation make an intercalation necesdifficulty, and to equalise the lunar with sary at the end of the 6th year, and the solar year, a period of 19 years the great remainder at that period again was calculated, and called the Lunar occasion an additional month to be Cycle ; and as the deficiency of that required at the eod of the 8th year ; period, compared with 19 solar years, and so on in order. amounted to 206 days 6 hours by parts, 'The Christian Calendar is founded which make 7 lunar months, that time on the solar year; and the period set. was divided and dispersed among the tled by Julius Cæsar, called Julian, 19 lunar years, and a month of 30 days consisted of 365 days 6 hours; which, was intercalated in the order of the however, eventually proved a mis3d, 6th, 8th, 11th, 14th, 17th, and 19th taken arrangement, and was corrected year of each cycle; so that at the by Pope Gregory the XIIIth in 1582, end of this period the number of days who cast off 10 days from the then both of the solar and lunar period are date, and instituted an amended cal. foond to be equal, and the situation culation of 365 days 5 hours and 49, of the moon in the heavens to return minutes. This account, however, dif, to the same point.
fers from the Jewish calculation of The cycle of the sun is 28 years, Rab Ada, who makes the average length. at the end of which the days of the of the solar year to be 365 days 5 hours, mootbs return to the same days of the 55 minutes and Togo parts of an hour. weck, and the sun to the same point. In early times, the regulation of the of the heavens. It therefore follows, Christian Calendar and the fixing of the that as the cycle of the moon is 19 period of Easter was long a mattor of years, and that of the sun 28, that in doubt and difficulty. The commemora532 years both sun and moon return tion of the resurrection, which is the to the same point in the heavens with primary object of that festival, ought respect to each other : and this is called in strictness to be held at the same the Dionysian Cycle.
period of the year at which it is said, By tbis means, at the end of each to have occurred; and as this was dur.. Janar cycle of 19 years, the solar and ing the Paschal week of the Jews, the Juvar years are brought to be vearly coincidence of these feasts seems de equal in point of time, and the num cessary; but the lunar calculation ber of days of this cycle will prove which guides the Jewish year being to be 6939 days 16 hours 32 minutes, quite different from the solar period