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cable to Bern, the Bear's) skin while more intimately acquainted with the
the beast lived, or, in other words, the use of silver and gold, as the medium
{pirit of the Swiss, depressed by the of traffick, from the circumstance of
Proclamation, revived; upon thé exithe large quantities of both these fpe-
gence of the moment, they summoned cies of coin which they found in the
their hardy bands, and gave him baggage of the officers of the flain, and
battle on the plain of Morat, near a which they carried away by cap-fulls.
town of that name, in the Earldom of Whether this acquisition has been
Romant, and Canton of Friburg; in ultimately advantageous to them ? let
which encounter, the greater part of moraliits determine.
his army was destroyer!, and himself How the Skulls of those warriors,
obliged to make a precipitate retreat, who at the latter end of the last cena
with a few followers, towards his own tury attempted, upon the plan of the
Country *

Duke of Burgundy, and I fear with Upon the plain where this battle far greater success, to illuminate the was fought, the victors erected a mo. minds and en save the bodies of the nument with this inscription :

Swiss, have been disposed of, it is iniInvictissimi atque fortissimi Caroli Ducis pollible for me to ftate; with respect to Burgundia exercitus Muratum Obfidens,

their own carcasses, it is known even contra Helvetios pugnans bic jiri Monu- tions, they have been at the service of

to a proverb, that, upon certain condi. mentum reliquit, An. 1476."

almost every Prince in Europe ; and This Charnel. house or (as it is have been left upon almost every field termed by Philip de Comines, in his of battle upon the continent for these Memoirs, and Guichenon, in his Hift. last four hundred years. de Savoye,) Chapel ftands, or rather As the Swiss have been so prodigal stood, near the bank of the Lake of of their Skulls, one would naturally Morat, in the before-named Canton. have supposed that they considered The doors were composed of iron them but of small value; yet this is bars, through the spaces betwixt which, by no means the case; for it' is equally the Skulls and bones of the unfortunate well known, that a very extraordinary Burgundians might be seen piled up in price has at times been paid for theni, somewhat of a regular order, and ihough I never heard that in this kind bleached by time ; but it is said, that of traffick any distinction was ever the number of these Veltiges of the made with respect to their gibbofity, vanity, temerity, and indiscretion, of length, thickness, convexity,concavity; their Duke was, even at the beginning denlity, or fragility; but that, like of this century, much diminished, from turnips, they were taken in lots, one the custom of the Swiss, who travelled with another; and, confequently, the that way (and indeed some that, ftimu. Skull of a pealant was as highly appre. lated by their parents, who, in relating ciated as that of a philosopher. the warlike deeds of their ancestors, · Having, at least for the present, done had not forgotten to display this mo- with exotic Skulls, I must consider nument of their prowess, made a jour. briefly (for a folio would not fuffice to ney on purpose), picking out pieces of discuss the point minutely) those of them with the points of their swords : our own country; and, as two opposite these pieces they used to have tipped examples will tend to the elucidation witli, or set in, copper, silver, and some of the subject as well as two hundred, times in gold; they were frequently I shall therefore first observe, that in sold at their Fairs, and commonly the city of Coventry (as it must have worn, both by Calvinifts, Lutherans, occurred to many of my readers) stand and Roman Catholics, pendant to their two ancient Churches, near, as if they watches, sword hilts, nay, it has been were built to rival, each othert. In faid, to their rofaries, as military re- the vaults under one of these, I some licks.

years since discerned, from the It has been stated, that after this Church yard in which they are both decisive victory the Conquerors became erected, a great number of Skulls, piled

• This Duke of Burgundy fell in a battle which he fought against the Duke of Lorrain the year after, viz, the sth of January 1477 ; his body was honourably buried at Nancy, which he had belieged. One is dedicated to the Holy Trinity ; the other to St. Michael, 4


to the very roof in a tolerable metho appreciating the importance that, in dical arrangement. The operation of the general lyítem, ought to be actime upon thele was as conspicuous as tached to those contentions for fame, upon those of the Burgundians; they fortune, power, or any of the various being, like them, bleached to a con. propensities which are the frequent fiderable degree of whitenefs. Allum. ltimulants of the human race; the ing that this large collection of human gales and breezes, the storms and vestiges was the last remains of some whirlwinds, which operate upon hu. of the former inhabitants of the City, man existence; and which, like the I could not help revolving in my mind, effect of many of the anomalous eruphow quietly the beads of males and pions in the physical world, when they females, old and young, friends and have spent their force, leave the breath enemies, were laid together! I could that produced them to mingle with the not indeed carry my ideas so far back atmosphere, and the bodies they agias to suppose that any of these Skulls tated to link quietly into that earth bad ever belonged to the heads of of which they were once the dis. the Parliamentum Indoctorum *, once turbers. : held in this Ciry, and to termed froin In the more particular pursuit of the excluton of Lawyers from its the subject of this speculation, I muit debates; or that which was likewise fecondly remark, that having had leheld here, which had, if possible, an ob. veral opportunities to hear the late Dr. ject still more mischievous in view, Hunter explain the theory of his namely, the attainder of the Duke of brother, Mr. John Hunter, upon the York, with the Earls of Salitbury and human Skull, it has always ftruck me Warwick, and which, from its effects, that it was one of those eccentric, and obtained the epithet of Parliamentum therefore in many intances tavourite, Diabolicum ti bui I did conceive, what ideas concomitant to men of genius. I think will be scarcely called in The Doctor, referring to his brother's gueltion, that the Skuils, how so quiet hypothelis, did not attempt, like the and harmless, had once contained philosopher whom I have quoted at the brains and tongues that had at times beginning of this Article, to form contrived, both in municipal and mili- any conjecture respecting the means tary conteits, to set the whole neigh- by which the cranium was rendered bourhood in confusion; that they had thick or thin, hard or soft I; he did acted, at different periods, capital parts not explain to his pupils that it would in the attack or defence of the City; be more to the advantage of their that they had given energy to the arnis brains, to have them detended by a of rebels, and to the pers of addreslers! bone of an inch in thickness, than What a variety of countenances, it then one as thin as a leaf of gold; but he occurred to me, had been moulded infitted that the human genius was to upon those blocks! With what a va. be marked by the elevation or depression riety of pallions had they been bright- of the human Skull; as an inttance of ened, animated, agitated, and de. which, he used to produce upon the formed! Looking upon this great mass table of the lecture rooin, the Skull of of mortality, and tracing, in ilea, the a White Man, the Skuil of a Negro, Situations and circumftances of the that of a Monkey, and lastly that of a bodies to which these veltiges had Dog; these were the only examples once belonged through the active pe- which the Doétor thought it necessary riods of their existence; who, it struck to exbibit, in order to elucidate his brome, could avoid moralizing upon their ther's hypothesis ; but I understand prelent quiescent Itate? and properly that the latter gentleman had carried

6th of Henry the Fourth. + 37th of Henry the Sixth. It appears that the ads of this Parliament were re. pealed, and every thing done under its authority reversed by the 39th of Henry the Sixth, 1460.

| Yetine Do&or, in the course of this lecture, always exhibited a human Skull, upon which (in confequence of ditcase) an excre!cence had grown of a very confiderable bze, fomething releibling a mulhrcom. It appeared, upon inspection, to be per. forated in many parts, and to be composed of cells, in fome degree resembling those of a honeycomb ; the brain was confequemily sphaceleted, yet the patient

Pi lived !

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his ideas upon the subject much fur. nion that however curious the fugtber, and had a variety of specimens of gestion might have been, it certainly. each of these, and many other human never was a very useful or valuable: and animal species, eminent either for one, I must contend that it was indigetheir fagacity or their stupidity. Yet nous to this climate, and promulgated, this doctrine, ingenious as it certainly as I have observed, by Di: Hunter near was, like every other theoretical sugfive-and-twenty years since ; but hav. gestion, un supported by facts the result ing, perhaps, for so long a series of of experience, is liable to be overturned years laid dormant, it is caught up by in a moment by two ancient, and two fome philo:cphical cormorant, and thousand modern, instances; of the comes forth, like the suit of Settle, in two former, I need only direct the at the Dunciad, tention of the Reader to the portraits «Old in new state, another yet the fame.” of Socrates * and Ælchylus, the intaglios of which have come down to us It will, however, be proper to hear in seals. This divine philosopher, and the substance of wbat these two celeSublime poet, muit, according to the brated literary productions, which I Tyítem alluded to have been as have mentioned, fay upon the subject. markably Itupid as we know that they In these papers it is stated, “ that the were ingenious; for it appears that doctrines of this learned German are their skulls were depressed, as if (which not only curious by the celebrity that is the case with those of negroes) they has been given to them, from their had been moulded by the plastick hand being prohibited from being publickly of their mothers, and so bald that it is taught at Vienna t, but are remark. well known that an Eagle, which has able for their results: As the brain, the ever been esteemed a quick-lighted Doctor thinks, is noulded by the bird, took the head of the latter for a Skull, he also imagines that he has fione. With regard to the modern in- found, in the conformation of the stances at which I have binted, the ob. cerebram and cerebellum, an expla. servation or recollection of every reader nation of the moral and intellectual will furnish him with facts too obvious faculties of Man ; and, for a rule deto require to be pointed out, and too duced from this general principle, numerous to be here defcanted on, establishes the convexity or depression which will completely overtbrow the of the Skull as a criterion upon which theory of the speculator.

he founds his judgment. He there. Since the writing of the preceding fore (like Dr. and Mr. Hunter) conpassage I have seen, in the Gentleman'š tends that the greater the convexity Magazine, the fame theory of Skulls ex- of the Skull, the greater is the capacity plained, I will not say elucidated, by of the individual, and vice versa with Dr. Gall; extracted from the Clef du respect to its depression; this argument Cabinet and the Journal du Soir ; in hefupports by the examples of the Skulls which this learned Gentleman seems of many celebrated men f; but (conto consider the hypothesis of my late tinues Dr. Gall) handsome men, whose ingenious and scientific friend as a new heads are more round and gracefully discovery: now, although I am of opi- formed, have seldom much genius g."

• It is a curious circumstance, though I think it has hitherto escaped chfervation, that the formation of the head and countenance of Peter the Wild Boy, who could never be brought to articulate a single word, and was evidently an Idiot, resembled this Philosopher.

+ One would suppole, though for what reason it is impossible to divine, that there was upon the Continent a delire to spread thele doctrines, as the prohibition of thein muft certainly be attended with this effect : every one knows the advantages of perlecution; it immediately raises a party in favour of the sufferer ; prohibition is the next best thing ; damn a play, or suppress a pamphlet, you, in many instances, confer immortality upon, and make the fortune of, the author, however it upid., lo fakt, it is like burning finuggled goods at the door of a milliner ; you send all the Towa to the shop I There might, as this is a subje&t of the imagination, be quoted in op pofit'on

of to it an imaginary subject, namely, the Spectators the gibbogty of whole counte. Dance, Addilon has contrived to immortalize.

§ How the learned Dostor makes the distinction betwixt a ferni globular and a convex form, I hould be delighted to hear him explain. Vol. XLII, Dec. 1802.



This great philosopher who, whether as many experiments upon Skulls as any his cranium be elevated or depressed, nation under heaven) to observe that seems to possess full as much credulity the theories of Dr. Gall are very cu. as genius, believes, though I do ex- rious; how far they are well founded, ceedingly doubt his proposition, that it is not for us to determine;" to which be is able to determine the place of it is only necessary to add each of our mental faculties in the

Finis coronat Opus. brain. The faculty of observation, so obvious in children, he states to be PAULET, MARQUIS OF WINCHESTER. « just behind the forehead, which is,

Two short anecdotes of this Nobles in thiese, very convex, but which dimi.

man, and of his fifth succeflar in the nishes, and becomes a concave, except Marquisate, are introduced to show a in great observers." I suppose, as they contralt in their difpofitions, as itrong approach toward maturity; from tbis he ragely concludes, that " liberty and to use the bold metaphor of Shake.

as it is remarkable : The former, who

( custom may produce great changes in ipeare) seems, in many instances, the faculties of man !" He (Dr. Gall) is in possession of the

" To have o'er-walk'd a current, roar. Skulls of many celebrated persons, par

ing loud, ticularly those of Bulmaner, Alexinger,

« On the unsteadfast footing of a spear," and Wurmser ; but he does not was, by Henry the 8th, advanced from tate whether these celebrated craniums the rank of a Baronet to that of a Buron, are depressed or elevated. In the brain Master of the Wards, Knight of the of the latter he pretends to have dif. Garter, and finally Executor of the covered the organ of coinage ! (Sure, King. The mode in which he " this is the very coinage of the balanced himself, in times when it brain," or he ought to have hinted was so difficult to preserve a proper his discovery to the solicitor of the equilibrium, it is certainly curious to Imperial mint,) which he states to

trace, as, to the weight of his other have its place above the ear. The places, upon the removal of the Earl of Skulls of animals furnith him with neru Southampton, was added that of the and important discoveries : 'he has Custody of the Great Seal. In the found in the Skulls of singing birds, short period of Edward the Sixth, in those of celebrated musicians, and honours were heaped upon him that particularly in that of Mozart, the might have funk an Atas; for, in the organ of music! Whether, if he had third year of this reign, he was created had the opportunity of directing the Earl of Wilt mire, Lord Treafurer of Skulls of some exquisitely-erchanting England, and, in the fifth, Marquis of vocal performers, he would have dif. Winchester ; soon after which he fat covered the organ, by the means of as Lord High Steward at the trial of which they attracted from the pockets the Duke of Somerset. of their admiring auditors (who may At the demise of the King, it apwith propriety be deemed, from their pears that he was one of the first, and being turned to notes, Paper.fulls) large consequently of the Chief, of those fortunes in short periods, we yet re. that proclaimed Queen Mary, in op. main to be informed ?

poiition to Lady Jane Gray; he was The Doctor finally states, as the very therefore in great favour with that acme of discovery, “ that the wily Princess, who, very soon after the brains of the Fox, as well as those of ob'ained the Crown, confirmed his men remarkable for their craft and patent of Lord Treasurer, but who, subtlety, point out to him the organ whether from religious motives, or of cunning."

what other cause is uncertain, did not “ It is but justice (say the French raise him a step higher than the found Editors, whose countrymen have made him.

* If the Doctor had read Dr. Tyson's curious observations on a stone found in the brain (Philos. Transactions, No. 228, p. 553), I Mould have been gald to have been informed of which of our mental faculties he believes the said stone to have been the organ?

I understand that, upon the principle of Dr. Gall, some discoveries, of the utmost importance to the Philosophical World, have been made by diffecting the Skull of Col. O'Kelly's celebrated Parrot, who died a few days since.


Having been a friend to the Refor. I think was obvious in the instance mation, of which the honours he at- of the Marquis of Winchester, if we tained under Henry and Edward are use that key which he has put into our fufficient evidence; a friend to the bands to develope it. If we consider zealous restorer of the ancient syitem, him as a Willow, bending to every which the confirmation of his patent gale, bowing his head to every ele. evinces; the Marquis appeared in the mentary vicissitude, we shall no longer Court of Elizabeth. With what part wonder that he survived and flourished of his character she was fascinated it in {torms which levelled many of the is impollible to say: That sagacious strongeit and noblest Oaks of the and penetrating Princess viewed it, Foreit. unquestionably, in every light in which In the character of this Nobleman it could be placed either by his friends we find an initance of that successful or his enemies; and the result was, versatility t in the upper rank of that, after mature confideration, the society, of which I think History also confirmed his patent of Lord affords but few examples; but although Treasurer, which, if we confider how the principle, or rather the want of tardily the conferred honours, is suffi. principle,' to which he owed his cient to convince us that the approved honours and pability in office, have of his cooduct.

been' much admired by Statesmen in This very extraordinary Nobleman more modern times and particularly died on the soth of March, 1571, in by one who to his other talents comthe 14th Eliz. at the very great age of bined that of being one of the most

. ninety-leven; having' lived to see elegant writers of his age. I much one bundred and three persons of his doubt whether Moralists would hold it own generation, his immediate descend up as an object of imitation.

He was more than thirty years of a far different disposition was, Lord High Treasurer of England ; and, as I have observed, the fifth lineal it is stated, that, upon being alked how descendant of the Marquis. Such was he had preserved himself in that ele- the steady loyalty of this excellent vated and consequently dangerous Nobleman, and rich his attachment Station, in such critical and turbulent to his Monarch, the amiable but un. times? he answered, " By being a fortunate Charles, that in the year 1645, Willow; not an Oak." A reply that a period when Rebellion was at its heighs, perhaps does more honour to his wit, he, after resolutely refusing every overthen cither to his discretion or inte. ture that was ma le to him by the Parliagrity.

ment, the leaders of which would have It is usual (to allude to Trade) to exulted if they could have persuaded to draw a Imall quantity of a commodity, eminent a character as himselfma man as a lample of the whole : it has, in like whole example would have had such manner, been frequently seen, that a influence-o swerve from his dury; small, a lingle, trait bas afforded a key after having been three times besieged to the general character of a man. This in 1 Bafing House, in the county of

Hants, Baker, whose authority I by no means think decisive, in his Chronicles, Rates the Marquis to have been only Eighty-seven. To dispure about the age of a man, who has been dead almost two centuries and a half, would be absurd ; perhaps the truth lies betwixt the two extremes.

+ In the character of Nevill, Earl of Warwick, we see an instance of versatility of another kind. This Nobleman, inktcad of bowing his head and luffering the tform to pass over, chofe to ride on the whirlwind and direct it. When we contider his talents, his undaunted courage, his unlimited generosity; what he had done, and what he had endured, to promote a caute in which he at fiiit confcientiously engaged ; we lament that such a man [hould be itung by those whom he had nurtured, and die a Martyr to wounded fenfibility, valiantly fighting in support of a family which it had been the business of his former lite to endeavour to dettroy.

It appears from Dugdale (Bar. V. I. P. 463,) that Hugh de Port, who held of the King (William the Conqueror) fifty-five Lordships in this county (Hants), was the Lord of Baling, the principal. In the 9th of W. Rufus, disgusted with the world, or induced by the fanctity annexed to the Monastic character, which the ignorance and prejudice of the times so highly favoured, he took the habit of a Monk at



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