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employed to denote populousness and witness ? Are they the accompanimento opulence

of such an evening as, we contend, the “ Huge cities and high-tower'd, that Poet is about to introduce? To se. we!might seem

cluded peasants, indeed, such an image The feat of mightieft monarchs." might well appear unsuited to the

Par. Reg. B. 3.

evening; but a frequenter of the par-Such qualities as might fit the ima- ties of gaiety and faihion, will surely gin uy cities for those scenes with attest its admirable adaptation to ex. wiich the Poet was preparing to en- press the first ettect upon the ear, of a liven them, and which are by no pro. scene perties at once so itikingly and so “ Where throngs of knights and barons concitely maked, as hy'the aspiring bold,

(hold; battlements and pinnacles of castles, " In weeds of peace, high triumphs churches, palaces, and public build- " With Atore of Ladies ings. This will hardly be contelted. The busy bee may close his labours In what then consists the impropriety of referring to these objects for this pleasure, holds another language

with the day : but man, intent on purpose, at any time, or on any oce

Rigour now is gone to bed, casion? If not discernible, they still

“ And Advice, with scrupulous head; exit; and existing; they must still

“ We, that are of purer fire, fuggefi iho qualities which the Poet

• Imitate the starry quire, withed to indicate. But there is no

" Who, in their nightly, watchful necessity for this concession. Whoever

spheres,

(years. has entered a cooliderable city in the

" Lead, in swift round, the months and evening, either by inoonlight, oramidst the glare of high rejoicings, cannot

“ What hath night to do with fleep? fail to have been itruck with the mag

“ Night hath better sweets to prove nificent effect of its public edifices,' « Venus now wakes, and wakens Love either reposing in filent majesty under

"Come ! Let us now our rites begin." the pale but resplendent tint which

COMUS. "feens" (as Shakespear fo exquisitely I really see no force whatever in this describes it) upon the face of nature; objection. or blotting the sky in dark and dubious

In the next and last objection, were masses, here and there perhaps illu. it founded on fact, there would not mined with a gleam, but contrasting for only be force, but a force which could the most part, in dusky gloom, with not be relifted -a force decisive of the the immediate blaze of lamps and queftion. If tilts and tournaments are torches. Such objects may be more really introduced as parts of the en. picturesque and lively, viewed at a distance-(Milton had before fo viewed time undoubtedly is fixed to day-light.

tertainment in the Town-scene, the then)-giided by the morning sun, or Let us view the passage then. trembling in the haze of noon; but they are incomparably more grand and

“ Where throngs of knights and baroos

bold striking, when approacbed-(and the Poet here evidently suppoles them

“ In weeds of peace high triumphs hold 3 near) - under either of the former

“ With store of Ladies, whole bright aspects.

eyes This brings us to the second ob

“ Reign in Auence and judge the prize jection, “the busy huin of Men.”

" Of wit or arins, while all contend Does not this description, it may be

“ To win her praise whom all commend." urged, very decidedly point out the In all this there is indeed a manifest noontide buzz of populous towns; the and direct allusion to jousts and tour. indefatigable murmur of Cheapfide or naments; but nothing, I think, of such the Change? Can such an image por- a specific defcription as determines them sibly agree with the ftillness and ro. to be passing at the time. On the conlitude of night?-With ftillness and trary there are two expreslions which with folitude such an iinage is doubt. feem purposely introduced to obviate less incompatible: but are stillness and such an interpretation—the knights folitude the necessary accompaniments and barons are emphatically stated to of the close of day? Are they such be clad in “Weeds of Peace," whereas accompaniments as the inhabitants of a tournament was, in all respects, and crowded capitals alle accustomed to particularly in dress and accoutre

a

a

ments,

ments, the express image of war ; be gratified.” To me the Poet's aim and the prize of wit is adjudged as well appears fimply, to exhibit a succession as of arms. Whatever interpretation of such appearances as are beit adapted explained in an easy way these apparent to interest and engage a cheerful or inconfittencies, would merit attention, pensive difpofition. But, however this if not reception, on that conlideration may be, his conduct in the attainment alone. Now it appears from M. St. of his immediate purpose, is clear and Palaye's Memoirs of Chivalry, that it admirable: he personates, in turn, was customary to close theie martial both characters, and conducts himself exhibitions of our ancestors with a though a series of scenes and images folemn banqueta fupper-called the most congenial to each. These scenes Fealt of Tournaments; that at this and these images are not promiscuously high festival (the pride of chivalry), choren: they are exhibited in the order all the gueits, the dames, the barons, in which th'y naturally occur, in the knights, and squires, appeared in their fucceßion in which they might have robes of state and ceremony; that, in actually been witnessed and enjoyed; the course of it, the prize of arms was and thus essentially contribute to the frequently adjudged that the parties vivacity and draiatic eit-ct of the afterwards engaged in contentions of piece. In the Pen seroío, the scene wit and games of skill; and, that the cominences in the evening, and is splendour of the evening was often itill purlued through the next day: in farther heightened by the introduction ihe Allegro, it opens in the morning, of pasques and pageants, after the when firit taste and fashion of the times.

“ -the Lark begins his flight « There let Hymen oft appear,

“ And finging Itartles the dull night," " In faffron robe, with taper clear ;

through periods marked by the most “ And pomp, and tealt, and revelry,

characteriitic and expreflive imagery, " With mask and antique pageantry."

true to nature, and exquisitely touched,

“ Til the lives ng day-light tails." We have only to conceive ourselves But the recreations of a country life transported to a banquet of this nature, are not yet exhausted: the spicy, nutand every circumstance of Milton's brown ale is introduced ; and the rustic description will correspond exacily beverage is accompanied with tales, with the scene into which we which, however scornfully rejected by ushered :-there can be little difficulty fastidious pride, are still desr to the the efore in admitting, that this is the imagination of sequeltered villagers, scene which the Poet designed to ex- till the hour of reit (an early hour) hibit.

arrives, the whispering winds Jull all Such are my reasons for considering to number, and universalitillness Warton's construction as admisible. closes up the evening. Then -at this It now, therefore, only renains for me pause--if Warton's interpretation be to how its fuperiority in poetical admitted-the Poet thifts the scene; effect : and I confess that I proceed to and from the secluded hamlet, hushed this part of my talk, under the most in filence and repote, tran!ports us encouraging expectations of success. suddenly, and by an unexpected and · Milton's design in the two charming awakening contralt, into the midit of pieces, the Allegro and Penseruso, has luxurious cities, now revelling in the perhaps been regarded with too much height of their festivities, where he refinement by Johnson, when he con- mingles with whatever is most crowded, liders it as being, not as Theobald and brilliant, and exhilarating-the (with still more refinement) supposed, sumptuous fenft. the gorgeous pageant, a to thow how ohjects derived their the splendid drama, and the intpiring colours from the mind, by repre. concert.

A transition more animating senting the operation of the same things and delightful never was conceived: upon the gay and the melancholy temper, it has the same effect as if, after a muor upon the same man as he is differently sical movement gradually retarded in disposed," but rather, “to illustrate, its progress, and melting gently away how, among the succesive variety of in a close that dies upon the ear, the appearances, every disposition of inind whole force of the orchestra thouid takes hold on those by which it may abruptly burit forth in a new key and

• Life of Milton;
G&g ?

to

are

a

to brisk measure. The transition is miserably impaired. Every reader of not only exquisite in itself, but its taite will feel the difference: he will introduétion is infinitely happy: it abandon, if he be compelled to abanpotlefies perfectly both the requilites of don, the illusion arising from the ob. that "curiosa felicitas" which con- vious interpretation of the contested ftituites the fondelt with of the aspirer to paffage, with sincere regret; and will elegance of composition—it has all the be tempted with the enthusialt in Hoease which seems the gift of fortune, race, to exclaim to the Iturdy disci. with all the juitness which forms the plinarians who fhould force him to such triumph of art. After having chased a nieasure, the pleasures of the country through

“ Pol me occidiftis, amici, the dav, the Poet is naturally led to re- • Non fervaftis, ait; cui fit extirta vo. fort in the evening to cities; and cities,

luptas,

[error." at this juncture, naturally furnish those

“ Et deinptus, per vim. mentis gratissimus magnificent spectacles which contrast fo admirably with the tranquil plea

Ep. 2, Lib. 2, v. 13.

G.N. fures of the day.-Subîtitute the lepo polition that the Poet goes over again Errata in our Mag. for Ozlober last. the same ground in the town, which he Page 283, Col. 2, Line 18 from bottom, bad ju't completed in the country, and for ready, read reedy.

--I will not say that the spirit of the Page 285, Col. 2, Line 19 from top, piece is deitroyed, but I am sure it is itrike out the epithet “ superior."

VESTIGES,

COLLECTED AND RECOLLECTED,

BY JOSEPH MOSER, ESQ.

NUMBER VI.

ON SXULLS.

Paying all that deference and re. SPEAKING of the battle of Pelufium, spect to the opinion of this philosopher

Herodotus takes occalion to ob. to which it is so eminently entitled, serve an extraordinary circumstance and viewing the contrast to which I of which he was a witness* : the bones have alluded in every light in whichi of the Perians and Egyptians were it is in the power of my contracted still in the place where it was fought; sphere of vision to consider it, I Itill but separated from each other : the conceive, that he is miitaken in the Skulls of the latter were so hard that a cause which he itates produced the violent stroke with a itone would effect so cbservable. The experience scarcely break them; and those of the of many ages has convinced even the foriner' so soft, that they could be most iceptical, that an infinite number broken or pierced with the greatest eale of skulls, extremely soft, have from time imaginable. The reason of this dif- to time appeared upon the theatre of ference (which, from the highest claf- the world, which have never worn fical authority, strongly marks the dif- either turbans, tiaras, or, what would tinction betwixt Block-beads and Paper have kept them quite as warm, hats jkulls) was, that the Egyptians had from and wigs; and, vice versa, that many 'their infancy been accustomed to have heads, extremely thick, and conse. their craniunis thaved, and to go un- quently bard as itones, have been encovei ed, while the Pertins (whose closed in these teguments, and have, heads, notwithstanding, I do not hold in fact, been taken as much care of by to have been half so valuable) had their proprietors, as if they were as thenı always enclosed in their turbans, liable to be fractured as egg-ihells. or tiaras, which were indeed confi. It wonld, I thould imagine, in these dered by them as their principal or- ingenious times be deemed unphilonaments,

sophical, should any one assert that the

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air, that new field for the speculative the descendants of the Persians. Prom traveller, has either an oflifying or the owners of thele, it is hintell, that petrifying quality ; and though we Prometheus, who, by the bye, is the know, with respect to the latter, that first sculptor upon record, made many such a property is inherent to many elegant models of the hunan figure of forts of water, yet, waving the initance clayt, and afterwards stole fire from Hea. of Achilles, which must be confidered ven, which had the double property of as fupernatural, it would be dillicult baking and animating them. No one to prove that while the head remained will, I think, queition the hardness upon any boty, it ever became harder of the Skulls of these beings, which by bathing.

were made of a kind of artificial stone. These obfervations upon Skulls, Pheron I, as he is called by Heroit trikes me, would make a capital dorus, is a thick Skull of considerable exordium to a letture ujor. Heads; and, eminence on the ancient hiftorical were I dispoteit to treat lightly or lu. records; he was an Egyptian, theredicrously a subject of such gravity and fore his example rather makes for, importance, I might descant upon the than against, the opinion of the phi. strength or weakness of a number of losopher. The men and women, lo Polis, ancient and nodern, which ingeniously formed by Deucalion and would show in the strongest point of Pyrrha, one might, from the materials view, that the philofopher had not of which they were composed, suppole considered his deduction from the dif- had Skulls as impenetrable as any that ferent textures of the Perlin and have adorned the Claftical periods : Egyptian Skulls with his usual ac- the cranium of Jafon was also, I think, curacy; but this will appear evident tolerabiy subitantial. The Skulls of when I state, that craniuins of con- the Grecian and Trojan heroes exhibit fiderable thickness were known in a variety of characters : Menelaus and Greece a very few years after the Paris, for not taking the advice of deluge, or inundation of Ogyges, Poltis, have been deemed Sap-skulls; some of whom were supposed to be Ajax, a Thick-lkull; the head of

* A fingular proposal was made while the Bridge at Black-friars was ere&ling, in order to fill, with propriety, the niches betwixt the columns upon the piers, which, every one knows, were, by the ingenious architect who conducted the work, de figned for the reception of Statues ; namely, to procure the bodies of those dirtina guished patriots, whole political labours had for a number of years caused a violent ébullition in the public mind, as fait as they died, and lend them to a spring then molt opportunely discovered in Yorkihire, whert, such was its petrifying quality, after a thort immertion, they would have been as surely changed into ftone, as if they had endured the griet of Niobe, or had had a glar ce at the Snaky head of Medusa."

Seeing the niches still unoccupied, it may naturally be asked, how it came that a project to cheap and classical was not carried into effect? To this I can give no answer, but can only lament that subjects who had, when living, been so ulelels. could not by this procels, or some other which would have rendered them equally conspicuous, have been made, after death, ornamental to their Country.

+ The brother of this ingenious artist, Epimethus, invented the art of making vessels of earth, (Apoll. in Biblio.) Applying the fanatical phrale, vejels, allo to the works of Prometheus, it might be a curious fpeculation to inquire which of their efforts has been the most useful to the World? Pygmalion, we likewile underitand, thinking the heals of the women of Cyprus had taken a wrong turn, whether with relpect to dress or undress we are not informed ; he, however, resolved to die a solitary batchelor until he had contrived to make for his amusement the figure of a lady in ivory, with which he became fo enamoured, that he gave Venus Do rest from his orisons iill the animated it. This I hould suppose was effected by an antipetrific procris.

I This is the same with Pharoah,

$ During the Trojan war, there was a King of Thrace, named Poltis, to whom both the Greeks and Trojans fent amballadors, to require his altistance and advice. To whom he antwered, that his advice was, that Paris Tould deliver Helen, and Menelaus rebude her; and, instead of her alone, they should have of him two fair ladies. The admirable ule which Prior has made of this hint trom Plutarch may be seen in his Alma, p. go.

Achilles

a

we

are

Achilles had been petrified in his in- it only in my power to aid his faga. fancy, yet, when Minerva pulled his city by one night hint, namely, that red hair, he seemed to have had fome in those expeditions the word Religion Small sense of feeling in it. Diomede was used as we should now use the.. and Ulysses might, had I not more word Liberty, as a ftimulus to popular than one opinion to produce that con. frenzy: which leads me to introduce a troverts the position, have been deemed story connected with the subject in Long-beadid-fellows; the latter is said more points of view than one, as it by Plutarch to have been a Sleepy- serves to show how, in consequence head. Agamemnon was a Strong. of the fascinating but false influence of head, or ratlier a Head-Itrong herofi the latter word, an army of Block heads Pandarus an Addle-bead; Troilus a were led to venture their Skulls; and Paper-skull; and fo of the rest. how their faid Skulls were treated by

The head of Alexander the Great, men who, under the wholesome reif we may judge from his eccentric ítriction of law, really poslessed this excursions, was of a most dangerous inestimable blessing. fubftance ; which obfervation will apply When Charles the Bold (or Rath), 1o the heads of Pyrrhus, Demetrius, Duke of Burgundy, invaded Switzer. and a hundred other heroes of anti- land, in order the more effectually to quity, from Menes downward to Au. secure the Liberty of the people, he gustus. With respect to the Skulls of carried with him many waggon loads more modern times, the system of He- of chains and fetters, and having some rodotus ieems to have been exploded, reasons, with which

un. and a new one, which does not appear acquainted, to inugine that the inhato be more philofophical, adopted; bitants of the large Canton of Bern upon this I thall, in the course of this were the most disposed of all the Heldiiquinitivn, have occanon to ani. vet.c body to crissile bis (ar that madvert, but mult fil It observe, that t'e perioa) new notions of Freedom, he Goths and Vandals, those ravagers f inued a Proclam 110"?, threat.ning, that kome, Sicily, &c.; those warriors it they. Chill not compehend the that seem to have transposed that advantages of ois tyitem, or bere any well-known sentence Cedant ar ma toga; ways indocile, he areant to illuminate those heroes who acted as fans to the then by tetting their towns and vilages Jeal, and extinguithers to the meta- on tice, and awaken their jenjibuity by phorical, fiaines ariung from arts and the lwords of his legions. letters; were certainly the most emi- This Maniteito was, by his intended nent Thick-lkulls of the fourth, fifth, pupils, received with the confternation and fixth centuries.

which it was calculated to excite. It will not here be necessary to con- Altonishinent, in this inttance, made traft the hollowness or dentity of the them mute. He miltook their filence Skulls of the descendants of Charle. for putilianimity, and, looking upon magne with those of the heads of other them as already conquered, he European nations; and it would be marched his troops into the country equally useless to inquire into the fa- with leis confideration, and, with reculties of their owners, as both the spect to the rabble bands that followed objects of their Wars and their Councils lis itandard, in a more relaxed state render those properties sufficiently ob. of discipline, than even thele had been vious.

used to obterve. When he had beaten Peter the Hermit seems to have been in the first post of the Switzers, he the posselior of a head which, had it gave them notice, that as he had connot been for the theories to which I quered them, he would cause a moft have alluded, would certainly have itately monument to be erected to been deemed a long one ; of what fub. celebrate his martial fame. This proftance and strength those millions of mise was at length fulfilled, though Skulls were composed that he prevailed not exactly in the way that the Duke upon to undertake the Cruiades, I must intended; for it so happened that he leave the reader to conjecture ; having bad fold the Lion's (or rather, as appli.

Ulydes is rather thought, by the author I have quoted, to have been given to what is termed Dog fleep, and that he called for his night-cap in order to have a prelence to send away the Phæacians who had conducted hiin. † Agamemmonis hoftia.

cable

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