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employed to denote populousness and witness? Are they the accompanimento opulence

of such an evening as, we contend, the “ Huge cities and high-tower'd, that Poet is about to introduce? To se. well might seem

cluded peasants, indeed, such an image “ The feat of mightiest monarchs. might well appear unsuited to the

Par. Reg. B. 3. evening; but a frequenter of the par-Such qualities as might fit the ima- ties of gaiety and fashion, will surely gin uy cities for those scenes with attest its admirable adaptation to ex. which the Poet was preparing to en: press the first effect upon the ear, of a liven them, and which are by no pro. scene per" ies at once so itrikingly and to “ Where throngs of knights and barons concilciy mai ked, as hy the aspiring bold,

(hold; battlements and pinnacles of castles, “In weeds of peace, high triumphs churches, palaces, and public build. " With Store of Ladies." ings. This will hardly be contelted. The busy bee may close his labours In what then consists the impropriety with the day : but man, intent on of referring to these objects for this pleasure, holds another languagepurpose, at any time, or on any oc.

i Rigour now is gone to bed, calion? If not discernible, they still

“ And Advice, with scrupulous head; exit; and existing, they must still

“ We, that are of purer fire, Sugges hole qualities which the Poet

" Imitate the itarry quire, wished to indicate. But there is no

• Wha, in their nightly, watchful pecessity for this concession. Whoever


[years. has entered a cooliderable city in the

« Lead, in swift round, the months and evening, either by moonlight, or amidst the glare of high rejoicings, cannot “ What hath night to do with sleep? fail to have been itruck with the mag

“ Night hath better sweets to provenificent effect of its public edifices,

" Venus now wakes, and wakens Love either reposing in filent majesty under

“Come! Let us now our rites begin." the pale but resplendent tint which

COMUS. "peers(as Shakespear so exquisitely I really see no force whatever in this describes it) upon the face of nature; objection. or blotting the sky in dark and dubious

In the next and last objection, were masses, here and there perhaps illu. it founded on fact, there would not mined with a gleam, but contrasting for only be force, but a force which could the most part, in dusky gloom, with not be relifted-a force decisive of the the inme-liate blaze of lamps and queftion. If tilts and tournaments are torches. Such objects may be more really introduced as parts of the en. picturesque and lively, viewed at a

tertainment in the Town-scene, the distance-(Milton had before fo viewed time undoubtedly is fixed to day-light. then) – gilded by the morning sun, or Let us view the passage then. trembling in the haze of noon; but they are incomparably more grand and

“ Where chrongs of knights and barods

bold striking, when approached and the Poet here evidently suppoles them

“ In weeds of peace high triumphs hold; near)-under either of the former

" With store of Ladies, whose bright aspects.

eyes This brings us to the second ob

“ Reign influence and judge the prize je&tion, “the busy huin of Men."

" Of wit or arms, while all contend Does not this description, it may be

" To win her praise whom all commend." urged, very decidedly point out the In all this there is indeed a manifest noontide buzz of populous towns; the and direct allusion to jousts and tour. indefatigable murmur of Cheapside or naments; but nothing, I think, of such the Change? Can such an image por- a specific defcription as determines them sibly agree with the Itillness and'ro.

to be passing at the time. On the conlitude of night?-With ttillness and trary there are two expreslions which with solitude such an iinage is doubt. seem purposely introduced to obviate less incompatible: but are stillness and such an interpretation—the knights folitude the neceffory accompaniments and barons are emphatically stated to of the close of day? Are they such be clad in Weeds of Peace," whereas accompaniments as the inhabitants of a tournament was, in all respects, and crowded capitals alle accustomed to particularly in dress and accoutre



ments, the express image of war; be gratified.” To me the Poet's aim and the prize of wit is adjudged as well appears simply, to exhibit a succession as of arms. Whatever interpretation of such appearances as are beit adapted explained in an easy way these apparent to interest and engage a cheerful or inconfittencies, would merit attention, pensive dispolition. But, however this if not reception, on that conlideration may be, his conduct in the attainment alone. Now it appears from M. St. of his immediate purpose, is clear and Palaye's Memoirs of Chivalry, that it admirable: he personates, in turn, was customary to close there martial both characters; and conducts himself exhibitions of our anceitors with a throngh a series of scenes and images solemn banquet-a supper-called the moit congenial to each.

There scenes Feast of Tournaments; that at this and these images are not promiscuously high festival (the pride of chivalry), cholen : they are exhibited in the order all the guests, the dames, the barons, in which they naturally occur, in the knights, and squires, appeared in their fucefion in which they might have robes of state and ceremony; that, in actually been witnefied and enjoyed; the course of it, the prize of arms was and thus essentially contribute to the frequently adjudged ; that the parties vivacity and dranatic effect of the afterwards engaged in contentions of piece.' In the Penseroío, the scene wit and games of skill; and, that the com:nences in the evening, and is splendour of the evening was often till purtued through the next day: in farther heightened by the introduction ihe Allegro, it opens in the morning, of zasques and pageants, after the when firit taste and fashion of the times.

" -the Lark begins his flight « There let Hymen oft appear,

“ And Ginging startles the dull night," " In faffron robe, with taper clear ;

through periods marked by the most “ And pomp, and tealt, and revelry,

characteristic and expressive imagery, " With mask and antique pageantry."

true to nature, and exquisitely touched,

“ Til the lives ng cay-lighi tails.” We have only to conceive ourselves But the recreations of a country life transported to a banquet of this nature, are not yet exhausted: the spicy, nutand every circumitance of Milton's brown ale is introduced ; and the rustic descri ion will correspond exacily beverage is accompanied with tales, with the scene into which we which, however scornfully rejected by uihered :- there can be little difficulty faltidious pride, are still dear to the therefore in admitting, that this is the imagination of sequeitered villagers, scene which the Poet designed to ex- till the hour of reit (an early hour) hibit.

arrives, the whispering winds' lull all Such are my reasons for considering to flumber, and universal itillness Warton's construction as admiffible. closes up the evening. Then -at this It now, therefore, only remains for me pause--if Warton's interpretation be to show iis fuperiority in poetical admitted-the Poet Mifts the scene; effect : and I confess that I proceed to and from the secluded hamlet, hushed this part of my talk, under the most in silence and repote, tran/ports us encouraging expectations of success. suddenly, and by an unexpected and · Milton's delign in the two charming awakening contrast, into the midit of pieces, the Allegro and Penseroso, has luxurious cities, now revelling in the perhaps been regarded with too much height of their festivities, where he refinement by Johnson*, when he con- mingles with whatever is most crowded, liders it as being, not as Theobald and brilliant, and exhilarating-the (with still more refinement) supposed, sumptuous feast, the gorgeous pageant, si to thow how ohjects derived their the splendid drama, and the infpiring colours from the mind, by repre. concert. A transition more animating senting the operation of the same things and delightful never was conceived: upon the gay and the melancholy temper, it has the same effect as if, after a muor upon the same man as he is differently fical movement gradually retarded in disposed," but rather, “to illustrate, its progress, and melting gently away how, among the successive variety of in a close that dies upon the ear, the appearances, every disposition of inind whole force of the orchestra thoud takes held on those by which it may abruptly burit forth in a new key and


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to brisk measure. The transition is miserably impaired. Every reader of not only exquisite in itself, but its tatte will feel the difference: he will intr dučtion is infinitely happy: it abandon, if he be compelled to abanpoflefles perfectly both the requisites of don, the illusion arising from the obthat "curiola felicitas" which con- vious interpretation of the contested ftituites the fondeft wilh of the aspirer to paffage, with sincere regret ; and will elegance of compofition—it has all the be tempted with the enthufiait in Hoease which seems the gift of fortune, race, to exclaim to the Iturdy disci. with all the juiness which forms the plinarians who fhould force him to such triumph of art. After having chased a nieasure, the pleasures of the country through

“ Pol me occidiftis, amici, the day, the Poet is naturally led to re- " Non fervallis, ait; cui fit exti rta vo. fort in the evening to cities; and cities,


[error." at this juncture, naturally furnith'those

“ Et demptus, per vim mentisgratiffimus magnificent spectacles which contrast

Ep. 2, Lib. 2, v. 13. 10 admirably with the tranquil plea

G.N. fures of the day.-Substitute the Tipo polition that the Poet goes over again Errata in our Mag. for Oktober last. the fame ground in the town, which he Page 283, Col. 2, Line 18 from bottom, bad ju't completed in the country, and for ready, read reedy,

-I will not say that the spirit of the Page 285, Col. 2, Line 19 from top, piece is deitroyed, but I am sure it is itrike out the epithet “superior."






Paying all that deference and re. SPEAKING of the battle of Pelufium; spect to the opinion of this philofopher

Herodotus takes occalion to obto which it is so eminently entitled, serve an extraordinary circumstance and viewing the contrast to which I of which he was a witness* : the bones have alluded in every light in which of the Pernans and Egyptians were it is in the power of my contracted till in the place where it was fought; sphere of vision to consider it, I till but separated from each other : the conceive, that he is miitaken in the Skulls of the latter were so hard that a cause which he itates produced the violent stroke with a itone would effect fo cbservable. The experience scarcely break them; and those of the of many ages has convinced even the foriner so joft, that they could be most sceptical, that an infinite number broken or pierced with the greatest eale of skulls, extremely sofi, have from time imaginable. The reason of this dif- to time appeared upon the theatre of ference (which, from the highest claf- the world, which have never worn fical authority, strongly marks the dif- either turbans, tiaras, or, what would tinction betwixt Block-beads and Paper- have kept them quite as warm, hats skulls) was, that the Egyptians had from and wigs; and, vice versa, that many their infancy been accustomed to have heads, extremely thick, and conre. their craniunis thaved, and to go un- quently hard as itones, have been encovered, while the Perfi:ns (whose closed in these teguments, and have, heads, notwithstanding, I do not hold in fact, been taken as much care of by to have been half lo valuable) had their proprietors, as if they were as then always encloted in their turbans, liable to he fractured as egg-ihells. or tiaras, which were indeed confi. It would, I should imagine, in these dered by them as their principal or- ingenious times be deemed unphilonamients,

sophical, ihould any one assert that the Her. L. 3. C. 11.

air, that new field for the speculative the descendants of the Persians. From traveller, has either an oflifying or the owners of these, it is hinterl, that petrifying quality; and though we Pronetheus, who, by the bye, is the know, with respect to the latter, that firit Iculptor iipon record, made many such a property is inherent to many elegant models of the hunan figure of forts of water, yet, waving the instance clayt, and afterwards stole fire from Heaof Achilles, which must be considered ven, which had the double property of as supernatural, it would be dillicult baking and animating them. No one to prove that while the head remained will, I think, queition the hardness upon any bowly, it ever became harder of the Skulls of these beings, which by bathing:

were made of a kind of artificial stone. These observations upon Skulls, Pheron I, as he is called by Hero. it strikes me, would make a capital dorus, is a thick Skull of considerable' exordium to a Lecture upon. Heads; and, eminence on the ancient historical were I disposed to treat lightly or lu. records; he was an Egyptian, theredicrously a subject of such gravity and fore his example rather makes for; importance, I might descant upon the than against, the opinion of the phi. strength or weakness of a number of lofopher. The men and women, so Polls, ancient and nodern, which ingeniously formed by Deucalion and would show in the strongest point of Pyrrha, one might, from the materials view, that the philofopher had not of which they were composed, suppose considered his deduction from the dif- had Skulls as impenetrable as any that ferent textures of the Persian and have adorned the Classical periods : Egyptian Skulls with his usual ac- the cranium of Jafon was also, I think, curacy; but this will appear evident tolerabiy subitantial. The Skulls of when I state, that craniuins of con. the Grecian and Trojan heroes exhibit fiderable thickness were known in a variety of characters : Menelaus and Greece a very few years after the Paris, for not taking the advice of deluge, or inundation of Ogyges, $ Poltis, have been deemed Sap-skulls; some of whom were supposed to be Ajax, a Thick-skull; the head of

A fingular proposal was made while the Bridge at Black-friars was erecling, in order to fill, with propriety, the niches betwixt the columns upon the piers, which, every one knows, were, by the ingenious architect who conducted the work, de figned for the reception of Statues ; namely, to procure the bodies of those distina guished patriots, whole political labours bad for a number of years caused a violent ebullition in the public mind, as fast as they died, and lend them to a spring then molt opportunely discovered in Yorkihire, whert, such was its petrifying quality, after a short iinmersion, they would have been as surely changed into stone, as if they had endured the griet of Niobe, or had had a glance at the Snaky head of Medufa.

Seeing the niches Atill un ccupied, it may naturally be asked, how it came that a project to cheap and classical was not carried into effect? To this I can give no anfwer, but can only lament that subjects who had, when living, been so uleleis, could not by this procels, or some other which would have rendered them equally confpicuous, have been made, after death, ornamental to their Country.

t. The brother of this ingenious artist, Epimethus, invented the art of making vessels of earth. (Apoll. in Biblio.) Applying the fanatical phrale, vejels, allo to the works of Prometheus, it might be a curious speculation to inquire which of their efforts has been the most useful to the World? Pygmalion, we likewile understand, thinking the heals of the women of Cyprus had taken a wrong turn, whether with respect to diers or undress we are not informed ; he, however, resolved to die a solitary batchelor until he had contrived to make for his amusement the figure of a lady in ivory, with which he becaine fo enamoured, that he gave Venus po rest from his orisons till the animated it. This I hould tuppuie was effected by an antipetrific proceis.

I This is the same with Pharoah,

$ During the Trojan war, there was a King of Thrace, named Poltis, to whom both the Greeks and Trojans sent amballadors, to require his aflittance and advice. To wliom he answered, that his advice was, that Paris should deliver Helen, and Menelaus relude her ; and, instead of her alone, they thouid have of him two fair ladies. The admirable ule which Prior has made of this hint trom Plutarch may be seen in his Alma, p. 5o.


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Achilles had been petrified in his in- it only in my power to aid his faga. fancy, yet, when Minerva pulled his city by one night hint, namely, that red hair, he seemed to have had some in those expeditions the word Religion Small sense of feeling in it. Diomede was used as we should now use the.. and Ulysses might, had I not more word Liberty, as a stimulus to popular than one opinion to produce that con frenzy: which leads me to introduce a troverts the position, have been deemed story connected with the subject in Long-beaded-fellows; the latter is said more points of view than one, as it by Plutarch to have been a Sleepy- serves to thow how, in consequence head. Agamemnon was a Strong. of the fascinating but false influence of head, or rather a Head-Itrong herot; the latter word, an army of Block-heads Pandarus an Addle-head; Troilus ' were led to venture their Skulls; and Paper-skull; and so of the rest.

how their faid Skulls were treated by The head of Alexander the Great, men who, under the wholesome reif we may judge from his eccentric striction of law, really poflefled this excursions, was of a most dangerous inestimable blessing. fubftance; which observation will apply When Charles the Bold (or Rach), to the heads of Pyrrhus, Demetrius, Duke of Burgundy, invaded Switzerand a hundred other heroes of anti- land, in order the more effectually to quity, from Menes downward to Au- secure the Liberty of the people, he gustus. With respect to the Skulls of carried with him many waggon loads more modern times, the syftem of He- of chains and fetters, and having fome rodotus ieems to have been exploded, reasons, with which we un. and a new one, which does not appear acquainted, to imagine that the inhato be more philofophical, adopted; bitants of the large Canton of Bern upon this I thail, in the course of this were the moit disposed of all the Hel. disquisition, have occation to ani- vetic body to criocite bis (ut that madvert, but must first observe, that the perio) new notions of Freedom, he Goths and Vandals, those ravagers vf med a Proclam:tion, threat ning, that Rome, Sicily, &c.; those warriors it they could not comprehend the that seem to have trantposed that advantages of nis lyitom, or were any well-known sentence Cedant arma toga; ways indocile, he mount to illuminate those heroes who acted as fans to the then by tetring their towns and villages real, and extinguishers to the meta- on tire, and awaken their jenjibuity by phorical, flames ariung from arts and the twords of his legions. letters; were certainly the moit emi- This Manifeito was, by his intended nent Thick-skulls of the fourth, fifth, pupils, received with the consternation and fixth centuries.

which it was calculated to excite. It will not here be necessary to con- Altonishinent, in this inttance, made trast the hollowness or dentity of the them mute. He miltook their filence Skulls of the descendants of Charle. for putilianimity, and, looking upon magne with those of the heads of other them

as already conquered, he European nations; and it would be marched his troops into ibe country equally useless to inquire into the fa- with leis confideration, and, with reculties of their owners, as both the spect to the rabble bands that followed objects of their Wars and their Councils bis itandard, in a more relaxed ftate render those properties sufficiently ob. of discipline, than even these had been vious.

used to obferve. When he had beaten Peter the Hermit seems to have been in the first post of the Switzers, he the possefior of a head which, had it gave them notice, that as he had connot been for the theories to which I quered them, he would cause a most have alluded, would certainly have itately monument to be erected to been deemed a long one ; of what sub. celebrate his marcial fame. This proftance and ftrength those millions of mise was at length fulfilled, though Skulls were composed that he prevailed not exactly in the way that the Duke upon to undertake the Cruiades, I must intended ; for it to happened that he Jeave the reader to conjecture ; baving bad sold the Lion's (or rather, as appli.

Ulylles is rather thought, by the author I have quoted, to have been given to what is termed Dog sleep, and that he called for his night-cap in order to have a pretence to send a way the Phæacians who had conducted hiin. † Againemmonis hoftia.



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