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Tully tells us he wrote his book of Offices, de- / rate into brutality, learning into pedaatry, and the cause there was no time of life in which some cor- genteelest demeanour into affectation. Éven Reli. respondent duty might not be practised; nor is there gion itself, unless Decency be the handmaid which a duty without a certain decency accompanying it, waits upon her, is apt to make people appear guilty by which every virtue it is joined to will seem to be of sourness and ill-humour: but this shows Virtue doubled. Another may do the same thing, and yet in her first original form, adds a comeliness to Rethe action want that air and beauty which distin- ligion, and give its professors the justest title to guish it from others; like that inimitable sunshine “ the beauty of holiness.” A man fully instructed Titian is said to have diffused over his landscapes; in this art, may assume a thousand shapes, and which denotes them his, and has been always un- please in all; he may do a thousand actions shall equalled by any other person.
become none other but himself; not that the things There is no one action in which this quality I am themselves are different, but the manner of doing speaking of will be more sensibly perceived, than in them. granting a request, or doing an office of kindness. If you examine each feature by itself, Aglaura Mummius, by his way of consenting to a benefac- and Calliclea are equally handsome ; but take them tion, shall make it lose its name ; while Carus in the whole, and you cannot suffer the comparison : doubles the kindness and the obligation. Froi: the the one is full of numberless nameless graces, the first, the desired request drops indeed at last, but other of as many nameless faults. from so doubtful a brow, that ihe obliged has almost The comeliness of person, and the decency of be as much reason to resent the manner of bestowing haviour, add intinite weight to what is pronounced it, as to be thankful for the favour itself. Carus in by any one. It is the want of this that often makes vites with a pleasing air, to give him an opportu- the rebukes and advice of old rigid persons of no pity of doing an act of humanity, meets the petition effect, and leave a displeasure in the minds of those half way, and consents to a request with a counte- they are directed to: but youth and beauty, if acnance which proclaims the satisfaction of his mind companied with a graceful and becoming severity, in assisting the distressed.
is of mighty force to raise, even in the most profliThe decency then that is to be observed in li- gate, a sense of shame. In Milton, the devil is berality, seems to consist in its being performed never described ashamed but once, and that at the with such cheerfulness, as may express the god-like rebuke of a beauteous angel: pleasure to be met with, in obliging one's fellow
So spake the cherub; and his grave rebuke, creatures; that may show good-nature and benevo
Severe in youthful beauty, added grace lence overflowed, and do not, as in some men, run Invincible. Abash d the devil stood, upon the tilt, and taste of the sediments of a grudg
And felt how awful Goodness is, and saw ing, uncommunicative disposition.
Virtue in her own shape how lovely! saw and pind Since I have intimated that the greatest decorum is to be preserved in the bestowing our good offices,
The care of doing nothing unbecoming has acI will illustrate it a little, by an example drawn companied the greatest minds to their last moments. from private life, which carries with it such a profu- They avoided even an indecent posture in the very sion of liberality, that it can be exceeded by nothing article of death. Thus Cæsar gatnered his robe but the humanity and good-nature which accompa. about him, that he might not fall in a manner annies it. It is a letter of Pliny, which I shall here becoming of himself; and the greatest concern that translate, because the action will best appear in its appeared in the behaviour of Lucretia when she first dress of thought, without any foreign or am- stabbed herself
, was, that her body should lie in an bitious ornaments.
attitude worthy the mind which had inhabited it:
-Ne non procumbat honeste, “ Pliny TO QUINTILIAN."
OviD, Fast. iil 833. “ Though I am fully acquainted with the contentment and just moderation of your mind, and the
'Twas her last thought, how decently to fall. conformity the education you have given your " MR. SPECTATOR, daughter bears to your own character; yet since she
“I am a young woman without a fortune; but of is suddenly to be married to a person of distinction, whose figure in the world makes it necessary for her last degree proud and vain.
a very high mind: that is, good Sir, I am to the to be at a more than ordinary expense, in clothes the rich, for doing things, which, upon search into
I am ever railing at and equipage suitable to her husband's quality; by which, though her intrinsic worth be not auginented, my heart, I find I am only angry at, because I can
not do the same myself. I wear the hooped pettiyet will it receive both ornament and lustre : and coat, and am all in calicoes when the finest are in knowing your estate to be as moderate as the riches silks. It is a dreadful thing to be poor and proud; of your mind are abundant, I must challenge to therefore, if you please, a lecture on that subject myself some part of the burden; and as a parent for the satisfaction of your uneasy humble Servant, of your child, I present her with twelve hundred
“ JEZEBEL." and fifty crowns, towards these expenses; which sum had been much larger, had I not feared the smallness of it would be the greatest inducement
No. 293.1 with you to accept of it. Farewell.”
TUESDAY, FEBRUARY 5, 1711-12. Thus should a benefaction be done with a good (The prudent still have fortune on their side.-- Frag. Vet. Poel grace, and shine in the strongest point of light; it The famous Grecian, in his little book wherein should not only answer all the hopes and exigencies he lays down maxims for a man's advancing himself of the receiver, but even outrun his wishes. It is at court, advises his reader to associate himself with this happy manner of behaviour which adds new the fortunate, and to shun the company of the un charms to it, and softens those gifts of art and na- fortunate ; which, notwithstanding the baseness of ture, which otherwise would be rather distasteful the precept to an honest mind, may have something than agreeable. Without it, valour would degenc- ' useful in it, for those who push their interest in the
Extrema hæc etiam cura cadentis erat.
worlu. It is certain, a great part of what we call seen successes, which are often the effect of a san.
to our own management, and not to esteem ourselves
thing he undertook. Those who believe a future state of rewards and As arrogance and a conceitedness of our own punishments act very absurdly, if they form their abilities are very shocking and offensive to men of opinions of a man's merit from his successes. But sense and virtue, we may be sure they are highly certainly, if I thought the whole circle of our being displeasing to that Being who delights in a humble was included between our births and deaths, I should mind, and by several of his dispensations seems think a man's good fortune the measure and standard purposely to show us, that our own schemes, or pruof his real merit, since Providence would have no dence, have no share in our advancements. opportunity of rewarding his virtue and perfections, Since on this subject I have already admitted but in the present life. A virtuous unbeliever, wbo several quotations, which have occurred to my melies under the pressuire of misfortunes, has reason to mory upon writing this paper, I will conclude it cry out, as they say Brutus did, a little before his with a little Persian fable drop of water fell out death: “O Virtue, I have worshipped thee as a sub- of a cloud into the sea, and finding itself lost in such stantial good, but I find thou art an empty name.” an immensity of Auid matter, broke out into the
But to return to our first point. Though Pru- following reflection : “Alas! What an inconsiderdence does undoubtedly in a great measure produce ablet creature am I in this prodigious ocean of our good or ill fortune in the world, it is certaiu there waters! My existence is of no concern to the uniare many unforeseen accidents and occurrences, verse; I am reduced to a kind of nothing, and am which very often pervert the finest schemes that can less than the least of the works of God.” It so hapbe laid by human wisdom. “ The race is not always pened that an oyster, which lay in the weighbourto the swift, nor the battle to the strong.” Nothing hood of this drop, chanced to gape and swallow it less than infinite wisdom can have an absolute com- up in the midst of this its humble soliloquy. The mand over fortune ; the highest degree of it which drop, says the fable, lay a great while hardening in man can possess, is by no means equal to fortuitous the shelí, until by degrees it was ripened into a events, and to such contingencies as may rise in the pearl, wbich falling into the hands of a diver, after prosecution of our affairs. Nay, it very often hap- a long series of adventures, is at present that pens, that prudence, which has always in it a great famous pearl which is tixed on the top of the Persian mixture of caution, hinders a man from being so diadein.-L. fortunate, as he might possibly have been without it. A person who only aims at what is likely to
Timotheus the Athenian. See Shaw's edit. of Lord Basucceed, and follows closely the dictates of human
con's Works, tto. vol. i p. 219.
† Altered from insignificant, according to a direction in prudence, never meets with those great and unfore Spect. in foliv, No. 235.
half yard of the silk towards clothing, feeding, and No. 291.] WEDNESDAY, FEB. 6, 1711-12.
instructing an innocent helpless creature of her own Difficile est plurimum virtutem revereri qui semper secunda sex, in one of these schools. The consciousness of fortuna sit usus.-TULI. ad Hereunium.
such an action will give her features a nobler life The man who is always fortunate, cannot easily have much on this illustrious day,* than all the jewels that can reverence for virtue.
hang in her hair, or can be clustered in her bosom. INSOLENCE is the crime of all others which every It would be uncourtly to speak in harsher words to man is apt to rail at; and yet there is one respect the fair, but to men one may take a little more freein which almost all men living are guilty of it, and dom. It is monstrous how a man can live with so that is in the case of laying a greater value upon little reflection, as to fancy he is not in a condition the gifts of fortune than we ought. It is here in very unjust and disproportioned to the rest of manEngland come into our very language as a propriety kind, while he enjoys wealth, and exerts no beneof distinction, to say, when we would speak of per volence or bounty to others. As for this particular sons to their advantage, “ They are people of con occasion of these schools, there cannot any offer dition.” There is no doubt but the proper use of more worthy a generous mind. Would you do a riches implies, that a man should exert all the good handsome thing without return; do it for an infant qualities imaginable; and if we mean by a man of that is not sensible of the obligation. Would you condition or quality, one who, according to the do it for public good; do it for one who will be an wealth he is master of, shows himself just, benefi- honest artificer. Would you do it for the sake of cent, and charitable, that term ought very de heaven; give it to one who shall be instructed in servedly to be had in the highest veneration; but the worship of him for whose sake you gave it. It when wealth is used only as it is the support of | is, methinks, a most laudable institution this, if it pomp and luxury, to be rich is very far from being were uf no other expectation than that of producing à recommendation to honour and respect. It is a race of good and useful servants, who will have indeed the greatest insolence imaginable, in a crea- more than a liberal, a religious education. What ture who would feel the extremes of thirst and hun would not a man do in common prudence, to lay ger, if he did not prevent bis appetites, before they out in purchase of one about him, who would add call upon him, to be so forgetful of the common to all his orders he gave, the weight of the comnecessities of human nature, as never tu cast an eye mandinents, to enforce an obedience to them? for upon the poor and needy. The fellow who escaped one who would consider bis master as his father, his from a ship which struck upon a rock in the west, friend, and benefactor, upon easy terms, and in and joined with the country people to destroy his expectation of no other return, but moderate wages brother sailors, and make her a wreck, was thought and gentle usage? It is the common vice of chila most execrable creature ; but does not every nian dren, to run too much among the servants; from who enjoys the possession of what he naturally such as are educated in these places they would see wants and is unmindful of the unsupplied distress nothing but lowliness in the servant, which would of other men, betray the same temper of mind ? not be disingenuous in the child. All the ill offices When a man looks about him, and, with regard to and defamatory whispers, which take their birth riches and poverty, beholds some drawn in pomp from domestics, would be prevented, if this charity and equipage, and they, and their very servants, could be made universal: and a good man might with an air of scorn and triumph, overlooking the have a knowledge of the whole life of the persons multitude that pass by them; and in the same he designs to take into his house for his own serstreet a creature of the same make, crying out, in vice, or that of his family or children, long before the name of all that is good and sacred, to behold they were admitted. This would create endearing bis misery, and give him some supply against hun- dependencies; and the obligation would have a ger and nakedness; who would believe these two paternal air in the master, who would be relieved beings were of the same species? But so it is, that from much care and anxiety by the gratitude and the consideration of fortune has taken up all our diligence of a humble friend, attending him as his minds, and as I have often complained, poverty and servant. I fall into this discourse from a letter riches stand in our imaginations in the places of sent to me, to give me notice that fifty boys would guilt and innocence. But in all seasons there will be clothed, and take their seats (at the charge of be some instances of persons who have souls too some generous benefactors) in St. Bride's church, large to be taken with popular prejudices, and, on Sunday next. I wish I could promise to mywhile the rest of mankind are contending for su- self any thing which my correspondent seems to periority in power and wealth, have their thoughts expect from a publication of it in this paper; for bent upon the necessities of those below them. The there can be pothing added to what so many excelcharity schools, which have been erected of late Icot and learned men have said on this occasion. years, are the greatest instances of public spirit the But that there may be something here which would age has produced. But, indeed, when we consider move a generous mind, like that of him who wrote how long this sort of beneficence has been on foot, to me, I shall transcribe a handsome paragraph of it is rather from the good management of those in- Dr. Snape's sermon on these charities, which my stitutions, than from the number or value of the correspondent enclosed with his letter. benesactions to them, that they make so great a “ The wise Providence has amply compensated figure. One would think it impossible that in the the disadvantages of the poor and indigent, in wantspace of fourteen years there should not have been ing many of the conveniences of this life, by a more tive thousand pounds bestowed in gifts this way, nor abundant provision for their happiness in the next. sixteen hundred children, including males and Had they been higher born, or more richly en. feniales, put out to methods of industry. It is not dowed, they would have wanted this manner of allowed me to speak of luxury and folly with the education, of which those only enjoy the beuefit, severe spirit they deserve; I shall only therefore say, I shall very readily compound with any lady
* The birth-day of her majesty Queen Anne, who was born in a hooped petticoat, if she give the price of one Feb. 6, 1665, and died Aug. 1, 1714, aged 49.
Juv. Sat. vi. 361.
who are low enough to submit to it; where they himself
, and in a manner becoming accessary to his have such advantages without money, and without own dishonour. We may, indeed, generally obo price, as the rich cannot purchase with it. The serve, that in proportion as a woman is more or less learning which is given, is generally more edifying beautiful, and her husband adzaneed in years, she to them, than that which is sold to others. Thus do stands in need of a greater or less number of pins, they become exalted in goodness, by being de- and, upon a treaty of marriage, rises or falls in pressed in fortune, and their poverty is, in reality, her demands accordingly. It must likewise be their preferment."
owned, that high quality in a mistress does very T.
much infame this article in the marriage-reckoning.
But where the age and circumstances of both No. 295.] THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 7, 1711-12. parties are pretty much upon a level, I cannot but Prcdiga non sentit pereuntem foemina censum:
ihink the insisting upon pin-money is very extraor. At velut exhausta redivivus pullulet arca
dinary; and yet we find several matches broken off Nummus, et e pleno semper tollatur acervo,
upon this very head. What would a foreigner, or Nou unquam reputal, quanti sibi gaudia constent.
one who is a stranger to this practice, think of a But womankind, that never knows a mean,
lover that forsakes his mistress, because he is not Down to the dregs their sinking fortunes drain.
willing to keep her in pins ? But what would he Hourly they give, and spend, and waste, and wear,
think of the mistress, should he be informed that And think no pleasure can be bought too dear.-DRYDEN
she asks five or six hundred pounds a year for this “MR. SPECTATOR,
use ? Should a man unacquainted with our customs “I am turned of my great climacteric, and am na-be told the sums which are allowed in Great Briturally a man of a meek temper. About a dozen tain, under the title of pin-money, what a prodiyears ago I was married, for my sins, to a young gious consumption of pins would he think there was
in this island ? woman of good family, and of a high spirit; but
“A pin a day," says our frugal could not bring her to close with me, before I had proverb, is a groat a year;" so that, according to entered into a treaty with her, longer than that of his calculation, my friend Fribble's wife must every the grand alliance. Among other articles, it was
year make use of eight million six hundred and therein stipulated, that she should have 4001. a-year
forty thousand new pins. for pin-money, which I obliged myself to pay quar: they comprehend under this general term several
I am not ignorant that our British ladies allege terly into the hands of one who acted as her plenipo- other
conveniences of life; I could therefore wish, tentiary in that affair. I have ever since religiously for the honour of my countrywomen, that they had observed my part in this solemn agreement. Now, Sir, so it is, that the lady has had several children rather called it needle-money, which might have imsince I married her; to which, if I should credit plied something of good housewifery, and not have. our malicious neighbours, her pin-money has not a
given the malicious world oceasion to think, that little contributed. The education of these my chil. dress and trifles have always the uppermost place
in a woman's thoughts. dren, who, contrary to my expectation, are born to
I know several of my fair readers urge in deme every year, straitens me so much, that I have begged their mother to free me from the obligation fence of this practice, that it is but a necessary proof the above-mentioned pin-money, that it may go band proves a churl, or miser; so that they consider
vision they make for themselves, in case their hustowards making a provision for her family. This proposal makes her noble blood swell in her veins, this allowance as a kind of alimony, which they insomuch that, fiuding me a little tardy in my last may lay their claim to, without actually separating quarter's payment, she threatens ine every day to from their husbands. But, with submission, I think arrest me; and proceeds so far as to tell me that if a woman who will give up herself to a man in mar. I do not do her justice, I shall die in a gaol. To riage, where there is the least room for such an apthis she adds, when her passion will let her argue will not rely on for the common necessaries of life,
prehension, and trust her person to one whom she calmly, that she has several play-debts on her hands, which must be discharged very suddenly, and that may very properly be accused (in the phrase of a she cannot lose her money as becomes a woman of homely, proverb) of being “penny wise and pound
foolish." fashion, if she makes me any abatement in this article. I hope, Sir, you will take an occasion
It is observed of over-cautious generals, that they from hence to give your opinion upon a subject in case the event should not answer their expecta
never engage in battle without securing a retreat, which you have not yet touched, and inform us iftions ; on the other hand, the greatest conquerors there are any precedents for this usage among our have burnt their ships, or broke down the bridges ancestors; or whether you find any mention of p:n- behind them, as being determined either to succeed money in Grotius, Puffendorf, or any other of the civilians.
or die in the engagement. In the same manner I "I am ever the humblest of
should very much suspect a woman who takes such “ Josian Fribble, Esq'
precautions for her retreat, and contrives methods
how she may live happily, without the affection of As there is no man living who is a more professed one to whom she joins herself for life. Separate advocate for the fair sex than myself, so there is purses between man and wife are, in my opinion, none that would be more unwilling to invade any is unnatural as separate beds. A marriage cannot of their ancient rights and privileges; but as the be happy, where the pleasures, inclinatious, and indoctrine of pin-money is of a late date, unknown terests of both parties are not the same. There is to our great-grandmothers, and not yet received by no greater incitement to love in the mind of man, many of our modern ladies, I think'it is for the in- than the sense of a person's depending upon him ferest of buth sexes to keep it from spreading. for her ease and happiness; as a woman uses all
Mr. Fribble may not, perhaps, be much mistaken her endeavours to please the person whom she looks where be intimates, that the supplying a man's wife upon as her bonuur, her comfort, and her support. with pin-money, is furnishing her with arms against | For this reason, I am not very much surprised at
the behaviour of a rough country 'squire, who, being character more likely to be prevalent in this re not a little shocked at the proceeding of a young quest, than if I should subscribe myself by my prowidow that would not recede from her demands of
per name. pin-money, was so enraged at her mercenary tem per, that he told her in great wrath, “ As much as
“ | desire you may insert this in one of your she thought him her slave, he would show all the speculations, to show my zeal for removing the dis.
satisfaction of the fair sex, and restoring you to world he did not care a pin for her." Upon which
their favour.” he flew out of the room, and never saw her more.
Socrates in Plato's Alcibiarles, says he was in- “ SIR, formed by one who had travelled through Persia, “ I was some time since in company with a that as he passed over a great tract of land, and in young officer, who entertained us with the conquest quired what the name of the place was, they told he had made over a female neighbour of his: wben him it was the Queen's Girdle: to which he adds, a gentleman who stood by, as I suppose, envying that another wide field which lay by it, was called the captain's good fortune, asked him what reason the Queen's Veil; and that in the same manner he had to believe the lady admired him? Why,' there was a large portion of ground set aside for says he, ‘my lodgings are opposite to hers, and she every part of her majesty's dress. These lands is continually at her window either at work, readmight not be improperly called the Queen of Pering, taking snuff, or putting herself in some toying sia's pin-money.
posture, on purpose to draw my eyes that way.' I remember my friend Sir Roger, who, I dare The confession of this vain soldier made me reflect say, never read this passage in Plato, told me some on some of my own actions; for you must know, time since, that upon his courting the perverse Sir, I am often at a window which fronts the apart. widow (of whom I have given an account in former ments of several gentlemen, who I doubt not have papers) he had disposed of a hundred acres in a the same opinion of me. I must own I love to look diamond ring, which he would have presented her at them all, one for being well dressed, a second with, had she thought fit to accept it; and that for his fine eye, and one particular one, because be upon her wedding-day, she should have carried on is the least man I ever saw; but there is something her head fifty of the tallest oaks upon his estate. He so easy and pleasant in the manner of my little further informed me, that he would have given her man, that I observe he is a favourite of all bis ac. a coal-pit to keep her in clean linen, that he would quaintance. I could go on to tell you of many have allowed her the profits of a windmill for her fans, others, that I believe think I have encouraged them and have presented her once in three years with the from my window: but pray let me have your opishearing of his sheep for her under-petticoats. To nion of the use of a window, in the apartment of a which the knight always adds, that though he did beautiful lady; and how often she may look out not care for fine clothes himself, there should not at the same man, without being supposed to have have been a woman in the country better dressed a mind to jump out to him. than my Lady Coverley. Sir Roger, perhaps, may
“ Yours, in this, as well as in many other of his devices, ap.
“ AURELIA CARELESS." pear somewhat odd and singular; but if the humour 0. pin-money prevails, I think it would be very
Twice. proper for every gentleman of an estate to mark “ MR. SPECTATOR, out so many acres of it under the title of " The
“ I have for some time made love to a lady, who Pins."'-L
received it with all the kind returns I ought to ex.
pect : but, without any provocation that I know of, No. 296.] FRIDAY, FEBRUARY 8, 1711-12. she has of late shunned me with the utmost abhor
rence, insomuch that she went out of church last -Nugis addere pondus. HoR. 1 Ep. xix. 42 Sunday in the midst of divine service, upon my Add weight to trifles.
coming into the same pew. Pray, Sir, what must “ Dear SPEC.,
I do in this business?
“ Your Servant, “ Having lately conversed much with the fair
" EUPHCES.” sex on the subject of your speculations (which, since their appearance in public, have been the chief
Let her alone ten days. exercise of the fomale loquacious faculty), I found the fair ones possessed with a dissatisfaction at your
York, Jan. 20, 1711-12.
"MR. SPECTATOR, prefixing Greek mottos to the frontispieces of your late papers; and as a man of gallantry, I thought “We have in this town a sort of people who it a duty incumbent on me to impart it to you in pretend to wit, and write lampoons; I have lately hopes of a reformation, which is only to be effected been the subject of one of them. The scribbler had not by a restoration of the Latin to the usual dignity genius enough in verse to turn my age, as indeed I in your papers, which of late the Greek, to the great ain an old maid, into raillery, for affecting a youthdispleasure of your female readers, has usurped; ier turn than is consistent with my time of day; for though the Latin has the recommendation of and therefore he makes the title of his madrigal, being as unintelligible to them as the Greek, yet the character of Mrs. Judith Lovebane, born in the being written in the same character with their year 1680. What I desire of you is, that you dis. mother tongue, by the assistance of a spelling-book allow that a coxcomb, who pretends to write verse, it is legible; which quality the Greek wants: and should put the most malicious thing he can say in since the introduction of operas into this nation, prose. This ( humbly conceive will disable our the ladies are so charmed with sounds abstracted country wits, who indeed take a great deal of paing from their ideas, that they adore and honour the to say any thing in rhyme, though they say it very ill cound of Latin, as it is old Italian. I am a solicitor
“I am, Sir, your humble Servant, for the fair sex, and therefore think myself in that
“ SUSANNA LOVABANE,