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uniting to form such an association shall, under their hands, make an organization certificate, which shall specifically state:

First. The name assumed by such association; which name shall include the word “national" and be subject to the approval of the Comptroller of the Currency.

Second. The place where its operations of discount and deposit are to be carried on, designating the State, Territory, or district, and the particular county and city, town, or village.

Third. The amount of capital stock and the number of shares into which the same is to be divided.

Fourth. The names and places of residence of the shareholders and the number of shares held by each of them.

Fifth. The fact that the certificate is made to enable such persons to avail themselves of the advantages of this Title.

Filing and Preservation
of Organization Certificate

12 U.S.C. 23 (R.S. 5135).—The organizaion certificate shall be acknowledged before judge of some court of record, or notary rublic, and shall be, together with the acnowledgment thereof, authenticated by the eal of such court, or notary, transmitted to the Comptroller of the Currency, who shall ecord and carefully preserve the same in his office.

law, or until terminated by either a general or a special Act of Congress or until its affairs be placed in the hands of a receiver and finally wound up by him.

Third. To make contracts.

Fourth. To sue and be sued, complain and defend, in any court of law and equity, as fully as natural persons.

Fifth. To elect or appoint directors, and by its board of directors to appoint a president, vice president, cashier, and other officers, define their duties, require bonds of them and fix the penalty thereof, dismiss such officers or any of them at pleasure, and appoint others to fill their places.

Sixth. To prescribe, by its board of directors, by-laws not inconsistent with law, regulating the manner in which its stock shall be transferred, its directors elected or appointed, its officers appointed, its property transferred, its general business conducted, and the privileges granted to it by law exercised and enjoyed.

Seventh. To exercise by its board of directors or duly authorized officers or agents, subject to law, all such incidental powers as shall be necessary to carry on the business of banking; by discounting and negotiating promissory notes, drafts, bills of exchange, and other evidences of debt; by receiving deposits; by buying and selling exchange, coin, and bullion; by loaning money on personal security; and by obtaining, issuing, and circulating notes according to the provisions of this title. The business of dealing in securities and stock by the association shall be limited to purchasing and selling such securities and stock without recourse, solely upon the order, and for the account of, customers, and in no case for its own account, and the association shall not underwrite any issue of securities or stock: Provided, That the association may purchase for its own account investment securities under such limitations and restriction as the Comptroller of the Currency may by regulation prescribe. In no event shall the total amount of the investment securities of any one obligor or maker, held by the association for its own account, exceed at any time 10 per centum of its capital stock actually paid in and unimpaired and 10 per centum of its unimpaired surplus fund, except that this limitation shall not re

Corporate Powers and nvestment Securities

12 U.S.C. 24 (R.S. 5136).-Upon duly Taking and filing articles of association and n organization certificate, the association hall become, as from the date of the execuon of its organization certificate, a body orporate, and as such, and in the name esignated in the organization certificate, it 1all have powerFirst. To adopt and use a corporate seal.

Second. To have succession from the date f the approval of this Act, or from the date f its organization if organized after such ate of approval until such time as it be disolved by the act of its shareholders owning vo-thirds of its stock, or until its franchise comes forfeited by reason of violation of

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quire any association to dispose of any securities lawfully held by it on August 23, 1935. As used in this section the term “investment securities” shall mean marketable obligations evidencing indebtedness of any person, co-partnership, association, or corporation in the form of bonds, notes and/or debentures commonly known as investment securities under such further definition of the term “investment securities” as may by regulation be prescribed by the Comptroller of the Currency. Except as hereinafter provided or otherwise permitted by law, nothing herein contained shall authorize the purchase by the association for its own account of any shares of stock of any corporation. The limitations and restrictions herein contained as to dealing in, underwriting and purchasing for its own account, investment securities shall not apply to obligations of the United States, or general obligations of any State or of any political subdivision thereof, or obligations issued under authority of the Federal Farm Loan Act, as amended, or issued by the thirteen banks for cooperatives or any of them or the Federal Home Loan Banks, or obligations which are insured by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development under Title XI of the National Housing Actor obligations which are insured by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development (hereafter in this sentence referred to as the “Secretary” pursuant to section 1713 of this title), if the debentures to be issued in payment of such insured obligations are guaranteed as to principal and interest by the United States, or obligations, participations, or other instruments of or issued by the Federal National Mortgage Association or he Government National Mortgage Association or such obligations of any local public agency (as defined in section 1460(h) of Title 12) as are secured by an agreement between the local public agency and the Secretary in which the local public agency agrees to borrow from said Secretary, and said Secretary agrees to lend to said local public agency, monies in an aggregate amount which (together with any other monies irrevocably committed to the payment of interest on such obligations) will suffice to pay, when due, the interest on and all installments (including the final installment) of the principal of such

obligations, which monies under the terms of said agreement are required to be used for such payments, or such obligations of a public housing agency (as defined in the United States Housing Act of 1937, as amended) as are secured either (1) by an agreement between the public housing agency and the Secretary in which the public housing agency agrees to borrow from the Secretary, and the Secretary agrees to lend to the public housing agency, prior to the maturity of such obligations (which obligations shall have a maturity of not more than eighteen months), monies in an amount which (together with any other monies irrevocably committed to the payment of interest on such obligations) will suffice to pay the principal of such obligations with interest to maturity thereon, which monies under the terms of said agreement are required to be used for the purpose of paying the principal of and the interest on such obligations at their maturity, or (2) by a pledge of annual contributions under annual contributions contract between such public housing agency and the Secretary if such contract shall contain the covenant by the Secretary which is authorized by Section 1421a(b) of Title 42, and if the maximum sum and the maximum period specified in such contract pursuant to Section 1421a(b) of Title 42 shall not be less than the annual amount and the period for payment which are requisite to provide for the payment when due of all installments of principal and interest on such obligations: Provided, That in carrying on the business commonly known as the safe-deposit business the association shall not invest in the capital stock of a corporation organized under the law of any State to conduct a safe-deposit business in an amount in excess of 15 per centum of the capital stock of the association actually paid in and unimpaired and 15 per centum of its unimpaired surplus. The limitations and restrictions herein contained as to dealing in and underwriting investment securities shall not apply to obligations issued by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development or the Inter-American Development Bank or the Asian Development Bank, or obligations issued by any State or political subdivision or any agency of a State or political subdivision for housing, university, or dormi tory purposes, which are at the time eligible

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for purchase by a national bank for its own account, nor to bonds, notes and other obligations issued by the Tennessee Valley Authority: Provided, That no association shall hold obligations issued by any of said organizations as a result of underwriting, dealing, or purchasing for its own account (and for this purpose obligations as to which it is under commitment shall be deemed to be held by it) in a total amount exceeding at any one time 10 per centum of its capital stock actually paid in and unimpaired and 10 per centum of its unimpaired surplus fund.

Notwithstanding any other provision in this paragraph, the association may purchase for its own account shares of stock issued by a corporation authorized to be created pursuant to title IX of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968, and may make investments in a partnership, limited partnership, or joint venture formed pursuant to section 907(a) or 907(c) of that Act.

Eighth. To contribute to community funds, or to charitable, philanthropic, or benevolent instrumentalities conducive to public welfare, such sums as its board of directors may deem expedient and in the interests of the association, if it is located in a State the laws of which do not expressly prohibit State banking institutions from contributing to such funds or instrumentalities.

Ninth. To issue and sell securities which are guaranteed pursuant to section 306(g) of the National Housing Act.

(c) As used in this section

(1) The term 'deal in’ includes making, taking, buying, selling, redeeming, or collecting

(2) The term 'lottery' includes any arrangement whereby three or more persons (the ‘participants') advance money or credit to another in exchange for the possibility or expectation that one or more but not all of the participants (the 'winners') will receive by reason of their advances more than the amounts they have advanced, the identity of the winners being determined by any means which includes/

(A) a random selection;
(B) a game, race or contest; or

(C) any record or tabulation of the result of one or more events in which any participant has no interest except for its bearing upon the possibility that he may become a winner.

(3) The term 'lottery ticket' includes any right, privilege, or possibility (and any ticket, receipt, record, or other evidence of any such right, privilege, or possibility) of becoming a winner in a lottery.

(d) Nothing contained in this section prohibits a national bank from accepting deposits or cashing or otherwise handling checks or other negotiable instruments, or performing other lawful banking services for a State operating a lottery, or for an officer or employee of that State who is charged with the administration of the lottery.

(e) The Comptroller of the Currency shall issue such regulations as may be necessary to the strict enforcement of this section and the prevention of evasions thereof."

(12 U.S.C. 24 A added by P.L. 90-203, Dec. 15, 1967, eff. Apr. 1, 1968.)

Prohibited Activities

12 U.S.C. 24A.(R.S. 5136A).—

[Penalty provision, see 18 U.S.C. 1306] (a) A national bank may not

(1) deal in lottery tickets;

(2) deal in bets used as a means or substitute for participation in a lottery;

(3) announce, advertise, or publicize the existence of any lottery;

(4) announce, advertise, or publicize the existence or identity of any participant or winner, as such, in a lottery. (b) A national bank may not permit

(1) the use of any part of any of its banking offices by any person for any purpose forbidden to the bank under subsection (a), or

(2) direct access by the public from any of its banking offices to any prem

Authorization To Commence
Banking Business

12 U.S.C. 26 (R.S. 5168).—Whenever a certificate is transmitted to the Comptroller of the Currency, as provided in this Title, and the association transmitting the same notifies the Comptroller that all of its capital stock has been duly paid in, and that such associa

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tion has complied with all the provisions of this Title required to be complied with before an association shall be authorized to commence the business of banking, the Comptroller shall examine into the condition of such association, ascertain especially the amount of money paid in on account of its capital, the name and place of residence of each of its directors, and the amount of the capital stock of which each is the owner in good faith, and generally whether such association has complied with all the provisions of this Title required to entitle it to engage in the business of banking; and shall cause to be made and attested by the oaths of a majority of the directors, and by the president or cashier of the association, a statement of all the facts necessary to enable the Comptroller to determine whether the association is lawfully entitled to commence the business of banking.

Authority To Hold Real Estate

12 U.S.C. 29 (R.S. 5137).-A national banking association may purchase, hold, and convey real estate for the following purposes, and for no others:

First. Such as shall be necessary for its accommodation in the transaction of its business.

Second. Such as shall be mortgaged to it in good faith by way of security for debts previously contracted.

Third. Such as shall be conveyed to it in satisfaction of debts previously contracted in the course of its dealings.

Fourth. Such as it shall purchase at sales under judgments, decrees, or mortgages held by the association, or shall purchase to secure debts due to it.

But no such association shall hold the possession of any real estate under mortgage, or the title and possession of any real estate purchased to secure any debts due to it, for a longer period than five years.

Certificate

12 U.S.C. 27 (R.S. 5169).If, upon a careful examination of the facts so reported, and of any other facts which may come to the knowledge of the Comptroller, whether by means of a special commission appointed by him for the purpose of inquiring into the condition of such association, or otherwise, it appears that such association is lawfully entitled to commence the business of banking, the Comptroller shall give to such association a certificate, under his hand and official seal, that such association has complied with all the provisions required to be complied with before commencing the business of banking, and that such association is authorized to commence such business. But the Comptroller may withhold from an association his certificate authorizing the commencement of business, whenever he has reason to suppose that the shareholders have formed the same for any other than the legitimate objects contemplated by this Title.

Change of Name or Location

12 U.S.C. 30.—Any national banking association, with the approval of the Comptroller of the Currency, may change its name or change the location of the main office of such association within the limits of the city, town, or village in which its is situated. Any national banking association, with the approval of the Comptroller of the Currency, may change the location of the main office of such association to any other location outside the limits of the city, town, or village in which it is located, but not more than thirty miles distant, by the vote of shareholders owning two-thirds of the stock of such association. A duly authenticated notice of the vote and of the new name or location selected shall be sent to the Comptroller of the Currency; but no change of name or location shall be valid until the Comptroller shall have issued his certificate of approval of the same.

Publication of Certificate

12 U.S.C. 28 (R.S. 5170).— The association shall cause the certificate issued under the preceding section to be published in some newspaper printed in the city or county where the association is located, for at least sixty days next after the issuing thereof; or, if no newspaper is published in such city or county,

Effect of Change of Name

12 U.S.C. 31.-All debts, liabilities, rights, provisions, and powers of the association under its old name shall devolve upon and inure to the association under its new name.

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Effect of Change of Name or Location

12 U.S.C. 32.—Nothing contained in this act shall be so construed as in any manner to release any national banking association under its old name or at its old location from any liability, or affect any action or proceeding in law in which said association may be or become a party or interested.

Conversion of State Banks Into National Banks

12 U.S.C. 35 (R.S. 5154).-Any bank incorporated by special law of any State or of the United States or organized under the general laws of any State or of the United States and having an unimpaired capital sufficient to entitle it to become a national banking association under the provisions of the existing laws may, by the vote of the shareholders owning not less than fifty-one per centum of the capital stock of such bank or banking association, with the approval of the Comptroller of the Currency be converted into a national banking association, with any name approved by the Comptroller of the Currency: Provided, however, That said conversion shall not be in contravention of the State law. In such case the articles of association and organization certificate may be executed by a majority of the directors of the bank or banking institution, and the certificate shall declare that the owners of fifty-one per centum of the capital stock have authorized the directors to make such certificate and

to change or convert the bank or banking institution into a national association. A majority of the directors, after executing the articles of association and the organization certificate shall have power to execute all other papers and to do whatever may be required to make its organization perfect and complete as a national association. The shares of any such bank may continue to be for the same amount each as they were before the conversion, and the directors may continue to be directors of the association until others are elected or appointed in accordance with the provisions of the statutes of the United States. When the Comptroller has given to such bank or banking association a certificate that the provisions of this Act have been complied with, such bank or banking association, and all its stockholders, officers, and employees, shall have the same powers and privileges, and shall be subject to the same duties, liabilities, and regulations, in all respects, as shall have been prescribed by the Federal Reserve Act and by the National Banking Act for associations originally organized as national banking associations.

The Comptroller of the Currency may, in his discretion and subject to such conditions as he may prescribe, permit such converting bank to retain and carry at a value determined by the Comptroller such of the assets of such converting bank as do not conform to the legal requirements relative to assets acquired and held by national banking associations.

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