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the heart to enjoy it; the will to purpose it; and the hand to perform it.
• The world wants MEN—light-hearted, manly men,
Men who shall join its chorus, and prolong
The psalm of labor and the song of love.
The doubtful destinies of dubious years,
Safe on some peaceful Ararat at last.
To struggle in the solid ranks of truth;
Influence of Education upon Labor.
BY HON. J. W. PATTERSON.
EXCEPT so far only as mental faculty begotten by culture, is transmitted, the babe of civilization is as much a savage as the babe of barbarism. There are differences of original endowment, but Bacon knew as little at birth as the offspring of the skin-clad Briton of two thousand years ago. The gift of eloquence may have been as perfect in Red-Jacket as in Webster, but the chastened words and terse logic of the learned New England orator would never have moved an Indian council, nor the impassioned picture language of the untutored native have swayed the action of an American Senate. It is the schools which have transformed the chief into a statesman, and the rude maiden of the forest into the accomplished mistress of our literature and our hearts.
The record of human progress is the history of education, and the superiority of our civilization to the crude and cruel life of the unlearned, is the measure of its power. As education affects mind, the efficient agent of all intelligent action, its force is
felt immediately in every field of thought, in every executive enterprise, and social interest, but we propose to consider at this time only its influence upon labor.
The working men of the country are now loudly demanding larger privileges, and organizing to secure rights which, as they claim, are withheld, and we all agree that they have causes of complaint arising from the predominant influence of accumulated wealth, and from certain legal enactments necessitated by the exigencies of the government during the late war.
That the employer and employee are, in the theories of political economy, copartners in the work of production and that there should be a fair division of profits between them; that labor and capital should each be secured by law against encroachments and oppression by the other, no one will question, but we are not yet able to see that the income or influence of industry is to be enhanced by legislation or the social position of laboring men advanced by political organizations.
Labor holds in its own hand the enchanter's rod by which, without extraneous help, it may break the shackles of prescriptive wrong; may dissolve superstitions and banish infelicities to the regions of forgetfulness, and evoke into our horizon, from the mysterious realm of the possible, the affluence of uncreated wealth, and the splendid triumphs of undiscovered art. The sphere of thought is the arena in which it must work its revolution and establish its rights.
An ignorant population is cursed by conceits which shrivel manliness, and consume all enterprise and thrift. In the counties of England in which, according to governmental statistics, only one person in ten could read, a little time since the people wore charms for the ague ; killed and cured their cattle by enchantment; excluded witches by a horseshoe nailed to the threshold; carried bits of coffins in their pockets to baffle the cramp; tied red strings around the tails of new-milch cows that fairies might not steal the butter; and still tilled the soil with the old Roman plow and harrow.
The uninformed farmers in portions of Italy, we are told, even now break the earth with the root of a tree attached by a grape vine to two cows; and in stagnant Egypt, the plow is still drawn, as in the days of the Ptolemies, by an old woman and a jackass yoked together. Even with us, there are people who believe in dreams and omens, who run from the ghosts of a church-yard, who tremble at the upsetting of a salt-cellar or the ticking of an innocent insect, who dare not enter upon any enterprise on Friday, or wean calves when the sign is in the paunch, whose potatoes run to tops if planted at the increase of the moon, and whose pork boils away in the
pot if killed at its decrease. All such blighting puerilities are monopolized by the ignorant, and flee before the light of intelligence, as unwholesome exhalations before the heat of day.
There seems to be a fallacious inference of the popular mind in our day as full of danger as of con
ceit, that equality before the law implies an equality of capacity to discharge the duties of every position, industrial, social, political or even sacred, which our institutions hold out to the aspirations of all, and so, by means fair or foul, fools rush in where angels fear to tread, but industrial equality and financial success are impossible to ghost-ridden ignorance in this sharp age. Brutish unreflectiveness is baffled in its conflict with the disciplined, vigorous brain, and capital flows to intelligence, and the two rule the world in spite of agrarianism. Children of all ages, by a law of nature, must be subordinated to a wisdom higher and broader than their own.
Education lifts the man of toil from servitude to the clumsy and unproductive past into sympathy and coöperation with the improved and progressive present. It frees his soul from a degrading sense of inferiority and subordination to the superior intelligence of others, and begets in him independent thought and a manly self-assertion. Not unfrequently a vigorous mind, which has been left unschooled and undeveloped, rebels against its conditions of inferiority, and, if it cannot surmount it, turns to dissipation. Shackled and dependent, it chafes and fumes, moves by fits and passions, and sometimes assumes a temporary audacity of manner to cover and compensate its conscious servitude; but, when placed by fortune in its normal condition, it settles into a quiet repose of temper and moves forward with a calm but persistent power. I knew