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of the corps of regular teachers employed. In a city like Boston, where we may perhaps say without boasting, that the standard of qualification is high; from one hundred and sixty to two hundred and forty schools or classes, representing eight thousand to twelve thousand pupils, can thus be taught by a single professional teacher. In the cities of Salem and Lowell, and some others in the State of Massachusetts, a single intelligent head has been found sufficient. The salaries might vary from one thousand or twelve hundred to three thousand dollars per annum. My belief is that in towns and cities not exceeding a population of forty to sixty thousand inhabitants, or in rural districts where a group of smaller towns and villages of perhaps half this population in the aggregate exists, and which could all be conveniently visited in a circuit of a week or ten days’ extent, a single professional teacher only would be required. And in the latter instance, a competent man, who should be a resident of the district, ought to be had for twelve hundred dollars per annuin. I take it for granted that all the regular teachers can do their part in such instruction, if they will. It requires, in the system we have been just considering, no special musical ability or previous training. An aptness to teach only is necessary, and any person, who is fitted in other respects to hold the responsible position as a teacher in a public school, has the ability, I contend, to learn in a very short time, under the direction of a competent professional
head such as we have named, how to teach the elements of music as well as the other studies required in our common schools. Nor is it necessary that the teachers should be able to sing, in order to be successful in this branch of study, though of course it is an aid. On this point says Mr. Holt, of the Boston Schools, in his report to the Music Committee, in 1869, “In the short time within which music has been regularly and systematically taught in the classes under my charge, only seven out of the two hundred and fifty-one teachers, who have come under my observation, have proved themselves unable to do their work satisfactorily. Of these seven, three exchange work with other teachers at the time of the music lesson, one employs a teacher from outside to aid her in this part of her work, who is present at the time of my visit to receive my instructions, while in three rooms the work is imperfectly done. “With regard to the progress made in different classes,” continues Mr. Holt, “it varies in proportion to the faithfulness of the teacher. I find that teachers, who are regarded as superior in other branches, obtain the best results in music. And many of my best teachers are among those who had no idea that they could do anything in music when we commenced. * * * * I visit each of the two hundred and fifty-one teachers with their classes,” continues Mr. Holt, “once in every four weeks; in this way I am able to help every teacher over any difficulty she may encounter, and to shape my instructions to the wants of each class.”
As a gen
Says Mr. Philbrick, in one of his recent reports : “The improvement in the method of teaching music has very naturally helped the improvement of the methods of handling the other branches. eral rule, teachers in an elementary school, who teach one branch well, teach all branches well.”
The cost of musical teaching to any city or town, or to a group of towns situated as I have said, having an aggregate population of say twenty thousand inhabitants (one-fifth of whom may be reckoned to be of school age) need not exceed the sum of one thousand three hundred and fifty dollars per annum for the period I have named, and would be made up as follows:
The salary of the professional teacher,
$1,200 A set of charts, with stand complete, for each school,
(say for eighty schools with an average of fifty
Making, as above,
The manual for the teacher, as also the pitch-pipe, is not included in the above expense, it being supposed that each teacher would desire to purchase and possess them. And with this manual in the hands of the teacher, the charts and the blackboard, I believe that up to the age I have indicated textbooks in music may be dispensed with altogether. But if to this be added the cost of a pitch-pipe and a copy of the Teacher's Manual, (explaining the use of the charts,) for each school, the cost (on the
supposition that these, like the charts, would last by careful using six years) would be increased by twenty-six dollars and sixty-seven cents, making a total of one thousand three hundred and seventy-six dollars and sixty-seven cents, or a trifle over thirtyfour cents for each scholar per annum. With some such plan of easy and progressive musical instruction, and with such simple addition to the mechanism of our common school system of education, an elementary knowledge of music could be diffused throughout the land. More than this, such teaching would have its influence upon other than musical acquirements merely. It would tend, as I believe, more than any one measure as yet adopted in our public schools, to eradicate that soulless primary school tone which has passed into a proverb, to correct the prevailing habit of inadequate and defective utterance and lay the foundation for the acquirement of that nameless element in spoken language which makes up the “music of the phrase,” REFINED AND EDUCATED SPEECH.
ITS PLACE IN POPULAR EDUCATION. BY FRANCIS H. UNDERWOOD.
THE prosperity of a nation comes from well-directed industry; its happiness from the impartial execution of equal laws; its greatness from the indomitable spirit of its people ; but its lasting glory from its letters and art. No seats of empire have received so much of the homage of mankind as the small cities of Athens and Jerusalem. Merely commercial cities, like Tyre, Carthage, and Palmyra, are soon forgotten. Even Rome is less reverenced as the home of the Caesars, the mother of modern states, and the source of modern civilization, than as the seat of a magnificent literature, that has enriched every language of Christendom, and is still a light to the learned world. Success in arms and the acquisition of territory give temporary renown, but after the lapse of a few centuries, everything but the great thoughts of a people perishes. Not one stone