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THE TtJBINGEN SCHOOL

ANTECEDENTS.

ANTECEDENTS

A REVIEW OF THE HISTORY AND PRESENT CONDITION

MODERN THEOLOGY.

E. W. MACKAT, M.A,

AUTHOR OF "THE PROGRESS OF THE INTELLECT," "A SKETCH OF THE HISTORY OF
CHRISTIANITY," ETC.

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20, SOTTTH FREDERICK STREET, EDINBURGH.
1863.

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PREFACE.

The aim of the following pages is to give a short and intelligible account of the rise and progress of Biblical criticism. In order to estimate the matter fairly the reader must be requested to raise himself by an effort of reflection, if he be not so elevated already, above the level of current ideas. For without impartiality no judgment is of value; and the special class of judgments called Biblical criticism properly commenced only when opinion began to be freely exercised on the subject. This freedom was first used by Spinoza; who in the face of unlimited obloquy performed the same daring feat in regard to the Bible which Luther, powerfully supported, had already achieved in regard to the Church. But the Church revived in new forms; and a long interval elapsed ere the liberty so asserted by one eminent individual obtained even a hesitating allowance among professed theo

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