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wider interest in Church History. The scope of the lectures would perhaps best be defined by saying that they were intended, not indeed as a general introduction to St. Augustinea much more ambitious undertaking-but as a series of introductions to particular aspects of his thought. They were intended, that is, to provide the student with a choice of startingpoints, from one or other of which, according to his tastes and previous training, he inight usefully approach the study of this great and many-sided figure.

That is the genesis of the studies which are here offered to a wider audience. They have been carefully revised and to some extent recast, but I have not attempted to remove all traces of their origin.

In a book of this kind it is hardly necessary to give a bibliography, but among works to which I have been indebted I should like to mention especially G. J. Seyrich, Die Geschichtsphilosophie Augustins (Chemnitz, 1891); Joseph Mausbach, Die Ethik des hl. Augustinus (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1909); W. Thimme, Augustin, Ein Lebens- und Charakterbild auf Grund seiner Briefe (Göttingen, 1910); R. C. Trench, Exposition of the Sermon on the Mount drawn from the Writings of St. Augustine (London, 1869), with its valuable introductory essay.

The lectures were written before I came across M. Bertrand's articles in the Revue des Deux Mondes. It seems worth while to mention this, as it gives the value of independent agreement to the concurrence of our views regarding what may be called the “economics" of the Cassiciacum period—a point which, so far as I know, had not previously been so clearly brought out.

As regards the translations, I have made my own wherever it appeared desirable to do so, but in many cases I have been glad to avail myself of the generally admirable rendering in Dods' Select Works of St. Augustine (by various translators), which do not, however, include the Early Dialogues or the psychologically important De Genesi ad Litteram.

W. MONTGOMERY

St. John's COLLEGE,

CAMBRIDGE.

CONTENTS

PAGX

1

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Character best seen in social relations-A fourth.
century reading-party-Catholicity of his friendships-
Interest in the external world—Keenness of sense and
emotion-Characteristics as a thinker-Literary style-
Gencral impression.

Critical difficulties Contrast between the Dialogues
and the Confessions. The character of the retirement at
Cassiciacum-Its practical side-Augustine's inner lifo
-Tono of the Dialogues-References to scripture and
theology-Relation of philosophy to religion-Analysis
and vindication of tho account of the conversion in the
Confessions—A real but minor difficulty.

a

PIGE

Difficulty of doing justico to a pioneer--" We are all
psychologists nowadays "-Interest of Augustino's
descriptions – Crowd psychology: tho gladiatorial
shows; a street accident; the orator and his audienco
--Child psychology : the first smilo; turning to tho
ligat; learning to speak-Introspection : the divided
solf ; the pains of spiritual strugglo; when praise is
distasteful-Skilful uso of everyday illustrations-
Observation of abnormal states: hallucinations ;
delirium ; romarkable dreams.

His 15

anticipation ” of Descartes-Pascal's view-
The facts—The nature of timo: An anecdoto and an
opigram; Psychological analysis ; Conclusion—Which
comes first, faith or reason ?- Illustration of the
doctrino of the Trinity-Psychology of crimo-Doc-
trincs of sin and grace based on experience: original
sin, original good; a parallel from Goothe_Tendency
of character towards fixity--Tho paradox about truo
freedom-Graco not magical; tho strongest motive.

PAGE

VII. ST. AUGUSTINE AS EXPOSITOR AND PREACHER

180

The oxpositor nocds training---An ironic argument-
Socular learning "gold of Egypt"-Principles of
exegesis--Allogorical interpretation-His own lovo of
allegory-His ignorance of Hebrow-Extent of his
knowledge of Greek-Toxtual criticism Highor criti.
cism-Examples of his exegotical skill, and of curious
allegorisations-Interpretation of Gon. i. 1, 2.

Training of the preacher---Formal rhetoric undesir.
able ; learning by examplo-Various styles of oratory
-Primo necessity of clearness-The preacher's senso of
discouragement Some illustrations from the Sermons-
Peroration of a memorial sermon on St. Cyprian-Con.
trasted treatment of samo subject for difforent audiences.

VIII. His PHILOSOPHY OF HISTORY, THEORY OF THE

STATE, AND TEACHING ON SOCIAL ETHICS

222

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What is philosophy of history 1—How Augustino
came to write the De Civitate Dei-Its genoral plan-
The unity of human history-Parallol betweon stages of
development of the individual and of the raco-The
education of tho raco.

The stato-Founded in social instinct-Tho family-
Principlo of cohesion, justico-Tho ruler ordninod of God
-Varied political organisations suited to variod national
conditions-Persecution for religious opinion ; Augus.
tine's change of viow?_Legitimacy of war.

Social othics-Augustino porsonally ascetic in practico
-Liberality of his viewsMarriago-The "goods of
civilisation ”-Wealth and poverty-Logitimacy of
inheritance-Limitations of almsgiving-Moral value
of work-Logitimacy of gains from trade-Forco of
public opinion-Ethical responsibility of the com.
munity.

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