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with an equipage of regular troops, as an equipage of footmen ; and I am afraid the ass's ears will appear much more conspicuous under a well-burnished head-piece, than ever they did under a well-powdered peruke.

Mr. Pulteney, Feb. 14, 1735.

As the keeping up of a great number of land forces in this Island is quite unnecessary, and even inconsistent with the nature of oer happy Constitution, and the freedom of our Government; therefore, when any war is like to break out in which we may probably have a concern, we are always obliged to take foreign troops into our pay: whether we have always been in the right when we have done so, is what I shall not now controvert; but I have always observed, that no foreign Prince would lend us any of his troops, without our engaging not only to pay them, but to grant him a subsidy, perhaps greater than the pay of those troops, upon their own footing, would have amounted to; and that, even in cases where the Prince stood obliged, perhaps by former Treaties, to assist us with troops at his own expence; and often in cases, when his own preservation was more immediately concerned in the event of the war than ours.

Mr. Walter Plumer, Jan. 26, 1736.

In a free country, I am afraid that a standing Army rather occasions than prevents mobs: where a Magistrate has a guard of regular troops to trust to, he is apt to neglect humouring the People he despises and sometimes oppresses; in which cafe the People as long as there is any spirit among them, will certainly grow tumultuous. If a tumult happens with any just cause of complaint, a little gentle usage and calm reasoning, generally prevents any mischief, and prevails with the People to return to their duty: but a Magistrate with an army at his back will seldom take this method, for few men will be at the pains of persuading, when they know they can compel. But


E in a free country, if a tumult happens from a juft cause of comDit plaint, the people ought to be satisfied, their grievances ought

to be redressed; they ought not surely to be immediately knocked on the head, because that they happen to complain in an irregular way. To make use of regular troops upon every such occasion, is like a tyrannical school-master, who never makes use of the soft arts of persuasion and allurement, but always

makes use of the rod : such a man may break the spirit, but neGo ver can improve the minds of his scholars.

Sir John Barnard, Feb. 3, 1737.


Our armies have known no other power than that of the Secretary at War, who directs all their motions, and fills up every vacancy without opposition, and without appeal.

But never, my Lord, was his power more conspicuous than in raising the levies of this year; never was ever any authority more despotically exerted, or more tamely submitted to; never did any man more wantonly sport with his command, or more capriciously sport with posts of preferment; never did any tyrant appear to set censure more openly at defiance, treat murmurs or remonftrances with greater contempt, or with more confidence or security distribute posts amongst his flaves, without any other reason of preferment, than his own uncontroulable pleasure. · And surely no man, my Lords, could have made choice of such wretches for military commands, but to fhew, that nothing but his own private inclinations should influence his conduct, and that he considered himself as supreme and unaccountable : for we have seen, my Lords, the same animals to-day cringing behind a counter, and to-morrow swelling in a military dress; 'we have seen boys sent from school in despair of improvement, and entrusted with the military command: fools that cannot learn their duty, and children that cannot perform it, have been indiscriminately promoted : the drofs of the nation has been collected together to compose our new fafces, and every man


who was too stupid or infamous to learn, or carry on any trade, has been placed, by this great disposer of honours, above the neceffity of application, or the reach of censure.

Did not sometimes indignation, and sometimes pity, check the fallies of mirth, it would not be a disagreeable entertain. ment, my Lords, to observe in the Park, the various appearances of these raw Commanders, when they are exposing their new scarlet to view, and strutting with the first raptures of fudden elevation: to see the mechanic new-modelling his mien, and the strippling tottering beneath the weight of his cockade ; or to hear the conversation of these new adventurers, and the instructive dialogues of school-boys and shopkeepers.

I take this opportunity, my Lords, of clearing myself from any suspicion of having contributed, by my advice, to this stupendous collection.

Duke of Argyle, Dec. 9, 1740.

Sir, let us at least, not adopt that damnd Machiavilian doctrine, that a free People cannot be governed but by force, who may so easily be won by love and affection. An army, Sir, was never kept up in any country in time of peace, but, sooner or later, it was used against the Liberties of the People, and at laft enslaved them.

Sir, I lament that the People of this country have now too unequal terms to contend upon, for securing their Properties and their Independency. Machiavel says, iron will prevail over gold; but, by this army added to the other power, our managers poffefs both-fo are regardless of complaints, and of gratifying the expe&tations of the People. To whom can they Ay for refuge, or from whom can they expect redress, if not from persons now at the helm of affairs, famed through the land for being the supporters of Liberty, and for their deteftation of Tyranny and Oppression ?

If the People do complain, perhaps they have just cause for so doing; feeling numberless burthens and taxes laid upan them, chiefly to support needless offices and places at immense salaries : the People are sensible of it, by their being generally occupied by persons of loose lives, without abilities, who make them fine-cures, or, at most, appoint deputies, at small falaries, to transact them : they complain their Representatives are debauched from them, that Tax-Masters vote Taxes, that the Army vote the Army; in short, Cuneti peene patres clamant perille pudorem. I must confess, I almost despair of any good to be done in this detested age, or of any reformation, so many haying drank of Circe's fell cup, the cup of corruption, that they are, imperceptibly to themselves, become monsters, and glory in it, that I almost join in with Fugurtha's reflection when he he left Rome, Urbem venalem & mature perituram si Emptorem invenerit.


Persons trained up in the principles of Liberty can ill brook this new doctrine, of being retained in subjection by an army ; having imbibed other notions in their education, so strong as not to be able to divest themselves of them : that he, for one, did detest and abhor the men that would offer it, and did declare, Manus hic inimica Tyrannis. Could, Sir, our forefathers at the Revolution, have conceived that their muchboasted and dear-purchased Liberty would have ended in a large Standing Army, as a protection for Bureaux and Pactors, from the remonstrạnces of their much-injured posterity, and faddled with a debt of eight millions, would they have called that a Deliverance? They would scarce have thought the alternative a valuable consideration. Though I should allow, Sir, there is no intention in some of our managers to enslave us, it will be but a melancholy reflection when it does happen, towards alleviating the distressed, to say it was not intended.' Is it not a severe imputation upon those who have every advantage to make themselves esteemed by, as the disposal of all the revenue, posts, and preferments in the realm, to call out for a Military to support their measures against the hate of the People? Does it not convey fomething as if they were not the best managers in the world?

Persons in high stations, surrounded by flatterers and sycophants, are much imposed upon, and impofe upon themselves, by imagining their actions are not, and ought not to be scanned by the People ; they Aatter themselves they are approved. Much in the manner of a story I have heard of a certain Esquire, oppressive and arbitrary in his neighbourhood, where he bashawed it away, had good eating and drinking, for the sake of which many persons resorted to him, who always faid as he said, commended all his faults, and told him they were virtues, and that the whole country admired him; and flattered him continually, for the sake only of what they could get from him.

He not long after put it to the test, by fallying out into a neighbouring village, where, instead of pæans and shouts of joy, he was faluted with dirt and dead dogs, and pelted out of the village with rotten eggs. He came home vastly discon. certed and dejected, and accosted his Parson, who had been one of the forwardest of his flatterers, How now, Parson, says he, did not you tell me how much I was admired, and you see what has happened?

Sir, I shall leave the application to the House, and conclude with imploring Gentlemen, if they have any bowels for their Country, any affection for his Majesty, and for his Family being long amongst us, or any regard for the Liberties of their Posterity, to reduce the Ariny, and to lessen thereby our numerous Taxes.

· William Thornton, Esq; Nov. 26, 1751.

The dangers that must arise from the introduction of foreign troops into the dependencies of the realm, if not illegal, might be very great; for it might easily be in the power of an ill defigning Prince, to fill all the exterior parts of the dominions with foreign mercenaries, and take opportunities to make them the means of overturning the Constitution. No man should


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