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in the fact of his having committed suicide. In the New Heloïsa he had thrown the conditions which justified self-destruction into a distinct formula. Fifteen years before, he declared that his own case fell within the conditions which he had prescribed, and that he was meditating action. Only seven years before, he had implied that a man had the right to deliver himself of the burden of his own life, if its miseries were intolerable and irremediable. This, however, counts for nothing in the absence of some kind of positive evidence, and of that there is just enough to leave the manner of his end a little doubtful.3 Once more, we cannot tell.

By the serene moonrise of a summer night, his body was put under the ground on an island in the midst of a small lake, where poplars throw shadows over the still water, silently figuring the destiny of mortals. Here it remained for sixteen years. Then amid the roar of cannon, the crash of trumpet and drum, and the wild acclamations of a populace gone mad in exultation, terror, fury, it was ordered that the poor dust should be transported to the national temple of great men.

1 See above, vol. i. pp. 16, 17. 2 Corr., vi. 264.

3 The case stands thus :-(1) There was the certificate of five doctors, attesting that Rousseau had died of apoplexy. (2) The assertion of M. Girardin, in whose house he died, that there was no hole in his head, nor poison in the stomach or viscera, nor other sign of self-destruction. (3) The assertion of Theresa to the same effect. On the other hand, we have the assertion of Corancez, that on his journey to Ermenonville on the day of Rousseau's burial a horse-master on the road had said, “Who would have supposed that M. Rousseau would have destroyed himself !”—and a variety of inferences from the wording of the certificate, and of Theresa's letter. Musset-Pathay believes in the suicide, and argued very ingeniously against M. Girardin. But his arguments do not go far beyond verbal ingenuity, showing that suicide was possible, and was consistent with the language of the documents, rather than adducing positive testimony. See vol. i. of his History, pp. 268, etc. The con. troversy was resumed as late as 1861, between the Figaro and the Monde Illustré. See also M. Jal's Dict. Crit. de Biog. et d'Hist., p. 1091.

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INDEX.

men, i. 182.

ACADEMIES (French) local, i. 132. | Augustine (of Hippo), ii. 272, 303.
Academy, of Dijon, Rousseau Austin, John, ii. 151, n.; on

writes essays for, i. 133 ; Sovereignty, ii. 162.
French, prize essay against Authors, difficulties of, in France

Rousseau's Discourse, i. 150, n. in the eighteenth century, ii.
Actors, how regarded in France 55-61.

in Rousseau's time, i. 322.
Althusen, teaches doctrine of BABEUF, on the Revolution, ii.

sovereignty of the people, ii. 123, n.
147.

Barbier, ii. 26.
America (U.S.), effects in, of the Basedow, his enthusiasm for Rous-
doctrine of the equality of seau's educational theories, ii.

251.
American colonists indebted in Beaumont, De, Archbishop of

eighteenth century to Rous- Paris, mandate against Rous-
seau's writings, i. 3.

seau issued by, ii. 83; argu-
Anchorite, distinction between ment from, ii. 86.

the old and the new, i. 234. Bernard, înaiden name of Rous-
Annecy, i. 34, 50; Rousseau's seau's mother, i. 10.

room at, i. 54; Rousseau's Bienne, Rousseau driven to take
teachers at, i. 56; seminary refuge in island in lake of, ii.
at, i. 82.

his account of, ii. 109-115.
Aquinas, protest against juristi- Bodin, on Government, ii. 147 ;

cal doctrine of law being the his definition of an aristocratic
pleasure of the prince, ii. 144, state, ii. 168, n.
145.

Bonaparte, Napoleon, ii. 102, n.
Aristotle on Origin of Society, Bossuet, on Stage Plays, i. 321.
i. 174.

Boswell, James, ii. 98 ; visits
Atheism, Rousseau's protest Rousseau, ii. 98, also ib. n. ;

against, i, 208 ; St. Lambert urged by Rousseau to visit
on, i. 209, n. ; Robespierre's Corsica, ii. 100 ; his letter to
protest against, ii. 178; Chau- Rousseau, ii. 101.
mette put to death for en- Boufflers, Madame de, ii. 5, ib. n.
deavouring to base the govern- Bougainville (brother of the navi.
ment of France on, ii. 180. gator), i. 184, n.

108;

seau, ii. 41.

Brutus, how Rousseau came to Citizen, revolutionary use of word,
be panegyrist of, i. 187.

derived from Rousseau, ii. 161.
Buffon, ii. 205.

Civilisation, variety of the origin
Burke, ii. 140, 192.

and process of, i. 176 ; defects
Burnet, Bishop, on Genevese, i. of, i. 176; one of the worst trials
225.

of, ii. 102.
Burton, John Hill, his Life of Cobbett, ii. 42.

Hume (on Rousseau), ii. 283, n. Collier, Jeremy, on the English
Byron, Lord, antecedents of

Stage, i. 323.
highest creative efforts, ii. l; Condillac, i. 95.
effect of nature upon, ii. 40 ; Condorcet, i. 89; on Social Posi-
difference between and Rous- tion of Women, i. 335; human

perfectibility, ii. 119; inspira-

tion of, drawn from the school
CALAs, i. 312.

of Voltaire and Rousseau, ii.
Calvin, i. 4, 189; Rousseau on, as 194 ; belief of, in the improve-

a legislator, ii. 131 ; and Serve- ment of humanity, ii. 246 ;

tus, ii. 180; mentioned, ii. 181. grievous mistake of, ii. 247.
Candide, thought by Rousseau to Confessions, the, not to be trusted

be meant as a reply to him, for minute accuracy, i. 86, n. ;
i. 319.

or for dates, i. 93 ; first part
Cardan, ii. 303.

written 1766, ii. 301; their
Cato, how Rousseau came to be character, ii. 303; published
his panegyrist, i. 187.

surreptitiously, ii. 324, n. ;
Chambéri, probable date of Rous. readings from, prohibited by

seau's return to, i. 62, n. ; takes police, ii. 324.
up his residence there, i. 69 ; Conti, Prince of, ii. 4-7 ; receives
effect on his mind of a French Rousseau at Trye, ii. 118.
column of troops passing Contract, Social, i. 136.
through, i. 72, 73; his illness Corsica, struggles for independ-
at, i. 73, n.

ence of, ii. 99; Rousseau in-
Charmettes, Les, Madame de vited to legislate for, ii. 99-

Warens's residence, i. 73; pre- 102; bought by France, ii. 102.
sent condition of, i. 74, 75, n.; Cowper, i. 20; ii. 41 ; on Rous-
time spent there by Rousseau, seau, ii. 41, n.; lines in the Task,
i. 94.

ii. 253 ; his delusions, ii. 301.
Charron, ii. 203.

Cynicism, Rousseau's assumption
Chateaubriand, influenced by

of, i. 206.
Rousseau, i. 3.
Chatham, Lord, ii. 92.

D'AIGUILLON, ii. 72.
Chaumette, ii. 178; guillotined D'Alembert, i. 89 ; Voltaire's

on charge of endeavouring to staunchest henchman, i. 321 ;
establish atheism in France, his article on Geneva, i. 321 ;
ii. 179.

on Stage Plays, i. 326, n.; on
Chesterfield, Lord, ii. 15.

Position of Women in Society,
Choiseul, ii. 57, 64, 72.

i. 335 ; on Rousseau's letter on
the Theatre, i. 336 ; suspected Rousseau a home in Normandy,
by Rousseau of having written ii. 117.
the pretended letter from Fred- Diderot, i. 64, 89, 133; tries to
erick of Prussia, ii. 288; advises manage Rousseau, i. 213; his
Hume to publish account of domestic misconduct, i. 215 ;
Rousseau's quarrel with him, leader of the materialistic party,
ii. 294.

i. 223 ; on Solitary Life, i. 232;
D'Argenson, ii. 180.

his active life, i. 233; without
Dates of Rousseau's letters to be moral sensitiveness, i. 262;

relied on, not those of the Con- mentioned, i. 262, 269, 271; ii.
fessions, i. 93.

8; his relations with Rousseau,
Davenport, Mr., provides Rousseau i. 271; accused of pilfering

with a home at Wootton, ii. Goldoni's new play, i. 275 ;
286 ; his kindness to Rousseau, his relations and contentions
ii. 306.

with Rousseau, i. 275, 276 ; lec-
Deism, Rousseau's, ii. 260-275 ; tures Rousseau about Madame

that of others, ii. 262-265 ; d'Epinay, i. 284 ; visits Rousseau
shortcomings of Rousseau's, ii. after his leaving the Hermitage,
270.

i. 289; Rousseau's final breach
Democracy defined, ii. 168 ; re- with, i. 336 ; his criticism, and

jected by Rousseau, as too per- plays, ii. 34; his defects, ii. 34;
fect for men, ii. 171.

thrown into prison, ii. 57 ; his
D'Epinay, Madame, i. 194, 195, difficulties with the Encyclo-

205 ; gives the Hermitage to pædists, ii. 57 ; his papers saved
Rousseau, i. 229, n. ; his quar- from the police by Malesherbes,
rels with, i. 271 ; his relations ii. 62.
with, i. 273, 276 ; journey to Dijon, academy of, i. 132.
Geneva of, i. 284 ; squabbles Discourses, The, Circumstances of
arising out of, between, and the composition of the first
Rousseau, Diderot, and Grimm, Discourse, i. 133-136 ; sum-
i. 285-290 ; mentioned, ii. 7, mary of it, i. 138-145 (dis-
26, 197 ; wrote on education, astrous effect of the progress of
ii. 199; applies to secretary of sciences and arts, i. 140, 141;
police to prohibit Rousseau's

more dangerous than
readings from his Confessions, truth useful, i. 141; useless-
ii. 324.

ness of learning and art, i. 141,
D'Epinay, Monsieur, i. 254 ; ii. 26. 142 ; terrible disorders caused
Descartes, i. 87, 225 ; ii. 267. in Europe by the art of print-
Deux Ponts, Duc de, Rousseau's ing, i. 143 ; two kinds of ignor-
rude reply to, i. 207.

ance, i. 144); the relation of
D'Holbach, i. 192; Rousseau's dis- this Discourse to Montaigne,

like of his materialistic friends, i. 145 ; its one-sidedness and
i. 223 ; ii. 37, 256.

hollowness, i. 148 ; shown by
D'Houdetot, Madame, i. 255-270; Voltaire, i. 148 ; its positive

Madame d'Epinay's jealousy of, side, i. 149, 150 ; second Dis.
i. 278; mentioned, ii. 7 ; offers course, origin of the Inequality

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