EXPERIMENTAL ENGINEERING

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The Rejection of Doubtful Observations
10
Accuracy of Numerical Calculations
11
Methods of Representing Experiments Graphically
12
Autographic Diagrams
14
CHAPTER II
16
Directions for Using the Slide Rule
17
The Vernier
20
The Polar Planimeter
21
Theory of the Instrument
23
Forms of Polar Planimeters
28
The Mean Ordinate by the Polar Planimeter
29
The Suspended Planimeter
31
The Willis Planimeter
34
ARTICLES PAGE 29 The Roller Planimeter
35
Directions for Care and Use of Planimeters
36
Calibration of the Planimeter
37
Errors of Different Planimeters
40
Special Planimeters
42
The Micrometer
43
The Micrometer Caliper
44
The Cathetometer
47
Aids to Computation
48
CHAPTER III
51
Stressdeformation Diagrams
53
Notation
55
Formulae for Compression Loading
56
Formulas for Transverse Loading
57
Formula for Direct Shear
61
Secondary Stresses
63
CHAPTER IV
67
General Character of Testingmac ip es
68
Weighing System
74
Frame
75
Power System
76
Specifications for Government Testingmachine
78
Riehld Brothers Hydraulic Testingma liines
82
Riehle Power Machines
84
Olsen Testingmachine
86
Power Torsionmachines
90
Impacttesting Machine
94
Machines for Testing Cement
96
General Requirements of Instruments for Measuring Strains
99
Various Forms of Extensometers
100
Combined Extensometer and Autographic Apparatus
107
Instruments for Measuring Torsion Deflection and Compression
111
CHAPTER V
115
Testpieces of Special Materials
117
Directions for Tensiontests
118
Compression Testing
125
Transverse Testing
126
Directions for Transverse Tests
127
Torsion Testing
129
Testing in Direct Shear
132
Droptests
133
Minor Tests
134
Special Tests and Specifications
138
Tests of Building Stone and Brick
152
Tests of Paving Material Stones and Ballast Natural and Artificial
155
Testing Cements and Mortars
156
CHAPTER VI
167
Measurement of Pressure
168
Ushaped Manometer
169
Cisternmanometer
171
Mercury Columns
172
Multiplying and Differential Manometers
174
Pressuregauges
181
Vacuumgauges
185
Gauge Calibration
188
Correction of Gauges
192
CHAPTER VII
193
Thermometric Scales and Thermometric Standards
195
Gas Thermometers
196
Thermometers Employing Liquids
201
ARTICLES PACK 103 Thermometers Employing Solids
205
Calorimetric Pyrometers
206
Electrical Methods of Measuring Temperature
209
Optical and Radiation Pyrometers
216
Calibration of Thermometers and Pyrometers
219
CHAPTER VIII
227
Tachometers
229
The Chronograph
232
in Measurement of Speed Variation within a Revolution
235
CHAPTER DC
236
Classification
237
Friction of Pivots
238
Friction of Fluids
241
Lubricated Surfaces
242
Determinations Required
243
Acid Tests
245
Density of Oils
246
Method of Finding Density
247
Viscosity
248
Method of Measuring Viscosity with Olsen Apparatus
252
Method of Finding the Chillpoint
254
Method of Testing for Flashpoint
255
Bumingpoint
256
Directions for Obtaining Coefficient of Friction with Thurstons Oiltesting Machines
264
Instructions for Use of Thurstons R R Lubricanttester
266
Durabilitytesting Machine
267
Directions for Durability Test of Oils with Boults Oiltesting Machine
270
Friction of Ball and Rollerbearings
271
Forms for Report
273
Methods and Instruments for Measurement of Pressure
275
Measurement of Power
276
The Design of Prony Brakes
280
Cooling and Lubricating a Prony Brake
283
Alden Brake
284
Brakes Employing the Friction of Liquids
286
Pump Brakes
288
Fan Brakes
289
Electromagnetic Brake
290
Traction Dynamometers
292
154 Transmission Dynamometers General Types
293
Steelyard Dynamometer
296
Pillowblock Dynamometer
297
The Lewis Dynamometer
298
The Differential Dynamometer
300
Emersons Power Scale
304
The Van Winkle Power Meter
305
Belt Dynamometers
306
Torsion Dynamometers
309
Cradle Dynamometers
314
Electrical Measurement of Power Input and Output
315
Methods of Connecting Up etc
316
The Testing of Belts
318
Methods of Making Tests and Computations
320
CHAPTER XI
325
Specific Heat
326
Boyles Law Charless Law etc
327
Specific Heat of Gases
328
Pressure and Volume Changes in Gases
329
Entropy of Gases
332
Vaporization
333
Superheating and Specific Heats of Vapors
335
Use of Steam Tables and Diagram
335
variety of sources It has been the aim in every case to give
335
r82 Entropy of Vapors
340
ARTICLES PAGE 183 The TemperatureEntropy Diagram for Steam
341
Pressure and Volume Changes in Vapors
343
Cycles and Their Efficiencies
346
Heat and Properties of Gases and Vapors
356
Classification of Available Methods
357
Sources of Error in Weighing
360
Submerged Orifices
361
Value of the Coefficient of Discharge
362
Method of Calibrating an Orifice
365
Use of Orifices for Measuring Continuous Flow
366
Measurement by Means of Nozzles
368
The Venturi Tube or Venturi Meter for Measuring Water or Other Liquid
369
The Flow of Water over Weirs
372
Methods of Measuring the Heads over Weirs
378
Conditions Affecting the Accuracy of Weirs
379
Effect of Disturbing Causes and Error in Weir Measurements
380
Calibrated Tanks
383
Water Meters
385
Hotwater Meters
394
The Calibration of Water Meters
396
Measurement of Average Velocity in Open Channels and Streams
397
Hydrodynamometers and Hydrometric Pendulums
400
Tachometers and Current Meters
402
Calibration of Current Meters and Methods of Determining Average Velocity in Cross Sections
404
The Pitot Tube
405
Measurement of Average Velocity in Closed Pipes and Conduits
406
Conditions Affecting the Value of the Constant C in the Best Form of Pitot Tube
407
Calibration of Pitot Tubes
409
Method of Making a Traverse and Obtaining the Average or Mean Velocity
411
Relation between Center Velocity and Mean Velocity
412
Measurement of Gases
417
Theoretical Velocity and Weight Discharged
419
Value of the Pressure P2
421
Formulas for the Flow of Air
422
Value of the Coefficient of Discharge C
424
Necessary Precautions in Orifice Methods
429
AXTICLES PAGE 225 The Gasometer
430
Gas Meters
432
Dry Meters of Large Capacity
435
Calibration of Meters and the Relative Accuracy of Wet and Dry Meters
437
Anemometers
439
Precautions Necessary in the Use of Anemometers
441
Measurement of Gas by Venturi Meter
442
Measurement of Gas by Calorimetry
443
Measurement of Vapors
445
Measurement of Vapors by Means of Orifices General Case
446
Method of Determining Theoretical Velocity for Steam from the Heat Chart
447
Value of the Pressure Pt
448
Weight of Vapor Discharged
449
Approximate Formulae for the Flow of Steam through Orifices
452
Measurement of Vapors by determining Average Velocity
453
Calorimetric Measurement of Vapors
463
Combustion and Fuels
465
Heat of Combustion or Calorific Power
466
Combustion of Hydrogen or of Fuels Containing Hydrogen Higher and Lower Heating Value of Fuels
467
Continuous Calorimeters
494
Composition of Fuels
498
Coal Analysis
501
Moisture
502
04
504
The Ash Determination
505
Chemical Analysis
507
Sulphur Determination
509
Methods of Computing the Heating Value of Fuels
510
Buying Coal by Analysis
512
Sampling
513
Analysis of Fluegas
517
Absorbing Power of the Reagents
520
Elliots Apparatus
522
The Orsat Apparatus
524
The Hempel Apparatus for Gas Analysis
525
CO2 Recorders
527
Assumptions and Accuracy of Flue Gas Analysis
530
Losses in Commercial Combustion The Computation of the Flue Loss
531
Errors in the Fluegas Calculations as Above Carried Out
538
Smoke Determinations
540
Methods of Determining the Amount of Moisture in Steam
543
Importance of Quality Determinations
544
Classification of Calorimeters
545
Method of Obtaining a Sample of Steam
546
Method of Inserting Thermometers
547
Condensing Calorimeters
548
Determination of the Water Equivalent of the Calorimeter
549
Forms of Condensing Calorimeters
550
Directions for Use of the Barrel Calorimeter
552
The Hoadley Calorimeter
554
The Barrus Continuous Calorimeter
556
Superheating Calorimeters
558
The Throttling Calorimeter
560
Graphical Solutions for Throttling Calorimeter Computations
563
Limits of the Throttling Calorimeter
564
Throttling Calorimeter Constructed from Pipe Fittings
565
The Thomas Electric Superheating Calorimeter
566
ARTICLES PAGI 309 Methods of Direct Determination of Moisture in Steam The Separating Calorimeter
567
Formulae for Use with the Separating Calorimeter
572
The Limits of the Separating Calorimeter
573
General Method of Using the Separating Calorimeter
574
The Chemical Calorimeter
575
Universal or Combination Calorimeters
577
Comparative Value of Calorimeters
578
The Engine Indicator
580
Indicated and Dynamometric Power
581
Early Forms of the Steamengine Indicator
582
The Richards Indicator
583
The Thompson Indicator
584
The Tabor Indicator
585
The Crosby Indicator
586
Indicators with External Springs
588
Indicators for Ammonia Machines
592
Large and Small Indicators
593
The Errors of the Piston Indicator
594
Calibration of Indicator Springs
597
Comparison of Deadweight and Fluidpressure Methods of Calibration and Hot vs Cold Calibration
605
Determination of Scale of Spring and the Evaluation of Diagrams Taken with Faulty Springs
608
Other Errors in Indicators and Methods of Determining Their Magnitude
612
Method of Attaching the Indicator to the Cylinder
620
Reducingmotions for Indicators
621
Reducing Wheel
630
The Indicatorcord and Methods of Connecting up
632
Electrical Attachments for Taking a Number of Cards at the Same Time
635
Care of the Indicator
636
The Optical Indicator
637
CHAPTER XVI
642
Measurements from the Diagrams
645
Indicated Horse Power
647
Methods of Drawing an Hyperbola
648
ARTICLES PACH 346 Construction of Saturation and Isentropic Curves for Steam
650
Clearance Determined from the Diagram
652
Weight of Steam Accounted for by the Indicatordiagram The Diagram Waterrate
653
The Diagram Waterrate for Multicylinder Engines
655
Approximate Formulas for the Diagram Waterrate
656
Reevaporation and Cylinder Condensation
657
The Combining of Diagrams for Multicylinder Engines
661
The Actual Entropy Diagram for a Steam Engine
670
Steamchest and Steampipe Diagrams
675
Displaced Diagrams and Time Diagrams
676
Theoretical and Normal Gas Engine Diagrams
678
The Actual Entropy Diagram for a Gas or a Mixture of Gases
685
The Testing of Steam Boilers
691
Notes on the Rules
710
The Testing of Steam Engines Pumping Engines and Locomotives
725
Rules for Conducting Steamengine Tests Code of 1902
732
The Testing of Pumping Engines Steam Pumps
774
The Testing of Locomotives
786
Calorimetric Methods of Engine Testing
799
Valve Setting on Steam Engines
807
Steam Turbines
808
The Singlestage Impulse Turbine
810
The Multistage Compound Impulse Turbine
812
The Multistage Reaction Turbine
815
Turbines of the Pelton Type Openvane or Bucket Turbines
816
The Testing of Steam Turbines
817
Computations in Connection with Steamturbine Tests
819
Separation and Estimation of Steamturbine Losses
822
Method of Correcting the Results of Steamturbine Tests for Standard or Guarantee Conditions
824
Injectors
827
Practical Construction and Operation
829
Efficiency of Injectors
833
Testing of Injectors
835
Gas Engines and Gas Producers
841
Gasengine Fuels
846
Producer Gas
847
Types of Gas Producers
850
Data Relating to Gases Fuels etc Generally Used in Efficiency Compu tations
855
Analysis of Fuel Gases and Determination of Heating Value
868
Analysis of Exhaust Gases and Computation of Heat Lost in Exhaust
877
Experimental Determination of Exhaust Loss
883
Determination of the Quantity of Producer Gas Made per Pound of Fuel
884
The Testing of Gas Producers and of Gas Engines
891
Heat Balance for a Gas Producer
899
Computation of Gas Producer Efficiency
903
Testing of Gas Engines
905
Heat Balance for an Internal Combustion Engine
920
The Computation of Gasengine Efficiencies
921
Hot Air Engines
925
The Ericsson Engine
926
The Rider Engine
929
The Testing of Hotair Engines
933
Computations and Report
934
Air Compressing Machinery
938
Rotary or Positive Blowers
942
Centrifugal or Volume Blowers 043
943
Turbine Compressors
945
Hydraulic Compressors
947
Physical Characteristics of Air
949
Determination of Humidity
951
The Theoretical Work of Compressing Air
954
C
957
Theoretical Compressor Horse Power
961
Effect of Clearance Volumetric Efficiency and Slip
963
The Efficiency of Compression and the Mechanical Efficiency of
965
Machine
966
Multistage Compression 97
969
The Computation of Efficiencies in Multistage Compression
972
Arrangements for Testing Piston Compressors
973
Record of Data and Computations for Aircompressor Test
977
The Action of the Centrifugal Fan
981
Air Horse Power
983
Fan Efficiencies
985
Arrangements for Testing Fans
986
Scope of Test and the Report
988
Mechanical Refrigeration
992
Refrigerating Agents
994
Classification of Refrigerating Machines
997
Air Machines
998
The Absorption System
999
The Vacuum Process
1001
The Vaporcompression System
1003
Ice Making
1008
Properties of Brine Used for Cooling
1009
Insulation
1010
The Ideal Vaporcompression Refrigerating Cycle
1012
The Ideal Coefficient of Performance
1014
The Actual Vaporcompression Refrigerating Cycle
1016
The Actual Coefficient of Performance and the Real Efficiency of the Actual Refrigeration Process
1019
Wet and Dry Compression
1021
The Weight of NH3 in Circulation
1024
Capacity and Rating of Refrigerating Machines
1027
Arrangements for Testing of Vaporcompression Refrigerating Machines
1028
Computation of Results
1033
Hydraulic Machinery
1037
The Hydraulic Ram
1038
Efficiency of the Hydraulic Ram
1039
Testing of Hydraulic Rams
1040
The Jet Pump
1041
Efficiency of the Jet Pump
1043
Efficiency of Waterpressure Engines
1044
Vertical Water Wheels
1045
The Breast Wheel
1047
The Undershot Wheel
1048
The Impulse or Tangential Water Wheel
1049
Efficiency of Impulse Wheels
1052
Action of a Stream upon a Rotating Vane
1054
The Radial Outwardflow Reaction Turbine
1056
Power and Efficiency of the Radial Outwardflow Reaction Turbine
1057
Radial Inwardflow Parallelflow and Mixedflow Reaction Turbine
1062
Report and Computations
1065
Reciprocating Pumps
1067
Centrifugal and Turbine Pumps
1068
Theoretical Power Manometric Hydraulic and Actual Efficiencies of Centrifugal Pumps
1074
The Testing of Rotary and Centrifugal Pumps
1077
Scope of Tests and Report
1079
The Pulsometer
1080
The Humphrey Internalcombustion Pump
1082
Pumping by Compressed Air Pneumatic Pumps Air Lifts
1084
APPENDIX
1087
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Página 157 - Care should be observed in centering the briquettes in the testing machine, as cross-strains, produced by improper centering, tend to lower the breaking strength. The load should not be applied too suddenly, as it may produce vibration, the shock from which often breaks the...
Página 157 - ... dry. The mixing should be done on some non-absorbing surface, preferably plate glass. If the mixing must be done on an absorbing surface it should be thoroughly dampened prior to use.
Página 159 - A third pat is exposed in any convenient way in an atmosphere of steam, above boiling water, in a loosely closed vessel for five hours.
Página 159 - FINENESS. It shall leave by weight a residue of not more than 8 per cent on the No. 100, and not more than 25 per cent on the No. 200 sieve.
Página 158 - The cement shall be stored in such a manner as to permit easy access for proper inspection and identification of each shipment. 5. Every facility shall be provided by the contractor and a period of at least twelve days allowed for the inspection and necessary tests.
Página 157 - In the present state of our knowledge it cannot be said that cement should necessarily be condemned simply for failure to pass the accelerated tests; nor can a cement be considered entirely satisfactory, simply because it has passed these tests.
Página 156 - Section 37, and quickly formed into a ball with the hands, completing the operation by tossing it six times from one hand to the other, maintained about 6 in.
Página 139 - Plates under 12} pounds per square foot when ordered to weight, shall not average a greater variation than the following : Up to 75 inches wide, 2^ per cent, above or 2^ per cent, below the theoretical weight.
Página 159 - Pats of neat cement about three inches in diameter, one-half inch thick at the center, and tapering to a thin edge, shall be kept in moist air for a period of twenty-four hours.
Página 137 - The tensile strength, limit of elasticity, and ductility shall be determined from a standard test-piece cut from the finished material.

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