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of mathematics in the University of Edinburgh, where his more celebrated descendant was for many years professor of moral philosophy. He was born in 1753, studied under Blair and Ferguson, and enjoyed the friendship of Dr. Reid, to whom he has been infinitely indebted for fame founded on his metaphysical writings. In 1792, Stewart put forth his Philosophy of the Human Mind, in 2 vols. 4to.; and the next near, his Outlines of Moral Philosophy. He continued to publish-Adam Smith's Essays, with a Memoir; the Life and Writings of Dr. Robertson; the Life and Writings of Reid; Philosophical Essays; and, very recently, two new volumes. The remains of this distinguished philosopher were interred in the Canongate churchyard. The solemn feelings, says the Scotsman,' which on occasions of this kind-on every occasion when mind of such an order ceases to manifest itself here-silence every thing like controversy; while, at the same time, they make an appeal to the voice of truth, which impresses us strongly with the conviction that fulsome panegyric would be not only unsuitable, but insulting to the memory of the dead. The private worth of the deceased, the qualities of heart and head which made him so beloved in the family circle, so interesting to his friends, so much respected by his acquaintances, are known to, or have been heard of by all. His public value will be judged of ultimately by his writings; although it was by no means confined to these, the impression made by his academical prelections having been as extraordinary in depth, as it was important in character. By the extensive range of his information, by his love of knowledge, by his high aspirations after good, by an eloquence unrivalled in philosophic dignity, he gave a bias to the feelings, and a direction to the studies, of many young men of rank and talent, which redounded not less to their own honour, than they proved, in result, beneficial to the country. The leading characteristics of his mind, indeed, were elevated moral feelings, high conceptions of what our nature is destined to accomplish, high resolves to act consistently in furtherance of the great scheme of general improvement. He was thus led, unavoidably, to engage with mental philosophy; since, not only must all moral and political science be based upon a knowledge of the human mind, but every mind which has activity united with any thing like reflective depth, will also inquire, and must have some anchorage ground, respecting its own faculties. Since the very dawning of intellect, the greatest minds have occupied themselves in examining and considering the nature and extent of their own powers; and although there has been much fruitless inquiry, the very extent of these speculations, unsatisfactory as too many of them have been, all go to establish the real importance and magnitude of the subject. Shallow minds only despise metaphysics. The mind of Mr. Stewart, on the contrary, was strongly disposed to be compre
hensive. It was also penetrative enough to discover the best theory of mind which had been submitted to the philosophic world; it adopted, improved, and gave consistency to that theory; but, naturally circumspect, and having observed how often rashness and impetuosity bad, while dealing with ethics and metaphysics, brought talent into discredit, he became anxious to fortify himself with authority. This led him to trace the history of his science, which he did with much care, and, we might say, with unrivalled discrimination; but, while he selected nothing that was not of great intrinsic value, and happily illustrative of the points on which he was treating, he thus contracted a habit of dwelling veneratively on the past, and exalting the genius that had been, more than of attending to the vigorous products of fresh and original contemporaries. There was, it must be confessed, a want of adventurousness here; but his industry and chariness united, gave bolder minds a starting-post from vantage ground of the highest value; and all his labours and speculations were calculated to elevate the tone and meliorate the temper of the mind-to invigorate the intellectual, and improve the moral departments of our nature. He was a lover of liberty and letters, a scholar, a gentleman, a philosopher, and, beyond all, he was, in the truest sense of the word, a philanthropist.
Two anecdotes, said to be quite authentic, of the early maturity of talent in this eminent philosopher, have been published since his decease. His father, Dr. Matthew Stewart, having been prevented from teaching his class by falling into bad health soon after the commencement of the College Session, it was thought advisable that his son Dugald, then a youth under twenty, should attempt to fill his father's place; which he did to the end of the course: and so extraordinary was his success, such the spirit and love of the study which he infused into the pupils, that it became matter of general remark and surprise. One individual asked the young lecturer himself, how it was that he, who had not devoted himself particularly to mathematics, should have succeeded in teaching them better than his father. If it be so,' said the philosopher, with no less modesty than sagacity and truth of principle, I can only account for it by the fact, that during the whole session I have never been more than three days a-head of my pupils.' The other anecdote is this: Mr. Stewart was not much above twenty, when circumstances, which we do not at present remember, but equally imperative, imposed upon him, very unexpectedly, the task of delivering a course of moral philosophy to the pupils of Dr. Ferguson, then professor of that science. Having nothing written beforehand, nor time to make regular preparation, he used, all that winter, to rise at four or five in the morning, and, pacing for several hours in the dark, along the quadrangular walk of a small garden attached to his father's house in the Old College, he there conceived the plan, and arranged in his bead the
expression, of each day's lecture; and, without committing a word to paper, entered the class, which then met at nine in the morning, and poured forth in glowing periods-where the freshness and vehemence of extempore eloquence was chastened and har monized by the dignity and seriousness of the subject-the doctrines of his benevolent and high-minded philosophy, stamped with a stronger impress of originality and genius than some of the more guarded and cautious speculations of his maturer years.
The observation of this festival was first appointed by the Council of Arles in 1260.-See some curious particulars relative to this day in T.T. for 1827, pp. 183-187.
Suffered martyrdom at Verulam, now St. Alban's, in 303. A splendid abbey was founded in memory of the martyr, A.D. 795, by Offa, king of the Mercians.
18. CORPUS CHRISTI.
This festival, the body of Christ,' was appointed in honour of the Eucharist, and always falls on the Thursday after Trinity Sunday. It is called the Fête Dieu, or Corpus Christi, and is one of the most remarkable festivals of the Romish church.-An account of the Procession of the Host' is given in our last volume, p. 188; see also T. T. for 1826, p. 126. In the annals of the town of Orvieto, it is related, that a travelling German priest, having reached the small village of Bolseno, on the borders of the lake, while celebrating mass, was disturbed with a doubt as to the truth of transubstantiation; when, in a moment, the bread and wine in his hands underwent the miraculous change, and became flesh and blood; which he took to Orvieto, followed by the whole congregation in triumphant procession, and deposited in the duomo, or cathedral, in a very beautiful silver ciborio, made on purpose, in the form of a temple. From this supposed miracle originated the ceremony of Corpus Christi, and the fine painting on the same subject in the Raphael gallery.
Sacramental Bread.-The church of Rome, in the height of its power, was extremely scrupulous in all that related to the sacramental bread. According to Stevens, in the Monasticon, they first chose the wheat, grain by grain, and washed it very carefully. Being put into a bag, appointed only for that use, a servant, known to be a just man, carried it to the mill, worked the grindstones, covering them with curtains above and below; and having put on himself an albe, covered his face with a veil, nothing but his eyes appearing. The same precaution was used with the meal. It was not baked till it had been well washed; and the warden of the church, if he were either priest or deacon, finished the work, being assisted by two other religious men, who were in the same orders, and by a lay brother, particularly appointed for that business. These four monks, when matins were ended, washed their faces and hands. The three first of them put on albes; one of them washed the meal with pure, clean water, and the other two baked the hosts in the iron moulds. So great was the veneration and respect, say their historians, the monks of Cluni paid to the Eucharist! Even at this day, in the country, the baker who prepares the sacramental wafer must be appointed and authorized to do it by the Catholic bishop of the district, as appears by the advertisement inserted in that curious book, published annually, The Catholic Laity's Directory.
The following was anciently the manner of celebrating Corpus Christi at Shrewsbury:-From remote times, it has always been customary for all the companies to unite in the commemoration of this festival. Preceded by the masters and wardens, and graced with colours and devices, they attended the bailiffs and members of the corporation, who, with the canons of St. Chad and St. Mary, the friars of the three convents, and the parochial clergy, followed the holy sacrament, which was borne by the priests, under a rich canopy of velvet or silk, to a stone cross without the town. Here all joined in bewailing their sins, and chaunting petitions for a plentiful harvest: they then proceeded, in the same order, to the church of St. Chad, where each company had a particular place in the choir. The festival was followed by three days of disport and recreation, either in the ensuing week, or at an early time agreed upon by the several wardens. On the ground where
this was held, each company had its arbour. After the Reformation, the religious part of the ceremony was, of course, abolished; but one day of entertainment is still observed, under the denomination of the show, and is always on the second Monday after Trinity Sunday. Most of the companies had a man on horseback, gaudily dressed, called the king, intended originally as a representation of the monarchs who granted their charters. Thus the king of the cloth-workers personated Edward IV; the king of the masons, Henry VIII. The barbers marched with a queen, probably Elizabeth. The devices were emblematical of the trades: the saddlers led a caparisoned horse; the smiths and armourers were preceded by a knight in _complete_armour; the hatters and furriers by an American Indian; the skinners by the figure of a stag as large as life, attended by huntsmen sounding bugle horns. The day was spent in festivity, and the companies returned to town nearly in the same order in which they set out.
*18. 1815.-BATTLE OF WATERLOO.
DEATH and the WARRIOR.
'Aye, warrior, arm! and wear thy plume
Bid thy soul's love farewell, young chief!
Like the morning's dew shall pass that grief-
Thy bark may rush through the foaming deep,
But they bear thee on to a place of sleep,
'Was the voice I heard thy voice, O Death?
Then on the field shall my life's last breath