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you go," replied the chief, “neither will I bid you stay: you may use your own discretion.”—This, however, was not thought a sufficient warrant for remaining. He visited a creek on the northern side of she river, about four miles from its month, where was an Indian village; which he purchased from the natives, called it St. Mary's, and the creek St. George's, and granted to each emigrant fifty acres of ground.
Never did any people enjoy more happiness than the in. habitants of Maryland. Whilst Virginia harassed all who dissented from tbe form of the English church, and the northern colonies all who dissented from the Puritan, the Roman Catholics of that state, a sect, who, in the old world, never even professed the doctrine of toleration, received and protected their Christian brethren of every church, and its population rapidly increased.
The next province that claims our attention is North Carolina. Though, by the unhappy termination of the colony of Roanoke, and the subsequent deviation which caused the discovery of the Chesapeake, this lost the honour of being the earliest state ; yet the Union is indebted to those events for a more propitious commencement, and a more rapid approximation to maturity and strength. Of all the colonial family, none, we believe, is less gifted than North Carolina with the means of supporting a numerous offspring. A generous soil, a wide diffusion of navigable streams, a salubri. ous air; every thing which ministers to the wealth, or to the happiness, of man; seems here denied.
About the middle of the seventeenth century, some emi. grants, chiefly froin Virginia, began a settlement in the county of Albemarle: and soon afterwards, another establishment was made at Cape Fear, by adventurers from Massachusetts; who obtained a transfer of the lands from the ancient owners of the soil. They were held together by the laws of nature, without any written coile, without the least degree of constitutional restraint. But they did not long remain in- this extraordinary situation. The county being claimed by England, was made subservient to the interest of the ruling monarch. Charles the second granted to lord Clarendon and others the whole tract of country lying be." tween the thirty-sixth degrees of north latitude, and extending from the Atlantic to the Pacific ocean. The proprietors, anxious to hasten the improvement of their extensive regions, offered every inducement to emigration. They establish
ed a free government, a perfect freedom in religion, and, for the first five years, offered certain portions of land at one halfpenny per acre.
The settlers in Albemarle were placed under the superintendence of sir William Berkeley, governor of Virginia ; who, having repaired thither, after appointing civil officers, and directing the calling of a general assembly, assigned his authority to Mr. Drummond.
In 1671, the proprietors extended their settlements to the banks of the Ashley and Cooper rivers, where Charleston now stands; establishments which eventually produced a separate state, that of South Carolina.
The exports of this colony, during the first twenty-five years, were lumber, peltry, and naval stores. In 1700, the growth of cotton was introduced. Two years afterwards, rice, brought from Madagascar by Mr. Landgrave Smith, becanie the prominent staple: and to this, about the year 1748, was added indigo; the manufacture of which was taught by Miss Lucas. In the character of these two pro. ductions of Carolina, there is a wide dissimilarity; the one being as remarkable for the excellence, as the other is for the inferiority, of its quality. The indigo, as well as the sumac plant, grows spontaneously, not only in this state, but in almost every portion of the American continent: the col.' lecting of the latter, however, for a foreign market, seems confined to a trifling attention in some of the New England colonies; though the consumption in Europe, of this indispensible article in dyeing, is very large, chiefly of Sicilian growth.
New York was first settled by the Dutch; by whom it was held for half a century. They founded their claim on prior discovery, by Henry Hudson, a celebrated English navigator, employed by them, in 1609, and on subsequent actual occupation The English, however, claimed the same country, from its having been first visited by Cabot, above a century before; and because that Hudson, under a commission from the king of England, had, so early as the year 1608, discovered Long Island, and the site of the town of New York, with the river which now bears his name. It is of small importance, at the present day, to inquire whose title was the best. Neither had a just claim upon the property of the native possessors : but, if we be guided by the arbitrary rule of the European powers, in malters of this kind, the dominion must be awarded to Great Britain.
Peter Stuyvesant, the third and last Dutch governor of this colony, began his administracion in 1647. Assailed by New England on the one hand, and by a Swedish colony and Maryland, on the other, this active officer was incessantly employed He was distinguished as much for his fidelity as for his vigilance. He earnestiy stated to his employers, the West India company of Holland, the embarrassments which he experienced; and the probability of an attack from Eng. land: but his representations were unavailing. Meanwhile, a war having commenced between Great Britain and the commonwealth, Charles the second assigned to his brother, the duke of York, all the territory now called New York and New Jersey, together with a part of Connecticut, and of what has since received the names of Pennsylvania and Delaware; and privately despatched an armament Ice to take possession of the colony. Stuyvesa!) was a
We a brave officer; but, not being supported in his defence by the magistrates, was, with much reluct. ance, constrained to surrender. In the following month, Fort Orange, on Hudson river, capitulated, and received the name of Albany, after the second title of the duke. The British arms were equally successful against both the Dutch and Swedes in the south; so that the whole of Nova Belgia was thus subjected to the English crown. .
Few, however, of the inhabitants were removed. Gover. nór Stuyvesant retained his estate, and died in the colony. His posterity still survive, and hold a respectable rank among the citizens of the United States. The govern. ment was administered, for several years, by colonel Nichols, the officer intrusted with its reduction; and, after him, by solonel Lovelace; under whom, the people lived very hap. pily, until his powers were annulled by the re-surrender of the colony; an event caused by the treachery of one Maqping, who had the command of the principal fort. But the Dutch enjoyed their ancient possession only for a short period; in the following year, a treaty of peace restored this country to the English.
Being a conquered country, it was governed by the duke's officers, until the year 1688; when representatives of the people were allowed a voice in the legislature. Amongst the governors, we perceive the name of Burnet; who presided from 1720 until 1728: a man not less remarkable on account of his being a son of the celebrated prelate who wrote the history of the Reformation, than for his ad.
irable talents and correct deportment. He was easy and familiar in bis manners, and universally esteemed by men of iitiers
In 1664, the duke of York sold that part of his grant now called New Jersey, to lord Berkeley and sir George Curt. eret. It had previously been seilied by Hollanders and Swedes, with a small intermixture of emigrants from Den. inarki ail of whom remained there, and became English subjects. The county of Bergen was the first inhabited. Here, was erected a small town, of the same name, in which the settlers resided; having their plantations at a distance. Very soon, there were four other towns in the province; Elizabeth, Newark, Middleton, and Shrewsbury; which, anid the adjacent country, in a few years, received a large accession of inhabitanis from Scotiand, England, and the neighbouring colonies.
Though, in reviewing the formation of the new government in Jersey, we perceive no striking features to excite a lively interest in its history, such as are in general the cbjef materials for inquiry, yet we feel the highest degree of pleasure when contemplating one particular observation; when reflecting that no violence was committed on the unoffending natives. In allotting lands to the settlers, Mr. Carteret, the first governor, invariably obliged them tu sat. isfy the Indians. The result of so enquitable an order was no less favourable than. merited. They became good peighbours; thereby allowing the colonists to direct their whole attention to the arts of peace. Carteret fixed his residence at Elizabethtown; which thus became the earliest €apital of the province: but the present seat of government is Trenton.
To dwell on the successive changes which occured in the proprietorship; its division into East and West Jersey, its mode of government, or the names of its several governors, would be not only tedious, but unessential Amongst the latter, however, it may be proper to mention the cele. brated Barclay, author of the Apology for the Quakers: of which sect, a large number had established themselves there; setting their accustomed example of good order and industry.
A college, originally commenced at Newark, was, in the year 1748, finally established at Princeton. Its chief bene. factor was governor Belcher; to whom, an offer was made of associating his name with the institution: but the honour was declined. This seminary is indebted for its origin to
the same pious motives that founded the college in Connecticut.
Pennsylvania commands a more than usual share of curi. osity; as well on account of the illustrious individual whose recollection is perpetuated by its uitle, as its important rank in the present American union.
The founder of this state was William Penn, son of sir William Penn, a distinguished admiral in the British navy, during the protectorate of Cromwell and part of the reign of Charles the second. From prinoiple, and in opposition to all worldly inotives, at an early period of his life, he joined the Quakers, when they were an obscure and a persecuted sect. As one of their members, and a preacher, he was repeatedly imprisoned. When brought to trial at the Old Bailey, in London, he pleaded his own cause, with the usual freedom of a Britain, and the boldness of a hero. The jury, at first, brought in a special verdict; which being declared informal by the court, they were menaced, and sent back. Upon this, Penn said to them,“ Ye are Englishmen; mind your privilege! give not away your right!" The next morning, they made the same return, were again threatened, and again remanded to their chamber. But, neither attentive to the instructions, nor fearful of the threats, of a corrupted judge, the jury remained firin to their opinion, and returned a verdict of acquittal. For this, they were severely fined, and, with the accused, imprisoned, until the unjust penalties were paid. Roused by proceedings so atrocious, Penn's feelings and reflections led him to adopt the most liberal ideas of toleration: a love of free inquiry, and a total abhorrence of persecution, took entire possession of his expanded mind.
He had become, by purchase, a large owner of New Jersey; but, being dissatisfied with his partners, he formed the design of acquiring a separate estave, and accordingly petitioned the king; who, as an acquittance of sixteen thousIco, and pounds due to his father, granted him an ex.
tensive tract, which Charles named Penusylvania, in honour of the admiral. He soon afterwards obtained from the duke of York a conveyance of the town of Newcastle, with all that country which now forms the state of Dela. ware.
The first colony, who were chiefly of his own sect, began their settlement above the confluence of the Schuylkill and Delaware rivers. By these, the proprietor sent a letter to