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ment and loss which soon afterwards befel him, he was still buoyed up by his early expectations of advancement: he frequently told his wife, that he should yet be captain of a king's ship, and have the command of better men than he accounted himself. But he did not vainly imagine, that riches would reward him in retirement. He felt that he possessed the vigour to attain what his ambition so eagerly desired ; and that his prophecies might be fulfilled, by wisdom and prudence in the design, and patience and diligence in the pursuit. Upon hearing of a Spanish wreck at the Bahama islands, he made a voyage thither, to search for treasure ; but with no greater success than just enabled him to visit England. His object in this was to procure the means of examining another, and far richer, Spanish wreck ; and, so forcible were hisre presentations to the government, that, in 1683, he was appointed “ captain of a king's ship," as he had prognosticated; in which vessel, a frigate of eighteen gúns, this enterprising American arrived in his native country.
Many years were spent in fruitless endeavours to ascer. tain the position of the wreck; many dangers surmounted, with a degree of patience and presence of mind, fortitude and courage, scarcely surpassed by any hero, either of ancient or modern times. A few examples will be sufficient to establish the justice of our remarks. His men, wearied by their ineffectual endeavours, having mutinied, approached him on the quarter-deck with drawn swords, and required that he should join them in running away with the ship, for the purpose of carrying on the trade of piracy in the Southern ocean. But their brave commander was neither intimidated by their number, nor alarmed at their ferocity. Unarmed, unaided, unprepared, he rushed with heroic boldness upon the crowd, and, by the mere vigour of his blows, defeated his antagonists, and compelled them to their duty. At another time, whilst his frigate lay careening in a desolate island, by the side of a rock, from which was laid a plank reaching to the shore, his men, of whom he had about one-hundred, went all, except eight or ten, to amuse themselves, as they pretended, in the woods. Here, another conspiracy was formed. They des termined, that in the evening they would seize their captain and the few faithful seamen wlio had remained on board, leave them to perish on the island, and sail with the ship, to per petrate the robberies which they had planned before. Informed of their intentions, and assured of the fidelity of the
others, he prepared immediately to guard his vessel against surprise, and reduce the mutineers to obedience. Owing to the inclined posture of the frigate, all the provisions had been, through necessity, carried on shors; where they were placed 'in a tent, and secured by cannon from the possibility of an áttack by the Spaniards. Thesè, he silently ordered to be ünloaded, and turned towards the interior; then, pulling up the bridge, he brought his own guns to bear on every part of the tent, aïd signified his intention of abandoning his atro. cious crew to the fate which they had prepared for him. Ter'rified now by the appréhension of immediate destruction from the guns, or, at the less instantaneous, though more dreadful, death, from the want of food, they quickly brought the stores on board; and, having, on their knees, with eager supplications, displayed that cowardice which is the promin. ent feature of the assassin, they sub nitted to his orders. But Phipps would no longer entrust fils person, nor seek to accomplish his design, with such a crew. He sailed to Jamaica, and discharged them. When arrived at Hispaniola, änd informed, by a very old man, that the object of bis desire was certainly upon a reef of shoals ä few leagues from Port de la Plata, he sailed for England; where, by the aid of the duke of Albemarle, and other persons of distinction, who'be. came partners in his adventùre, he prepared the necessary implements, and, with the most sanguine hopes, departed for the wreck. His perseverance was at length rewarded by success: an Indian diver'led him to the long-lost treasure. Besides a large quantity of silver, brought up by à person named Adderly, of Providence, our hero recovered thirty. two tons; which, with some gold and jewels, amounted to thiree. hundred-thousand pounds sterling. So generous, however, was he to his mei), and so faithful to his partners, that, of this, only sixteen-thousand were left to himself. But he received marks of distinction from his sovereign, which, to his noble mind, were more valuable ilian riches. He was honoured, then, with the title of knighthood; and, for bis general deportment, afterwards appointed to those stations in which we have already observed him, --commander-in 'chief and governor of the colony. :
In the years 1627 and.'38, '63, and '70, New England exo perienced violent earthquakes; which produced, serious alarm, but no real injury, to the inhabitants. In 1638, Har vard, college near Boston, the oldest šeminary of learning in the United States, was founded. Two years before, the
general court having voted four-hundred pounds for the es. tablishment of a public school, at Newtown, that sum was more than doubled by a bequest from Mr. John Harvard, a highly esteemed minister of Charlestown : who, in his will, had left to the infant seminary half his entire estate. Thus endowed, the school was formed into a college ; receiving, in memory of its benefactor, the name of Harvard ; and Newtown,thirough respect to the university in England, where many of the original emigrants were educated, was called Cambridge. The first Commencement was held two years afterwards; when nine students were honoured with the degree of bachelor of arts. The first master of the college, was Nathaniel Eaton ; who was a good scholar, but had not the other requisites for the instruction and government of youth. He was displaced for avarice, in withholding necessary commons; and for cruelty, in bearing his usher with a cudgel, whilst two of bis servants held him by the legs and arms.-- This is the most richly endowed of all the American colleges. It has thirteen professors, and affords a wider range of liberal instruction than any other in the United States.
Some years from that period, a building was erected there for an Indian college; into which, several natives entered : but only one attained academical honours, before death and other events disorganized an institution so truly benevolent. But the generous designs entertained towards the improvement of that people, did not rest here. - As a further compensation for the injury sustained by them, from the encroachment on their lands, and consequent diminution of the means of supporting life, Mr. Elliot, a pious clergyman of Roxbury, translated the Bible into their own language, and had it printed at the expense of a society established for the spreading of religion. Besides, he composed for them a primer, a grammar, a book of -psalms, with several other useful works; and was the means of opening schools in the Indian settlements, where the children were instructed, not only in their own language, but in the English, Greek, and Latin. Judicial courts were established amongst them, on the same principles as the county courts of the colony ; in which, one Englisn lawyer was united with the judges appointed by the natives.
But, let us inquire, what were the fruits of those instituţions, so liberally gifted, and planned with wisdom apparently so profound? Have the seeds, thus industriously sown,
and assiduously cherished, yielded a harvest commensurate with the care devoted to their culture ? Or, have they per. ished in a barren soil? Has the mode of cultivation been erroneous, the atmosphere injurious to increasing vigour? The soil, we believe, was generous : but there was a want of skill in the labourer; a destructive tendency in the climate. The Indian was overwhelined with a multitude of doctrines, no less mysterious to the teacher, than incomprehensible to the pupil. The conduct of his patrons, towards their own brethren, offered an example at variance with their precepts; rendering him indifferent to their protection, and careless of a religion, that had not subdued in themselves those passions which they now sought to restrain in others. Would he not exclaim, as did the simple Mexican, « Are any of these people in that Heaven to which we are invited? If there are, we desire not to follow!" Nor could he,though Virtue herself were to tender bim salvation through a distorted creed, of which more than eighty opinions had been rejected by a Christian, receive it with sincerity: he might profess it for a season; but he would repay the labour of his ephemeral conversion in the accustomedi deceptions of hypocrisy.
The third provincial seminary of letters, in point of time, was established at New Haven, in Connecticut, in 1721; ten years after that of William and Mary in Virginia. It was called Yale college, in honour of one of its principal benefactors ; and intended principally for training up young men to the duties of the church. Dartmouth collcge, situated at Honover, in New Hampshire, is a respectable institution. It was founded in 1769, and named after the earl of Dartmouth, one of its most liberal promoters.
The first printing press established in the British colonies, was in 1639, at Cambridge, superintended by Stephen Daye; but erected chiefly at the expense of Mr. Glover, an English clergyman, who died on his passage to America.
In about seventeen years after the establishment of New England, negroes were imported there, as a regular branch of traffic with the West Indies. The number brought into the notbern colonies, was small, in comparison with that into the southern; a circumstance which we may attribute to the difference of climate : as, it appears natural, that the same people who assented to the principles of a trade, would have felt no repughance to its extention, had it been demanded by their immediate interest. It is only just, liowever, in re. flecting on this conduct of the early settlers, to make a large
allowance in extenuation of that practice. The rights of man, either as regarded his civil or religious liberty, were not, in those days, fully understood ; nor the mental faculties of the sable African properly examined and acknowledged.
Settlement of Maryland ; of North and South Carolina ;
New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and
MARYLAND, the first colony that, from its beginning, was directly governed as a province of the British empire, was founded by sir George Calvert, baron of Baltimore in Ireland; a Roman Catholic nobleman, born in England. In. clined io form a settlement in America, as an asylum for himself and his friends, he went over to Virginia ; but, meet. ing an unwelcome reception on account of his religion, and observing that the inhabitants had not extended their plantations beyond the Potomac, he fixed his attention on the lands northward of this river, and when he returned to Eng. land, obtained a grant of them from Charles the first. But he did not survive the completion of the patent. After his death, however, it was given to his eldest son, Cecilius; who succeeded to his titles; the country being called Maryland, in compliment to the queen, Henrietta Maria.
The religious toleration established by that charter, the first draft of which was written, it is said, by sir George him. self, is highly honourable to his memory, and was strictly respected by his son..
Leonard Calvert, the first governor of Maryland, was the brother of Cecilius; who sent him to America at the head of the colony in 1633. Having sailed up the Potomac, he anchored near an island which he named St. Clements; and there took formal possession of the country, in the name of his sovereign. Thence, he went fifteen leagues higher, to an Indian town on the Virginian side of the river, now called New Marlborough; where he was received in a friend. Jy manner by the natives. He next sailed to Piscataway, on the Maryland shore, and had an interview with the chieftain, 6 Are you willing," said that lover of justice," that a settle: ment should be made in your country?"-"I will not bid: