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and Teeterree, who conciliated the that great numbers of the natives regard of so many persons in this long earnestly for times of peace, country, the Committee regret that and security, and are bent on availthey have not a more favourable ing themselves of the aid of Chrisreport to give. After a sixteen tians. The Committee are not, months' campaign, they brought therefore, disheartened by present back many prisoners, and many appearances; nor are the good 'heads of those whom they had kill- men who have offered themselves ed and eaten: they made fearful to this service. One family has havock; and they ihemselves say, lately embarked from England for that one ortwo more such desolating this mission under the hope of expeditions will exterminate the a favourable change of circumtribes which they attacked : such stances; and another is preparing is the advantage which their fire for the same destination. May the arms give them.
blessing of God rest upon their At the date of the last advices, labours! the unsettled state of the natives West-Indies Mission. The last occasioned the delay of various return of the schools with which plans for their benefit. The diffi- the Society is connected in the cult circumstances of the mission island of Antigua, states that there bad prevented that attention to are 1625 boys and girls under 'schools which must prove, under instruction. In the Barbadoes the blessing of God, one of the clarity school, the number of chilmain instruments of its success. It dren is 44 free boys, 25 free girls, was, indeed, one of the evil effects 49 slave boys, and 25 slave girls; of the disturbances, that the people making a total of 143: and the mabecame disinclined to send their naging Committee state, that they children to learn any thing of the have placed to trades and other settlers. Shunghee declared that occupations 56 children, who have be wanted his children to learn to completed their education sioce fight, not to read.
the establishment of the school. Cultivation was prospering, at North-West America Mission.the close of the year, at both set. It has been before mentioned that tlements. Mr. W. Hall writes of the Society have established a new Rangheehoo " I bave a sufficient mission for the benefit of the Inquantity of wheat growing to serve dians of North-West America. It my house and family the year bas long been a subject of just rouod, if nothing happens; besides anxiety, to better the condition of several patches in different parts of the inhabitants and native tribes of the surrounding country among the Indians in Hudson's Bay, and to natives.” Mr. Butler says of the afford them religious instruction. cultivation and buildings under his Some arrangements which have reown inimediale care at Kiddeekid- cently taken place, for the regulation dee-" I have seven acres of wheat of the fur trade, having restored and six of barley and oats, growing tranquillity to all the country over at ihis time, all looking remarkably which the Hudson's Bay Company well. Our garden is full of a have trading establisments, extendvariety of vegetables, with many iug from Canada to the Pacific young fruit-trees, and an excellent Ocean, and as far to tbe north as bed of hops."
has hitherto been explored, opporAll the selllers concur in repre- tunity is now afforded for every senting the field of labour in this exertion; and all the parties who mission to be vast indeed; and
have influence in that country apthe prospect, until thus clouded pear ready to render their cordial and darkened, to have been highly co-operation in the plans under encouraging. It has been shewn consideration, for the extension of religious instruction, civilization, reason to believe that the various and education over this immense plans in contemplation can be carextent of country. The Rev. Mr. ried into effect. West offered his services to the Mr. West is now appointed suSociely to establish schools ; and perintendent of the mission; anothe sum of 1001. was placed at his ther missionary will be sent to his disposal for the year 1820,10 enable assistance; the schoolmaster just him to make trial of the proposed referred to has been received into plan. A lelter from Mr. West, the service of the Society; and such dated Red River Colony, June 4, a number of Indiau children will be 1821, states, that the Indians were maintained and educaled as cirwilling to part with their children cumstances may allow. for the purpose of their being In the nine missions of the Socieinstructed ; 'ihat he had several ty which have now been surveyed, children under his care ; that a there are about forty stations, with school-house was nearly completed; a number of schools dependent on and that many more children would them. These stations are occupied be consigued to bim, when the by about ninety Europeans, who house was ready for their reception. have been seot out from this The expense of provision for the chil. couutry to the different missions: of dren will every year be diminished, these ibirty-two are ordained misas the garden ground and land are sionaries; i wenty-four are the wires brought into improved cultivation. of missionaries; and the rest are The greater ihe number of children, teachers and settlers, male and ihe less will be the proportional female. Of native labourers, there expense. A hunter must, in the first are about one huodred and sixty ; instance, be attached to the esta- two of whom are ordained misblishment, in order to procure a sionaries, and the others are readers, supply of provisions. Twelve calechists, teachers, and assistants. pounds per annum will be required The number of scholars, adults for each child. A young man was and children, caupot be exactly aslaken out by Mr. West, who appears certained; but it appears, from the to have succeeded in his manage- last returus, lo be about ten thoument of the ludian children, and to sand tive hundred. “In various have reconciled them to civilized places, 'adds the Report, "cburches life and babits of industry. Mr. have been built; and every year, Garry, a member of the commillee converts are added to the Lord. of the Hudson's Bay Company, lately The work is in truth, as yet, still visited the Company's territories in but a work of preparation-except North America ; and bad the satis- indeed in a few favoured spois, faction of witnessing the improve- where the gracious out-pouring of mients which have taken place in the Holy Spirit has most strikingly the morais of the inhabitants, from shewn what blessed effects will the religious instruction which had follow wherever the arm of the been afforded ; and there is every Lord shall be revealed.”
PRISON DISCIPLINE SOCIETY. The Society for the Improvement any single instance, directed to this of Prison Discipline introduce their end. The Committee have hitherFourth Report with some interest- to scrupulously confined their exing explanatory remarks, to the fol- ertions to the real objects of the Solowing effect.
ciely-the improvement of prison. The Society is not constituted discipline, and the reformation of for the amendment of ihe criminal juvenile offenders. Their attention code; nor lave its labours been, in has been occupied, not in a revi. 821 sion of the law, but in the attempt Others emulate his fortitude, instead to render its penalties most effec- of avoiding his crimes. This is the tive-by so administering imprison- natural effect of severity on minds ment as at once to deter and re- unimpressed with a sense of duty, claim the offender, and to impress and uninfluenced by restraint. all who contemplate a violation of The Committee next report the the law with the dread of punisko progress of improvement in prisons ment.
during the past year.
We shall No charge can be more mistaken cite a few facts by way of general and unfounded, than that the plans specimen. recommended by this iustitution During the last year, no fewer are calculated to introduce comfort than four thousand six hundred into gaols. It is the conviction of and twenty-two prisoners passed the Committee, that the security through the New Prison, Clerkenand welfare of society demand the well, and this may be considered uniform punishment of crime, and as a fair average of annual committhat nothing less than penal inflic- ments. On a late occasion, two tions will ensure public protection; hundred and seventy prisoners but the measure of the punishment were discharged at the prison doors must be regulated by the character by proclamation. The defective of the offence, the feelings of bu- plan of this prison is much to be manity, and the spirit of religion. regretted. The Committee recommend hard In the house of correction in Coldlabour, and regular employment; bath Fields, the extensive machineand a system in which spare diet, ry for the employment of the prioccasional solitary confinement, soners by the tread wheel is now habits of order and silence, seclu- completed. Upwards of three hunsion from vicious associates, con- dred prisoners may be kept in stant control, personal inspection, regular employment. This prison religious instruction, and moral re- is over full. The state of the festraint are steadily enforced. Such a male prisoners calls earnestly for discipline is calculated to deter, as immediate attention : they cousist well as to reform. It habituates to of nearly all descriptions of bad thought and industry; it breaks up characters convicted by the magisold, and creates new, associations: trates of the metropolis. The and experience proves that this crowded state of the prison does discipline is regarded with perfect not admit of their being classed : abhorrence by criminals of every they have no watron, nor any fe. description.
male officers to attend them. Three Religious instruction, the Com- thousand three hundred and sevenmittee consider, forms an indispen- ty-nine prisoners were committed sable branch of prison discipline. 10 this prison in the course of the Without reformation, the object of year 1821. prison discipline cannot be attain- In the county house of correction ed: without religious impressions, at Abingdon, the prisoners are emreformation is ullerly hopeless. ployed in the manufacture of sackThe prevention of crime will never ing in all its branches, tarpaulins, be etfected by the influence of fear and maiting; for which a ready alone. In no Christian or civilized sale is invariably found. The use country has uomixed severity at- of irons, except in cases of refractained this object. The criminal tory prisoners, has been discontithus treated, be his offence what it pued at this and many other prisons. may, experiences a feeling of in- At the Cambridge county gaol, jury; resentment is excited in his a discipline mill has been in full bosom, and the energies of his operation during the last six months. mind are exerted to resist coercion. The male prisoners work in two
compartments, and the period of 1on has been completed. Six tread. labour is ten hours per day. There wheels are here kept in constant has not been one instance of a re- operation; and the hard labour, and commiltal since the erection of the spare diet, combined with judicious mill; before, returns were frequent. regulations for the exclusion of the
The house of correction at Win. friends of the prisoners, have already chester continues to be distinguish- rendered the name of Brixton a ed for good order and industry: terror to offenders in the vicinity. the mills have been in active ope- At the house of correction at ration. The total amount of saving Northallerion, the stepping-mill has to the county, from the labour of produced a great effect. Such has the prisoners, for the last two been the diminution in the number years and three quarters, has been of committals, that at times the 20491. 45. 64d. A school is attended mill is but half employed, from the daily, under the direction of the want of prisoners to work it. chaplain.
In many prisons, the practice In the county gaol at Maidstone, still continues of using irons in a building is enlarging for the se- ordinary cases, with a view of parate confinement of female pri- insuring the safe custody of the soners: they will be placed under prisoners. The Committee are officers and aliendants of iheir own inclined to think that the security sex; a plan which, it is trusted, which irons afford has been greatly will be generally followed through- overrated. The use of felters bas out the country. In this prison, a tendency to relax the vigilance great attention is paid to the moral of prison officers; and probably, instruction of the prisoners. Schools if the circumstances were examined, for the adult as well as juvenile it would be found, that in a large prisoners are formed in several of proportion of cases in which the ihe wards, under the direction of escape of prisoners has been the chaplain.
effected, irons have actually been At the gaol at Rochester, debtors, used. The custom of ironing prifelons, and misdemeanants, are in- soners was formerly very general, discriminately confined together; It is satisfactory to observe the and proofs are not wanting of the gradual discontinuance of this pracevils resulting from this neglect of tice, which is likely before long to classification and discipline. A be altogether exploded. At Newyoung man, the son of honest pa- gate, at no very distant period, fetters rents, and whose moral character were used in every yard: no irons 'had hitherto been unsullied, was are now to be seen, with the excepconfined for a small debt. He had tion of those on capital convicts, not been liberated longer than a who wear them not for security, month, before he was again com- but as a distinctive punishment. mitted as a criminal; and his ruin Few gaols in England are less secure may be directly traced to the cor- than the Bridewell in Tothill Fields, rupt association to which he was where fetters were long deemed ab'exposed during bis confinement. solutely necessary; but even here Two men were lately apprehended they are now altogether dispensed for robbing their master : one of with; and it is to be regretted ibat whom, on his entrance, was admit- they are not disused at several large ted as king's evidence. He asso- prisons, which, in other respects, are ciated indiscriminately with the well conducted, and where their
disother prisoners; and when the trial continuance might reasonably hare came on, he refused to recapitulate been expected. In the prisons to his testimony: bis accomplice es- which ihe Committee refer, the caped, and justice was defeated.
practice is not confined to convicted The house of correction at Brix- prisoners : persons committed even
for trial, are also subjected to this prisoners are uniformly instructed unmerited mark of personal degra, in religious and moral duty. The datiou. Blackstone remarks, '. The schools are in excellent order. A law will not justify gaolers in fet- prison-dress has been recently altering a prisoner, unless where he lowed by the magistrates, at the is unruly, or has attempted bis suggestion of the Committee. The escape ;” and Lord Chief Justice ladies have still to regret that the King answered those who advo. crowded stale of tlie wards renders cated the use of fetters as a secu- it impossible to conser on the pririly, “ that they might build their soners the benefits which result walls bigher." —But if ironing a from proper classification and ioconvicted prisoner be uuwarranta- spection; increasing order and deble, how much more strongly is the corum prevail in the general decustom to be condemned, when the meanour of the prisoners ; . and untried are fettered ? a practice there have been many encouraging not only contrary to law, but re- instances of females, who, on their pugnant to every principle of jus- liberation, have fully proved that tice and humanity.
the kindness which they have exExperience has fully confirmed perienced has not been lost, nor the efficacy of the discipline tread- ihe instruction which has been mill; and the Commitiee feel as- imparted to them forgotten. sured that the labour which it For the last twenty months, the ordinarily enforces, so far from ladies have kept an account of the being injurious, is highly beneficial number of convicted women, who, to health. It induces moderate and on being placed under their care, uniform exertion in the open air, in were found to have received some an erect and unconstrained position degree of education. From this of the body; weight, not force, register it appears that of 119 pribeing requisite in the operation. soners—being the whole number Tbese salutary machines are now who were able to read- not one jotroduced into a considerable had attended a school on the British number of gaols, and are intended system, and ove only had entered a to be erected in many others. national school : in this last case,
In a late session of Parliament, a the individual confessed that she bill was passed for providing for the had remained there but two weeks, more effectual punishment by hard so that it may fairly be excluded labour, in various cases of aggrava. from the account. ted misdemeanors and crimes below that but three had been in the the degree of felony. It authorizes habit of attending at Sunday the courts of justice to unite hard schools. These simple facts speak Jabour with imprisonment.
volumes, and furnish incontestable The Commitee strongly recom- proof of the supreme importance mend affording assistance to pri- of religious instruction. When it soners, who on their liberation are is considered that the schools in destitute, and whose conduct during question have been in extensive confinement, has been satisfactory operation in the metropolis for The period of discharge is one of many years ; and that by far the great difficulty to the criminal, greater proportion of the female when a small sum is much needed, convicts who enter Newgate are and is often essential to preserve under twenty-five years of age, him from want or crime.
these circumstances are peculiarly At Newgate, the Ladies' Asso- deserving of notice, and strikingly cialion for the improvement of the evince the great value of these female prisoners, persevere in their institutions. arduous and important labours. The cordial disposition of the Constant work is provided, and the magistracy throughout the coun
It also appears