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ders men presumptuous or self- namely, whether there were any righteous, or careless of sin or differences between the Codex Vanegligent of duty, is a false religion, ticanus, and the Vatican edition. and worse even than none.
Accordingly I have noted all the variations which exist between
them in the Pentateuch.” For the Christian Observer. Codex Alexandrinus.
“ This ON THE TEXT OF THE VATICAN manuscript is preserved in the
British Museum. It was written, AND ALEXANDRINE MANUSCRIPTS, WITH REMARKS ON
as it appears to me, in Egypt, not THE COMPLUTENSIAN, AL
long before the close of the fifth DINE, AND ALEXANDRINE century. Grabe, in his letter to EDITIONS OF THE LXX.(FROM Mills, gives it the preference over DR, HOLMES'S PREFACE.)
the Vatican manuscript, but with
out producing any examples from In the second and third chapters the Mosaic Books. This maguof the preface to the Pentateuch, script omits, in the Pentateuch, a Dr. Holmes has given an account great many things which Grabe has of the several manuscripts which supplied in his edition. Of these, were collated for bis edition of the some are found in the Vatican Septuagint; describing, in the first text: but a great many more be of these chapters, such only as are borrowed from a genuine Hexaplar written in the Uncial character. manuscript, in which they were The most important by far among preserved under the asterisk. He this class are unquestionably the seems to have done this, with the celebrated Vatican and Alexandrine view of defining the peculiar chamanuscripts; and a brief descrip- racter of the Alexandrine manution of these, so far as to ascertain script; but if it were really a what text they respectively exhibit, Hexaplar cepy in the Pentateuch, may perhaps not be unacceptable how happens it to bave been neces. to your readers.
sary to supply so many Hexaplar Codex Vaticanus.—" This manu- readings ? Should any person, script,” Dr. Holmes remarks,“ be- therefore, be of opinion that the longs to the Vatican Library, and text of the Alexandrine manuscript is there numbered 1209. It is of in the Pentateuch is Tetraplar the quarto size, and is written on rather than Hexaplar, (and even the finest vellum. Through the that not the most excellent of its Pentateuch and other bistorical kind,) I should not hesitate to books, the pages are divided into concur with him." three columns; in the remaining The fourth chapter of the prebooks only into two. It has ac- face is devoted to a specification of cents; but they have been added the editions, fathers, and versions, by a later hand. (Professor Birch from which assistance bad been says they had been affixed a prima derived, and applied to the use of manu.)
Dr. Holmes's edition. “An opinion prevails very gene- With respect to the texts of the rally, and indeed, as it seems to Complutensian and Aldine editions, me, not without reason, so far as as Dr. Holmes bas advanced an concerns the Pentateuch, that the opinion concerning them materiallext of the Kolvri is preserved in this ly differing from that which is gemanuscript, free, perhaps, from nerally entertained by the learned, many of the faults which have per- no apology, I trust, is requisite for vaded certain manuscripts made use submitting it in this place, espeof by Origen. However this may cially as that opinion, notwithbe, one thing I deemed of great standing its novelty, seems to me importance to be pointed out; to be extremely reasonable.
I may here observe, that Dr. Codex Alexandrinus, and carefully Holmes bas adopted, for his own collated with it by Grabe, who edition, the text of the Vatican himself left it ready for the press. edition of 1587, which was formed I shall only remark, concerning the principally from the Codex Vati- Alexandrine edition, that, in the canus; but as some readings were Pentateuch, it was sometimes supintroduced into the Vatican edition plied out of the text of the Vatican from other manuscripts, Dr Holmes edition, but more frequently from has been careful every where to the Complutensian. Thus the edinotice the variations existing be- tor seems to have mixed with the tween the manuscript and the text of one family the texts of two edition.
other recensions; but this has not Editio Complutensis, 1514.—"It been attended with any ill consehas been said ibat the manuscripts quence, since he has introduced made use of by the Complutensian no supplementary matter except in editors. have perished; but that a smaller character." all have not been lost, may now be But what greatly enhances the considered as certain of the ma- value of this chapter of Dr. nuscripts collated for this work, Holmes's preface, is, the very clear there seem to be three *, which, un- and interesting account which is less I am deceived, contain the very there given, of the several vertext of the Complutensian edition, Sions derived from the Septuagint in the Pentateuch. Consequently text; namely, 1. The old Italic; this edition, equally with the rest, 2 Coptic; 3 Sabidic; 4 Syriac may lay claim to ihe authority of (Philoxenian); 5 Arabic; 6 Slaa manuscript in the Mosaic text. vonic; 7 Armenian ; & Georgian.
" But if the editors thus dis- The account of the three last charged their duty with respect to mentioned, from the pen of Prothe old, how is it to be presumed fessor Atter of Vienna, is doubtthat they treated the New Testa- less a masterly performance, and is ment?”
delivered nearly in the Professor's Editio Aldina, 1518.4" Of this own words. It enters deeply into edition let us attend to the editor's the subject, and offers a rich treat own words: ‘Ego multis vetustis- to the Biblical student. simis exemplaribus collatis, adhi- Having finished his narrative of bita etiam quorundam eruditissi- the versions, the editor thus conmorum hominum cura, Biblia, ut cludes his preface with a recapituvulgo appellant, Græca cuncta de- lation of his labours. scripsi, atque in unum volumen re- “ I have now mentioned every ponenda curari.""
thing concerning the MANUSCRIPT These words, however, are not EDITIONS, FATHERS, and VERto be so understood as though the SIONS, which have been applied Aldine text had been composed of to the service of this work : it rereadings selected from a great many mains for me only to apprize the manuscripts; for Dr. Holmes's col- reader, that the whole of the colnation embraces some manuscripts f lations which, for these fifteenyears which exhibit almost the very text past, bave been collecting for this of the Aldine edition.
edition, are deposited in the BodEditio Alexandrina, 1706. leian Library; and will be publish“ The whole of the text of this ed, either by myself, if life is spared edition was transcribed from the me, or, if it should happen other
wise, by some other editor, under (19.) Codex Chigianus circa. ♡ X.
the auspices of the Curators of the (108.) Codex Vaticanus 330. § xiv. Clarendon Press at Oxford.”
(118.) Codex Paris. Reg. vi. g xiii. Dr. Holmes died in 1806. At 1 (29) Codex Venetus II. $ x, vel xi. that time only the Pentateuch and the Book of Daniel had been pub- To begin with the arguments lished. It is much to be lamented employed in favour of the practice : that his valuable life was not spared It is affirmed by some religious to have edited the remainder of the persons, that it rests on the authoprophetical books bimself; a task rity of Scripture; since the Jews, which it appears he was extremely under the Mosaic dispensation, reanxious to accomplish. The work sorted to this method of deciding has however been continued to very important questions relating the present time, and is still in a to iheir temporal interest. It is course of publication, under the moreover urged, that even in the direction of the learned Dr. James time of the Apostles lots were drawn Parsons; but the nature of this on a memorable occasion ; namely, laborious undertaking precludes the election of Matthias, as succesall hope of its speedy completion. sor to the traitor Judas. On these The Book of Job (part 3d of vol. 3.) two distinct grounds, it is inferred, was published in the summer of that there can be nothing criminal 1820. When the work is finished, in the practice, though it is not it will remain a lasting monument directly sanctioned in the writings of the attention of the learned and of the New Testament. higher orders in this country to Yet, notwithstanding this appeal the cause of sacred learning; and to Scripture in vindication of the cannot but reflect great honour on practice, its advocates would conthe memory of the learned editor fine it within strict and defined who originally projected these col- limits. They would shudder, for lations, as well as on the public instance, at the thought of counwho, for such a number of years, tenancing public lotteries, or of bave so munificently upheld it with drawing lots with a view to obtain their patronage.
any considerable sum of money ; Φτων ό. .
and they would strongly reprobate
the practice, whenever it might To the Editor of the Christian Observer.
appear to sanction the destructive
principle of gambling. Yet it is I TRUST I shall not misemploy the somewhat inconsistently maintaintime of your readers, by calling ed, that there are certain cases of their attention for a moment to a a minute and indifferent nature, in subject which is in some measure which the most holy follower of connected with practical Christia- Jesus Christ may innocently draw nity, and on which I am con- lots; namely, such, for example, strained to differ frow some valua- as where it is wished to decide, ble Christian friends. I refer to without jealousy or offence, to the practice of drawing lots; and which of several apparently equal the question I would submit to claimants some slight article of your readers is, Whether it is con- property shall belong, or which insistent with the spirit of Christia- dividual of a party present shall nity for persons in the present take the lead in some benevolent day to draw lots, in any case, in or useful undertaking. In these order to settle a doubtful or dis- and similar cases, it is pretended, puted point. The practice bas that without such a device it would at different times been employed, be nearly impossible to come to a among various bodies of Christians, satisfactory decision; and that at on solemn occasions ; particularly all events the practice is too inamong the Wesleyan Methodists, different to be the subject of either at the earlier periods of their serious censure or approbation. history, to determine questions in Now it appears to me, that the which the members of their society ground thus confidently taken by were divided in opinion.
the advocates of the practice is
far less firm than they imagine. In another point of view also, As to the warrant for drawing lots the practice will appear not to be which they profess to derive from a matter of indifference: for may Scripture, it will, I presume, be it not be supposed to lend some founil, upon fair consideration, that countenance, however small, to the inference is quite untenable. raffles and lotteries, if not to games For it was only under the peculiar of hazard? Or to set the matter circumstances of the Mosaic dis- in a stronger light, I would ask, pensation, and even by the express what answer could be made by the command of God himself, that the persons to whom I am referring, Jews cast lots to determine what to such questions as the following ? shares of the promised land should “If you, who are so decidedly be respectively apportioned to their religious, consider it innocent to tribes. And in this case the cast- cast lots in indifferent or trifling ing of lots was confessedly an ap. cases, what harm can there be in peal to God for the determination my rattling for a valuable article of an important point, which could which I really want; as in so doing not else have been satisfactorily I hazard but a small sum? Or why adjusted. With respect to the in- may I not purchase a part of a stance of Matthias, the casting of lottery ticket, in the hope of oblots was unquestionably a religious taining relief for the immediate act; since it was accompanied by distresses of my family ?” a solemn prayer to the Supreme
I do not wish, Mr. Editor, to overSearcher of all hearts, for the pur- strain my inferences on the forepose of forming that decision going subject, and shall therefore wbich might be most agreeable conclude by entreating the Christo His divine will. That either of tian readers of your miscellany, these very singular and insulated to rectify them as far as they may cases can form any kind of pre- appear to want a scriptural foundacedent for Christians in modern tion.
Ilisis. days, I am unable to conceive. As well might we look to dreams, to determine in any difficult case what may be the will of God, To the Editor of the Christian Observer. because such a mode of deci- It has been often observed, that sion was divinely permitted to the there are two books in which Go ! Jews.
has been pleased to display hii Next, as to the alleged indiffer. character to mankind; the boo : ence of the practice, the assump- of Nature and the book of Grace. tion, I think, is coutrary to fact. The knowledge of the former, when For, if we cast lots only to deter- rightly employed, should ever lead mine (as in the instance supposed to the study of the latter ; while above) which of the contending an acquaintance with the latter claimants shall be evtitled to some ought no less to induce the devout little article of property, do we philosopher to avail himself of the not, in such a case, appeal either to many intimations contained in the the Supreme Ruler of the universe, glowing pages of the former. Reor else to mere chance ; since by ligious persons might derive great one or the other arbiter the poiut benefit from thus habitually making in dispute must be decided? If to nature the handmaid to religion; and tbe former, what warrant can we in order to do so, it seems desirashew for so solemn an appeal in a ble that they should cultivate a taste matter so light and insiguificant? for the beauties of creation, and And with respect to the latter, its an aptitude to catch the impressive very existence would be denied by moral displayed by every part of every Christian.
the works of the Almighty. So far
however, from this being always waves, his soul bad sunk in conscithe case, instances, I conceive, are ous helplessness and guilt before not rare in which persons appear that Almighty Ruler, whose arm not merely to have acquired no impelled, or whose word restrained, new relish for the beauties of its gigantic energies. He became nature, in consequence of becom- therefore increasingly disposed to ing devoted to the service of na- overlook such assistances and inture's God, but even to have lost timations of nature ; and thus was something of the enthusiasm which that refinement of the moral sense, they once possessed. Nor is such by which the still small voice of a result difficult of solution; for the works of creation is beard and when a person is put upon his their silent pointings discovered, guard against the undue influence gradually impaired; so that even either of philosophical pursuits or to the present moment, thougla reanimal gratifications, he may very leased from his terrors, and conprobably become somewhat indiffer- templating God as a reconciled ent to the study of nature, unless Father in Christ Jesus, there is supplied with new motives, and still wanting that affectionate veneimpelled by new feelivgs, to pro- ration for his natural works which secute his intimacy with her. And bas formed so prominent a feature such new motives and feelings we in the minds of many eminently might at first sight imagine, would pious characters, and which Cowbe supplied by religion alike in per has so beautifully described in every case; but I will illustrate those well-known lines : by two examples my position, that « He looks abroad into the varied field this is not the fact.
Of Nature; and though poor perhaps, The mind of Lysander, having compar'd been moulded by the varying cir- With those whose mansions glitter in cumstances of his growing years,
his sight, was fixed as to its general character Calls the delightful scenery all his own. at the time when his attention was
His are the mountains, and the valleys first turned to religion. From the And the resplendent rivers ; his t'enjoy
his, very commencement of his spiri- With a propriety that none can feel, tual career, he was chiefly im- But who, with filial confidence inspir'd, pressed by the terrors of the Divine Can lift to Heaven an unpresumpiuous law; and being greatly harassed eye, by the ever recurring consciousness And smiling say, ' My Father made of his deficiencies in duty, his
them all! mind was but little disposed to Are they not His by a peculiar right, cultivate those meditative virtues
And by an emphasis of interest His,
Whose eye they fill with tears of boly so congenial with the contempla
joy, tation of the works of creation. Whose heart with praise, and whose Thus in this stage of his religious exalted mind, progress, there was nothing which With worthy thoughts of that unwea. left in his mind any link of associa. ried love tion between his spiritual hopes That planned, and built, and still upand best interests, and the forms
holds, a world or the vicissitudes of the scenery of So clothed with beanty for rebellious nature. He could not look upon the setting sun as an object which, On the other hand, Crito from under the Divine blessing, bad his earliest years was the nursling often powerfully fixed his thoughts of Nature. Innumerable are the upon eternity : nor could be, while instances with which his memory listening to the ocean's roar, call is stored, in which religious feelings to mind any consecrated moment, were strougly excited in bim by when, gazing on its threatening the scenes of the natural creation.