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case; and in the enthusiasm of the mo- language used on the quarter-deck of the ment, somewhat to his amusement and flagship into overt acts. He stopped yet more to his disgust, he was over- and searched vessels without adequate whelmed with assurances that he had out- pretext, seized goods illegally, and fired done all his own previous efforts, and at the market boats as they entered Newwould thenceforward rank as an equal of port harbor. He treated the farmers on the greatest orator that ever spoke in the islands much as the Saracens in the Rome or Athens.

Middle Ages treated the coast population For ten years past, ever since George of Italy, cutting down their trees for Grenville'st influence began to be felt fuel, and taking their sheep when his in the distant parts of the Empire, the crew ran short of fresh meat. The inclaims of the Revenue had been enforced jured parties made their voices heard; with unwonted rigor, which in the sum- and the case was laid before the Admiral, mer of 1771 assumed an aggressive and who approved the conduct of his subordexasperating character. Sandwich, who inate officer, and announced that, as sure had succeeded Hawke at the Admiralty, as any people from Newport attempted had appointed an officer with his own sur- to rescue a vessel, he would hang them name, and, (as it is superfluous to state,) as pirates. It was a foolish answer as of his own party, to command the power- addressed to men who were not longful squadron now stationed in American suffering, nor particular as to their methwaters. Admiral Montagu, who came ods of righting a grievance; and they fresh from hearing the inner mind of the resolved that, if it came to a hanging matBedfords as expressed in the confidence of ter, it should be for a sheep, and not for the punch-bowl, was always ready to

a lamb.

At the first convenient oppormake known his opinion of New Eng- tunity they boarded the royal schooner, land and its inhabitants in epithets which, set the crew on shore, and burned the on well-ordered man-of-war, were vessel to the water's edge. A terrible seldom heard abaft the mast. In compari- commotion followed. Thurlow, in his son with him, (so it was said,) an Amer- capacity as Attorney-General, denounced ican freeholder, living in a log-house the crime as of a deeper dye than piracy, twenty feet square, was a well-bred and and reported that the whole business was polite man. To make matters worse, the of five times the magnitude of the Stamp Admiral's lady was as much too fine as Act. By a Royal order in Council the the Admiral himself was coarse. “She authorities of Rhode Island were comis very full,” wrote Adams, “of her re- manded to deliver the culprits into the marks at the assembly and the concert. hands of the Admiral, with a view of 'Can this lady afford the jewels and their being tried in London. But before dresses she wears?' 'Oh, that my son the crew of a Providence fishing-boat should come to dance with a mantua- could be arraigned at the Old Bailey," maker!'” Between them they encour- and hanged in chains in the Essex aged, in those officers whom their example marshes, they had first to be got out of swayed, a tone of arrogance and incivil- Narragansett Bay; and Stephen Hopkins, ity foreign indeed to a noble service. the old Chief Justice of Rhode Island,

The Navy, like every profession, has refused to lend his sanction to their arits bad bargains; and the lieutenant in rest in face of the destiny which awaited command of the schooner Gaspee, which them. Admiral Montagu himself, right was watching the coast of Rhode Island, for once, acknowledged that British Acts set himself to the task of translating the of Parliament,--at any rate such Acts as

the revived statute of Henry the Eighth, First Lord of the Treasury and Chancellor of the Exchequer (1763-1765). Hated in America for his revenue measures, espe

2Criminal court of London with prison cially the Stamp Act.



-would never go down in America un- to such a bitter end. England, outside less forced by the point of the sword. Parliament and within it, was tired of And the estimable and amiable Dart- bullying and coercing men who after all mouth, who now was Secretary of the were Englishmen, whose case rested on Colonies, contrived to hush up a difficulty honored English precedents, and was aswhich, as he was told by a wise and serted and maintained by honest English friendly correspondent, if it had been methods. Never was a community, (as pressed to an extreme issue, "would have the men of Massachusetts pathetically set the continent into a fresh flame.” complained,) so long and so pitilessly as

It was too much to expect that Sand- sailed with malicious abuse as theirs had wich and Thurlow would sit quiet under been during the past two years by enemies their defeat. There was no use in have in London and within their own borders. ing the law, good or bad, on their side The reaction now set in; and a large and if those who interpreted and administered increasing section of the English nation it in America were independent of their watched with respect, and often with influence and dictation. The members sympathy, a resistance conducted on strict of that Cabinet were never slow to make constitutional lines to that which, even as up a prescription for anything which they seen from England, looked very like a regarded as a disease in the body politic; deliberate system of small-minded and and, as usual, they tried it first on Massa- vexatious tyranny. In July 1773, Frankchusetts. It was arranged that her lin addressed a letter from London to judges should henceforward have their Thomas Cushing, then Speaker of the salaries paid by the Crown, and not by Massachusetts Assembly. "With rethe Colony. Samuel Adams discerned gard,” he said, "to the sentiments of peothe threatening nature of the proposal ple in general here concerning America, itself, and foresaw the grave perils in- | I must say that we have among them volved in the principle which lay beneath many friends and well-wishers. The it. At his instigation the patriots of Dissenters are all for us, and many of the Boston invited all the townships of the merchants and manufacturers. There province to establish Committees of Cor- seems to be, even among the country genrespondence for the purpose of guarding tlemen, a growing sense of our importtheir chartered rights, and adjured every ance, a disapprobation of the harsh measlegislative body throughout America to ures with which we have been treated, and aid them in repelling an invasion which, a wish that some means might be found if it succeeded in their own case, un

of perfect reconcilation." doubtedly would be directed in turn Under such circumstances it would against all their neighbors. Massachu- have seemed impossible that a Ministry setts rose to the call; and the Assembly could rise to such a height of perverted of Virginia, with the political instinct ingenuity as to deliver Massachusetts which seldom misled it, took prompt and from her isolation; to unite all the colocourageous action; but in other quarters nies in sudden, hot, and implacable disthe response was neither hearty nor uni- affection towards the Crown; and to versal. The spirit which had defeated drive them into courses which would the Stamp Act could not be aroused at shock the pride and alienate the goodshort notice and on a partial issue; and will of England. But even that feat friends and adversaries alike knew that proved to be within the resources of the threatened colony, if things came to statesmanship. Foremost among the the worst, must be prepared to rely questions of the day at Westminster was mainly upon herself.

the condition of the East India ComThere was, however, good reason to pany, which now stood on the verge of doubt whether the mother-country was in bankruptcy. The home Government the temper to fight so paltry a matter came forward handsomely with a large loan on easy terms, and a pledge not to ary laws to keep the friends of the deinsist on an annual tribute of four hun- ceased from drinking his widow and dred thousand pounds which India had orphans out of house and home; and somehow contrived to pay, in spite of her whatever the gentlemen, who drove and deficits, into the British exchequer. But, rode in to a funeral from thirty miles over and above these palliatives, the Cab- round, were in the habit of drinking, the inet had at its disposal the means of re- ladies drank tea. The very Indians, in lieving the famous Corporation from all default of something stronger, took it its embarrassments. There lay stored in

twice a day; and however much attached the warehouses tea and other Indian they might be to their Great Father begoods to the value of four millions, which yond the water, it must not be supposed had been in course of accumulation ever that they made special arrangements in since the Company, not by its own fault, order to ensure that he had been paid his had lost a most promising customer. The dues on the article which they consumed. American colonies, making a protest If only the Chancellor of the Exchequer, against their fiscal wrongs in a form with a few heartfelt sentences of frank which had its attractions for a thrifty | retraction and cordial welcome, had people, had supplied themselves with thrown completely open the door of the smuggled tea from France, Denmark, Custom-house which already was ajar, all Sweden, and especially from Holland; would have been well, then and thereand those foreign merchants who had after. Before Parliament was many sesbeen tempted into the trade soon learned sions older, America, (after a less questo accompany their consignments of tea tionable fashion than the expression, with other sorts of Oriental produce. when used in an English budget speech, The Custom-house officers reckoned that usually implies,) would have drunk the Indian goods, which paid nothing to the East India Company out of all its diffiTreasury and brought no profit to the culties. Company, found their way into America A course which went direct to the to the amount of half a million in money right point was not of a nature to find every twelvemonth.

favor with George the Third and his The opportunity was golden, and with- Ministers. They adopted by preference out alloy. If Ministers could bring a plan under which the East India Comthemselves to adopt the suggestion made pany was allowed a drawback of the by the East Indian Directors, and advise whole Tea-duty then payable in England, a willing House of Commons to repeal while the Exchequer continued to claim the Tea-duty, they would by one and the the three-pence on the pound which was same straightforward and easy operation, paid, (or, to speak more exactly, left unchoke up the underground channels along paid,) in America. Their object was which commerce had begun to flow, pa- such as every one who ran a boatload of cify the colonies, and save the East India smuggled goods between Penobscot Bay, Company. The demand of the Amer- and the mouth of the Savannah River, ican market for tea was already enormous. could read. This wise scheme, (SO The most portable and easily prepared of Franklin put it,) was to take off as much beverages, it was then used in the back- | duty in England as would make the Comwoods of the West as lavishly as now in pany's tea cheaper in America than any the Australian bush. In more settled which foreigners could supply; and at the districts the quantity absorbed on all same time to maintain the duty in Ameroccasions of ceremony is incredible to a ica, and thus keep alive the right of Pargeneration which has ceased to rejoice liament to tax the colonies. “They have and to mourn in large companies, and at no idea," he wrote, “that any people can great cost. The legislative assembly of act from any other principle but that of more than one colony had passed sumptu- interest; and they believe that threepence in a pound of tea, of which one does not could be made with salt water. At perhaps drink ten pounds in a year, is Charleston the cargo was deposited in a sufficient to overcome all the patriotism damp cellar, where it was spoiled as of an American."

effectually as if it had been floating on They were not long in finding out the tide up and down the channel between their mistake. The King, (so North James Island and Sullivan's Island; and, stated,) meant to try the question with when New York learned that the teaAmerica; and arrangements were accord- ships allotted to it had been driven by a ingly made which, whatever else may be gale off the coast, men scanned the horisaid of them, undoubtedly accomplished zon, like the garrison of Londonderry that end. In the autumn of 1773 ships watching for the English fleet in Lough laden with tea sailed for the four princi- Foyle, in their fear lest fate should rob pal ports on the Atlantic seaboard; and them of their opportunity of proving agents or consignees of the East India themselves not inferior in mettle to the Company were appointed by letter to at- Bostonians. The great cities,-to which tend their arrival in each of the four all the colonies looked as laboratories of towns. The captain of the vessel de- public opinion, and theatres of political spatched to Philadelphia found such a action,—had now deliberately committed reception awaiting him that he sailed the

themselves to a policy of illegal violence straight back to England. Boston, un- which could not fail to wound the selfder circumstances which have been too respect of the English people, and make frequently described to admit of their Parliament, for many a long and sad year ever again being related in detail, grati- to come, an obedient instrument in the fied the curiosity of an energetic patriot hands of men who were resolved, at all who expressed a wish to see whether tea ! hazards, to chastise and humble America.


JOHN MASEFIELD Regarded generally as the greatest living English poet, John Masefield (1878– ) has also produced prose of unusual merit. Among his outstanding poems are the tragic narrative, Dauber; the war poem, August, 1914; and 'the sailor lyrics, Salt Water Ballads. His prose includes Gallipoli (1916), an account of the Dardanelles expedition, in which he himself took part; and The Mainsail Haul, a group of sea yarns. In this selection from Gallipoli, is illustrated Masefield's ability to record events sympathetically and vividly. As history, Gallipoli is neither incidental like Froissart, nor judicial like Trevelyan. It is rather a conscious literary effort to celebrate a noble failure in a prose epic surcharged with emotion.

LET the reader imagine himself to be he and an army of his friends are about to facing three miles of any very rough advance up the slope towards the top, and broken sloping ground known to him, that as they will be advancing in a line, ground for the most part gorse-thyme along the whole length of the three miles, and-scrub-covered, being poor soil, but in he will only see the advance of those some places beautiful with flowers (es- comparatively near to him, since folds pecially “a spiked yellow flower with a or dips in the ground will hide the others. whitish leaf”) and on others green from Let him, before he advances, look earncultivation. Let him say to himself that estly along the line of the hill, as it shows

up clear, in blazing sunlight only a mile 1Prime Minister (1770-1782).

from him, to see his tactical objective,

one little clump of pines, three hundred 2 From Gallipoli by John Masefield. Published by The Macmillan Company. Re

yards away, across what seem to be fields. printed by permission.

Let him see in the whole length of the hill no single human being, nothing but able to move but still alive, unable to scrub, earth, a few scattered buildings, of drive away the flies or screen the everthe Levantine type (dirty white with dropping rain, in a place where none will roofs of dirty red) and some patches of find him, or be able to help him, a place dark Scotch pine, growing as the pine where he will die and rot and shrivel, till loves, on bleak crests. Let him imagine nothing is left of him but a few rags and himself to be more weary than he has a few remnants and a little identificationever been in his life before, and dirtier disc flapping on his bones in the wind. than he has ever believed it possible to Then let him hear the intermittent crash be, and parched with thirst, nervous, wild- and rattle of the fire augment suddenly eyed and rather lousy. Let, him think and awfully in a roaring, blasting roll, that he has not slept for more than a few unspeakable and unthinkable, while the minutes together for eleven days and air above, that has long been whining and nights, and that in all his waking hours whistling, becomes filled with the scream he has been fighting for his life, often of shells passing like great cats of death hand to hand in the dark with a fierce in the air; let him see the slope of the hill enemy, and that after each fight he has vanish in a few moments into the white, had to dig himself a, hole in the ground, yellow and black smokes of great explooften with his hands, and then walk three sions shot with fire, and watch the lines or four roadless miles to bring up heavy of white puffs marking the hill in streaks boxes under fire. Let him think, too, where the shrapnel searches a suspected that in all those eleven days he has never trench; and then, in the height of the tufor an instant been out of the thunder mult, when his brain is shaking in his of cannon, that waking or sleeping their head, let him pull himself together with devastating crash has been blasting the air his friends, and clamber up out of the across within a mile or two, and this trench, to go forward against an infrom an artillery so terrible that each visible enemy, safe in some unseen trench discharge beats as it were a wedge of expecting him. shock between the skull-bone and the The Twenty-ninth Division went forbrain. Let him think, too, that never, ward under these conditions on the 6th for an instant, in all that time, has he of May. They dashed on, or crawled, been free or even partly free from the for a few yards at a time, then dropped peril of death in its most sudden and sav- for a few instants before squirming on age forms, and that hourly in all that again. In such an advance men do not time he has seen his friends blown to see the battlefield. They see the world pieces at his side, or dismembered, or as the rabbit sees it, crouching on the drowned, or driven mad, or stabbed, or ground, just their own little patch. On sniped by some unseen stalker, or bombed broken ground like that, full of dips and in the dark sap with a handful of dyna- rises, men may be able to see nothing but mite in a beef-tin, till their blood is caked perhaps the ridge of a bank ten feet upon his clothes and thick upon his face, ahead, with the dust flying in spouts all and that he knows, as he stares at the along it, as bullets hit it, some thousand hill, that in a few moments, more of that a minute, and looking back or to their dwindling band, already too few, God flanks they may see no one but perhaps a knows how many too few, for the task few men of their own platoon lying tense to be done, will be gone the same way, but expectant, ready for the sign to adand that he himself may reckon that he vance while the bullets pipe over them in has done with life, tasted and spoken and a never-ending birdlike croon. They loved his last, and that in a few minutes may be shut off by some all-important foot more may be blasted dead, or lying bleed- of ground from seeing how they are ing in the scrub, with perhaps his face fronting, from all knowledge of what gone and a leg and an arm broken, un- the next platoon is doing or suffering. It

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