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History is a word to kindle the imagi- , to rule and those to be ruled. The nation. It suggests

Magna Carta that was wrested from

King John, the peasant revolt in Ger-old, unhappy, far-off things, And battles long ago;

many, the French Revolution, and our

own struggle for independence are but a the interminable strife among those crude few phases of this great conflict. The stalwart peoples of the early centuries causes, results, and implications of this whom we almost blush to call our ances- eternal clash bulks large in world histors; the chivalry of the Middle Ages; tory. the enthusiasm of the Renaissance; and The growth of industrialism has prothe social, political, and scientific progress duced conditions in which a third conof modern times.

Alict seems inevitable. At least, no one To the student, however, it means more has yet offered the correct solution to the than this colorful pageantry. The re- problem of reconciling Capital and Labor. counting of mighty deeds in accordance The one holds to its creed of brain work, with the formula of Froissart's Chroni- risk, and large profits; the other is concles is not sufficient for the modern his-tinually harping upon the drudgery of torian. He must search for a meaning manual labor, its indispensability to pubbehind these events; he must delve into lic welfare, and oppression by the the causes upon which hang results, and moneyed classes. As a result, a permanent discern the motives that lie back of ac- program of equable hours, wages, and tions. He must face the cruelty of that working principles has never been early individualistic period, the ignorance achieved. and hidebound dogmatism of medieval In Autobiography, Exposition may or times, the lax morality and unsanitary may not play a large part. If present municipal conditions of the years follow- to any great extent, it is usually directed ing the Revival of Learning, and the so- toward the interpretation of conditions cial corruption of our complex life of to- which the writer sees about him. The day.

biographer must employ Exposition not While engaged upon this task, the his-only in treating background, but also in torian must also take into account those studying the personality of his subject.

an important role in the grouping of circum- must depend most of all upon Exposition. stances. First of all, there is what is The critical method often places History often called the conflict between the more in the realm of Exposition than of sexes. This exists to-day just as surely Narration, for an intelligent reading pubas it did when Cleopatra wrecked An- lic is demanding reasons for events which tony's career and changed the course of once were sufficient unto themselves. Now empire. Competition between man and more than ever is it the duty of the hiswoman in the field of business and poli- torian to comprehend imaginatively the tics is growing keener year by year, and period he is to treat, to strip from his acthe influence of woman is of far more count all that is mere tradition or hearpractical value than in the palmy days of say, and by illuminating the motives of romance when a knight asked nothing bet- men, the consciences of nations, and the ter than to die in the lists wearing his underlying social, political, geographic, lady's colors.

financial, and economic forces to suggest Strife between rulers and subjects has implicitly future policies and modes of existed as long as there have been those I thought and action.


JEAN FROISSART Jean Froissart (1337-1410) was a contemporary of Chaucer. He enjoyed the best education of his time, that of the Church, and traveled extensively. Because of his connection with the various courts of Europe he was able to view contemporary events from many angles. His historical method is gossipy rather than critical, but although his chronicles cannot be relied upon for facts, they give vivid pictures of fourteenth century warfare. The battle described in this passage occurred in 1346 when Froissart was eight years old.

The English, who were drawn up in it cleared up, and the sun shone very three divisions, and seated on the ground, bright; but the Frenchmen had it in their on seeing their enemies advance, rose un- faces, and the English in their backs. dauntedly up, and fell into their ranks. When the Genoese were somewhat in That of the prince was the first to do order, and approached the English, they so, whose archers were formed in the set up a loud shout, in order to frighten manner of a portcullis, or harrow, and them; but they remained quite still, and the men-at-arms in the rear. The earls did not seem to attend to it. They then of Northampton and Arundel, who com- set up a second shout, and advanced a litmanded the second division, had posted tle forward; but the English never themselves in good order on his wing, to moved. assist and succor the prince, if necessary. They hooted a third time, advancing

You must know, that these kings, earls, with their cross-bows presented, and bebarons and lords of France, did not ad- gan to shoot. The English archers then vance in any regular order, but one after advanced one step forward and shot their the other, or any way most pleasing to arrows with such force and quickness, themselves. As soon as the king of that it seemed as if it snowed. When the France came in sight of the English his Genoese felt these arrows, which pierced blood began to boil, and he cried out to their arms, heads, and through their arhis marshals, "Order the Genoese for- mor, some of them cut the strings of their ward, and begin the battle, in the name of cross-bows, others Aung them on the God and St. Denis." There were about ground, and all turned about and refifteen thousand Genoese cross-bowmen; treated quite discomfited. The French but they were quite fatigued, having had a large body of men-at-arms on marched on foot that day six leagues, horseback, richly dressed, to support the completely armed, and with their cross- Genoese. The king of France, seeing bows. They told the constable, they them thus fall back, cried out, “Kill me were not in a fit condition to do any those scoundrels; for they stop up our great things that day in battle. The earl road, without any reason. You would of Alençon hearing this, said, “This is then have seen the above-mentioned menwhat one gets by employing such scoun- at-arms lay about them, killing all they drels, who fall off when there is any need could of these runaways. for them.” During this time a heavy The English continued shooting as vigrain fell, accompanied by thunder and a orously and quickly as before; some of very terrible eclipse of the sun; and be- their arrows fell among the horsemen, fore this rain a great Alight of crows hov- who were sumptuously equipped, and, ered in the air over all those battalions, killing and wounding many, made them making a loud noise. Shortly afterwards caper and fall among the Genoese, so

that they were in such confusion they 1 Edward, the Black Prince, then a lad of could never rally again. In the English fifteen.

army there were some Cornish and 2Philip VI.

Welshmen on foot, who had armed them


selves with large knives: these advancing to march to the place where he saw their through the ranks of the men-at-arms and banners displayed, but there was a hedge archers, who made way for them, came of archers before him. He had that day upon the French when they were in this made a present of a handsome black horse danger, and, falling upon earls, barons, to sir John of Hainault, who had knights and squires, slew many, at which mounted on it a knight of his, called sir the king of England' was afterwards John de Fusselles, that bore his banner: much exasperated. The valiant king of which horse ran off with him, and forced Bohemia was slain there. He was called his way through the English army, and, John of Luxembourg; for he was the son when about to return, stumbled and fell of the gallant king and emperor, Henry of into a ditch and severely wounded him: Luxembourg: having heard the order of he would have been dead, if his page had the battle, he inquired where his son, the not followed him round the battalions, lord Charles, was: his attendants an- and found him unable to rise: he had not, swered, that they did not know, but be- however, any other hindrance than from lieved he was fighting. The king said his horse ; for the English did not quit the to them: “Gentlemen, you are all my ranks that day to make prisoners. The people, my friends and brethren at arms page alighted, and raised him up, but he this day: therefore, as I am blind, I re- did not return the way he came, as he quest of you to lead me so far into the would have found it difficult from the engagement that I may strike one stroke crowd. This battle, which was fought with my sword.” The knights replied, on the Saturday between La Broyes and they would directly lead him forward; Crécy, was very murderous and cruel; and in order that they might not lose him and many gallant deeds of arms were in the crowd, they fastened all the reins performed that

never known. of their horses together, and put the king Toward evening, many knights and at their head, that he might gratify his squires of the French had lost their maswish, and advanced toward the enemy. ters: they wandered up and down the The lord Charles of Bohemia, who al- plain, attacking the English in small parready signed his name as king of Ger- ties: they were soon destroyed; for the many, and bore the arms, had come in English had determined that day to give no good order to the engagement; but when quarter, or hear of ransom from any one. he perceived that it was likely to turn out Early in the day, some French, Geragainst the French, he departed, and I do mans, and Savoyards, had broken through not well know what road he took. The the archers of the prince's battalion, and king, his father, had rode in among the had engaged with the men-at-arms; upon enemy, and made good use of his sword; which the second battalion came to his for he and his companions had fought aid, and it was time, for otherwise he most gallantly. They had advanced so would have been hard pressed. The far that they were all slain; and on the first division, seeing the danger they were morrow they were found on the ground, in, sent a knight in great haste to the with their horses all tied together. king of England, who was posted upon

The earl of Alençon advanced in regu- an eminence, near a windmill. On the lar order upon the English, to fight with knight's arrival he said, “Sir, the earl of them; as did the earl of Flanders, in an- Warwick, the lord Reginald Cobham, other part. These two lords, with their and the others who are about your son, detachments, coasting, as it were, the are vigorously attacked by the French; archers, came to the prince's battalion, and they entreat that you would come where they fought valiantly for a length to their assistance with your battalion, of time. The king of France was eager for, if their numbers should increase, they

fear he will have too much to do.” The Edward III.

king replied, “Is my son dead, unhorsed,

or so badly wounded that he cannot sup- others. Late after vespers, the king of port himself?” “Nothing of the sort, France had not more about him than thank God," rejoined the knight; "but he sixty men, every one included. Sir John is in so hot an engagement that he has of Hainault, who was of the number, had great need of your help.” The king an- once remounted the king; for his horse swered, “Now, sir Thomas, return back had been killed under him by an arrow: to those that sent you, and tell them from he said to the king, “Sir, retreat while me, not to send again for me this day, or you have an opportunity, and do not exexpect that I shall come, let what will pose yourself so simply: if you have lost happen, as long as my son has life; and

this battle, another time you will be the say, that I command them to let the boy conqueror." After he had said this, he win his spurs; for I am determined if it took the bridle of the king's horse, and please God, that all the glory and honor led him off by force; for he had before of this day shall be given to him, and to entreated of him to retire. The king those into whose care I have intrusted rode on until he came to the castle of La him.” The knight returned to his lords, Broyes, where he found the gates shut, and related the king's answer, which for it was very dark. The king ordered mightily encouraged them, and made the governor of it to be summoned: he them repent they had ever sent such a came upon the battlements, and asked message.

who it was that called at such an hour? It is a certain fact, that sir Godfrey de The king answered, “Open, open, goverHarcourt, who was in the prince's bat- nor; it is the fortune of France.” The talion, having been told by some of the governor, hearing the king's voice, English, that they had seen the banner immediately descended, opened the gate, of his brother engaged in the battle and let down the bridge. The king and against him, was exceedingly anxious to his company entered the castle; but he save him; but he was too late, for he was had only with him five barons, sir John left dead on the field, and so was the earl of Hainault, the lord Charles of Montof Aumarle his nephew. On the other

morency, the lord of Beaujeu, the lord hand, the earls of Alençon and of Flan- of Aubigny, and the lord of Montfort. ders were fighting lustily under their The king would not bury himself in such banners, and with their own people; but a place as that, but, having taken some they could not resist the force of the refreshments, set out again with his atEnglish, and were there slain, as well as tendants about midnight, and rode on, many other knights and squires that were under the direction of guides who were attending on or accompanying them. The well acquainted with the country, until, earl of Blois, nephew to the king of about daybreak, he came to Amiens, France, and the duke of Lorraine, his where he halted.

where he halted. This Saturday the brother-in-law, with their troops, made a English never quitted their ranks in purgallant defence; but they were suit of any one, but remained on the rounded by a troop of English and field, guarding their position, and deWelsh, and slain in spite of their prow- fending themselves against all who atess. The earl of St. Pol and the earl of tacked them. The battle was ended at Auxerre were also killed, as well as many

the hour of vespers.





Sir George Otto Trevelyan, Bart., born in 1838, is the nephew of Lord Macaulay. He is distinguished as the author of two standard works: The Life and Letters of Lord Macaulay, a notable biography; and The American Revolution, the first part of which was published in 1899. This latter work is strangely sympathetic with the American point of view and presents many interesting sidelights on the statesmen and soldiers of the time: In method it is directly opposed to Froissart, in that it seeks causes and weighs evidence relating to the events recorded.

IT CANNOT of course be denied that inflicted, arrayed, men of all classes, in America, and most of all in New Eng. creeds, and parties in opposition to the land, enmity to the claims of the Revenue interests of the Exchequer, and to the was active and universal. The origin officers by whom those interests were of that enmity lay far back in history. It guarded. A gentleman of New York has been observed by a writer, who knew says, in a letter written shortly after the his subject well, that the part which the American Revolution broke out: “I fix merchants and shipowners of the North- all the blame of these proceedings on the ern colonies played in the contest with Presbyterians. You would ask whether the home Government has been under- no Church of England people were stated both as regards the importance of among them. Yes, there were; to their their action, and the breadth and justice eternal shame be it spoken. But in genof the motives by which it was inspired. eral they were interested either as smugThey had been born into the inheritance glers of tea, or as being overburdened of a cruel wrong, which was more deeply with dry goods they knew not how to felt as the forces that govern trade came pay for.” Thomas Hancock,—the unto be better understood, and in some cases cle of John Hancock, to whom, oblivious were for the first time discovered. Crom- of political divergences, he left most of well, with an insight beyond his age, had his property, was an ardent royalist and refused to fetter and discourage the in- a declared Tory. He was reputed to be fant commerce of America; and under worth that comfortable amount of money the Commonwealth that commerce grew which his contemporaries, in the phrase fast towards prosperous maturity. But used by Pope and Arbuthnot, still called a Stuart was no sooner on the throne a plum. Hancock had made the better than the British Parliament entered on a part of his fortune by importing contracourse of selfish legislation which killed band tea from Holland, and supplying it the direct maritime trade between our de- to the mess-tables of the army and navy. pendencies and foreign ports, and, (to Considering that it was to people holding borrow the words of an eminent his- his political opinions that the Crown lawtorian,) deliberately crushed

every yers would resort if they had occasion to form of colonial manufacture which pack a jury, it is not difficult to comcould possibly compete with the manu- pute their chances of securing a convicfactures of England.

tion on a charge of evading the Revenue. The traditional resentment against such Whenever a gauger or tide-waiter was injustice, kept alive by the continuing and found tripping, the Court-house overever-increasing material injury which it flowed in every quarter with triumphant

emotion. About the period of Preston's 1 From The American Revolution by Sir

trial, John Adams argued a suit for a George

Trevelyan, Bart. Published by Longo penalty against a Custom-house officer for sion.

taking greater fees than those allowed by 2 William E. H. Lecky, England in the

law: and, in his own estimation, he arEighteenth Century.

gued it very indifferently. He won his

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