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of nations great and small and the privi spirit of right and fairness because we act lege of men everywhere to choose their without animus, not in enmity toward a way of life and of obedience.
people or with the desire to bring any inThe world must be made safe for de | jury or disadvantage upon them, but only mocracy. Its peace must be planted upon in armed opposition to an irresponsible the trusted foundations of political lib Government which has thrown aside all erty.
considerations of humanity and of right We have no selfish ends to serve. We and is running amuck. desire no conquest, no dominion. We We are, let me say again, the sincere seek no indemnities for ourselves, no ma- | friends of the German people, and shall terial compensation for the sacrifices we desire nothing so much as the early reësshall freely make. We are but one of tablishment of intimate relations of the champions of the rights of mankind. mutual advantage between us—however We shall be satisfied when those rights hard it may be for them, for the time have been made as secure as the faith and being, to believe that this is spoken from the freedom of the nation can make them. our hearts.
Just because we fight without rancor We have borne with their present Govand without selfish objects, seeking noth ernment through all these bitter months ing for ourselves but what we shall wish because of that friendship-exercising a to share with all free peoples, we shall, patience and forbearance which would I feel confident, conduct our operations as otherwise have been impossible. We belligerents without passion and ourselves shall, happily, still have an opportunity observe with proud punctilio the princi to prove that friendship in our daily attiples of right and of fair play we profess tude and actions toward the millions of to be fighting for.
men and women of German birth and I have said nothing of the Govern native sympathy who live amongst us and ments allied with the Imperial Govern share our life, and we shall be proud to ment of Germany because they have not prove it toward all who are in fact loyal made war upon us or challenged us to to their neighbors and to the Governdefend our right and our honor.
ment in the hour of test. They are, The Austro-Hungarian Government most of them, as true and loyal Amerihas, indeed, avowed its unqualified in cans as if they had never known any other dorsement and acceptance of the reckless fealty or allegiance. They will be and lawless submarine warfare adopted prompt to stand with us in rebuking and now without disguise by the Imperial restraining the few who may be of a German Government, and it has there different mind and purpose. fore not been possible for this Govern- If there should be disloyalty, it will be ment to receive Count Tarnowski, the dealt with with a firm hand of stern reAmbassador recently accredited to this pression; but if it lifts its head at all, it Government by the Imperial and Royal will lift it only here and there and withGovernment of Austria-Hungary; but out countenance except from a lawless that Government has not actually en- and malignant few. gaged in warfare against citizens of the It is a distressing and oppressive duty, United States on the seas, and I take the gentlemen of the Congress, which I have liberty, for the present at least, of post performed in thus addressing you. There poning a discussion of our relations with are, it may be, many months of fiery trial the authorities at Vienna.
and sacrifice ahead of us. It is a fearful We enter this war only where we are thing to lead this great peaceful people clearly forced into it because there are no into war, into the most terrible and disother means of defending our rights. astrous of all wars, civilization itself
It will be all the easier for us to con- seeming to be in the balance. But the duct ourselves as belligerents in a high right is more precious than peace, and we
shall fight for the things which we have To such a task we can dedicate our always carried nearest our hearts for | lives and our fortunes, everything that we democracy, for the right of those who are and everything that we have, with the submit to authority to have a voice in pride of those who know that the day has their own governments, for the rights and come when America is privileged to spend liberties of small nations, for a universal her blood and her might for the princidominion of right by such a concert of ples that gave her birth and hapfree peoples as shall bring peace and piness and the peace which she has safety to all nations and make the world treasured. God helping her, she can do itself at last free.
| no other.
TT IS generally acknowledged that the the latter form, for the true artist can in! impulse to recount human experi voke in his readers a state of mind that - ences, actual or devised, is as old as for the time being will make plausible the race. The reason that Narration what an unbiased judgment would reject. preceded Exposition and Argumentation Witness all stories of the supernatural or as a literary form is not far to seek. Nar the fabulous. One pronouncement may, ration is the result of direct observation however, be ventured : namely, that when of incident, and follows a definite time a writer deviates so far from the accusorder. In its pure form it entails no in tomed mode of popular thinking as to terpretation and makes no judgment. insult the intelligence, the exercise of his The reader is left to draw his own con art will be futile. Hobgoblins and faiclusions. It is true, however, that the ries one may accept with good grace-for modern narrative is borrowing more and after all they concern a shadowy realm of more the expository method. Thus we which we know little; but who can feel find history growing critical, and the convinced of the reality of a hero who novel and short story becoming analytic. single-handed subdues a host? The fal
Narration divides itself naturally into sity of such an incredible feat is demontwo large classes: (1) that which ad strated daily by our human experience. heres strictly to events that have actually It may be added that Description, seloccurred, or Narration of Fact; and (2) |dom employed by itself, finds its chief that which purports to tell what might | function in supplementing Narration. conceivably have happened, or Narration Its pictorial nature is of infinite value in of Fiction.
securing vividness, atmosphere, local It is difficult, however, to set limits to color, and sheer beauty.
A. NARRATION OF FACT IN “Truth of Intercourse" Stevenson spirit of the period. Narrative of Fact at scores the popular fallacy that "it is its best demands imaginative power of easy to tell the truth and hard to the autobiographer in his task of selftell a lie.” The idea we intend to con revelation; of the biographer who seeks to vey rarely if ever exactly coincides with re-create a personality; and of the histhe impression we actually give. Thus torian who treats of significant events in Narration of Fact is not necessarily nar large segments of society. ration of truth, for truth is no mere mat These three fields-autobiography, biter of dates and facts. It can never be ography, and history—comprehend the achieved by reference to accepted authori full scope of Narrative of Fact, for diaties alone. One may be able to recite ries and journals are autobiographical in the dates of every battle of the American nature; books of adventure and voyaging Revolution, name every Colonial states are either autobiographical or biographiman and general, and trace Washington cal; and newspaper accounts of current from Cambridge to Yorktown without events are vignettes of contemporary hishaving the slightest understanding of the tory.
1. AUTOBIOGRAPHY To write an autobiography is at once little tragedies, common joys . .. the easiest and most difficult of literary | the latest Washington despatches and performances : easiest because the nature this morning's breakfast-room wit... of autobiography permits the writer to world events and opinion on world indulge in a looseness of structure, a rem events . . . ambitions and dreams, iniscent rambling, a witty garrulousness victories and defeats: in short, life, public, which is denied the more stereotyped domestic, individual—this is the stuff of forms; and most difficult because abso which autobiographies are made. lute detachment in self-criticism is well Samuel Pepys, with a greater regard nigh impossible. It is almost inevitable for a pretty woman than for good gramthat one err in judging the value of his mar, has left us in his diary unforgettable own deeds. He cannot fit himself into pictures of the scandalous reign of the the scheme of things with the surety that Merry Monarch. Benjamin Franklin, is possible to an observer. Seen through patriot at home, ambassador abroad, moralhis own eyes, this achievement becomes in ist at large, delights as well as informs us ordinately important, that casual act loses in his unfinished Autobiography of the its true significance. The writer tends days preceding the American Revoluto vacillate between the opposite poles of tion. unjustified self-importance and undue It is not difficult for us to evaluate self-abasement. At its worst the attempt these personal records of the past; but laboriously to elucidate one's own philoso how can we justly gauge the importance phy of life or to discover one's own place of such modern works as Theodore Roosein his generation becomes premeditated velt: An Autobiography, The Education posturing.
of Henry Adams, The Americanization If, on the other hand, the author of an of Edward Bok, E. F. Benson's Our autobiography can avoid the worst pitfalls | Family Affairs, and Ludwig Lewisohn's that beset his art, he has it in his power to Up Stream: An American Chronicle? enrich the thought of his contemporaries, They do more than assure posterity a betand to preserve for succeeding genera ter understanding of the late nineteenth tions invaluable impressions of the time in and the early twentieth century; they are which he lives. He may run the whole living testimony that human interest is gamut of thought, emotion, and circum not primarily in theories of government, stance. Conversations, interviews, solil- codes of morality, or institutions of sooquies . . , hot debate and cold ciety, but first and always in individuals reasoning ... great catastrophes, | themselves.
THE LONDON FIRE
SAMUEL Pepys Samuel Pepys (1633-1703) was a minor statesman of the reign of Charles II, but on the strength of a naïve diary he ranks among the important figures of literature. However, he was no conscious literary artist: he was merely confiding in his diary, in a cipher which he thought perfectly safe, the things that one does not relate publicly. The diary, which was not de- · ciphered until early in the nineteenth century (1822), furnishes an accurate picture of the manners and conditions of the Restoration.
Sept. 2d, 1666 (Lord's day.) Some / ell's house, as far as the Old Swan, alof our maids sitting up late last night to ready burned that way, and the fire runget things ready against our feast to-day, ning further, that, in a very little time, it Jane called us up about three in the got as far as the Steele-yard, while I was morning, to tell us of a great fire they there. Everybody endeavouring to resaw in the City. So I rose and slipped move their goods, and flinging into the on my night-gown, and went to her win river, or bringing them into lighters that dow; and thought it to be on the back lay off; poor people staying in their houses side of Marke-lane at the farthest; but, as long as till the very fire touched them, being unused to such fires as followed, I and then, running into boats, or clamberthought it far enough off; and so went to ing from one pair of stairs, by the waterbed again, and to sleep. About seven side, to another. And, among other rose again to dress myself, and there things, the poor pigeons, I perceive, were looked out at the window, and saw the loth to leave their houses, but hovered fire not so much as it was, and further about the windows and balconys, till off. So to my closet to set things to they burned their wings and fell down. rights, after yesterday's cleaning. By Having staid, and in an hour's time seen and by Jane comes and tells me that she the fire rage every way; and nobody, to hears that about 300 houses have been my sight, endeavouring to quench it, but burned down to-night by the fire we to remove their goods, and leave all to saw, and that it is now burning down the fire; and having seen it get as far as all Fish Street, by London Bridge. So the Steele-yard, and the wind mighty I made myself ready presently, and high, and driving it into the City: and walked to the Tower; and there got up everything, after so long a drought, provupon one of the high places, Sir J. Rob ing combustible, even the very stones of inson's little son going up with me; and churches; and, among other things, the there I did see the houses at that end of poor steeple by which pretty Mrs. – the bridge all on fire, and an infinite great lives, and whereof my old schoolfellow fire on this and the other side the end of Elborough is parson, taken fire in the very the bridge; which, among other people, top, and there burned till it fell down; I did trouble me for poor little Michell to White Hall, with a gentleman with and our Sarah on the bridge. So down me, who desired to go off from the with my heart full of trouble, to the | Tower, to see the fire, in my boat; and Lieutenant of the Tower, who tells me there up to the King's closet in the that it begun this morning in the King's Chapel, where people come about me, and baker's house in Pudding-lane, and that I did give them an account dismayed it hath burned down St. Magnus's them all, and word was carried into the Church and most part of Fish Street al King. So I was called for, and did tell ready. So I down to the water-side, and the King and Duke of York what I saw ; there got a boat, and through bridge, and and, that unless his Majesty did comthere saw a lamentable fire. Poor Mich- 1 mand houses to be pulled down, nothing
light So to my as it was, and saw the