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85. The revenue, in 1865, amounted to $632,- ART. 12 gives civil and religious liberty, provided 471; the expenditures to $630,120; public such citizens respect the religion, laws, and constitudebt, to about $4,000,000.
tion of the country in which they may be residing,
and provides for the burial of the dead. In March, the Legislature of Nicaragua rati- ART. 13 provides for aid or comfort to vessels-offied a "treaty of friendship, commerce, and war, driven by stress of weather or chased by pirates navigation” with the United States, which had or national enemies into the ports, bays, and harbors, previously been sanctioned by the Senate of of the other
party's country, the United States :
Art. 14 grants the right of transit between the
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The republic of NicaraARTICLE 1 declares that there shall be perpetual gua reserves
the right of sovereignty over the route. amity between the two nations.
ART. 15. The United States to extend their protecART. 2 declares there shall be reciprocal freedom tion and guarantee the neutrality and innocent use for the citizens and subjects of both nations to come
of the same and to use their influence to induce other and go, remain, reside ; for their ships to enter all nations to join in the guarantee of neutrality. The ports; to occupy homes and warehouses, and enjoy republic of Nicaragua to establish a free port at each the most complete protection and security; also for end of the route, which United States vessels can their ships of war. Such liberty to be subject to the frequent free from tonnage dues. The United States, laws of the country in which it is exercised. The
on giving notice, to have liberty to convey troops coasting trade of each country is reserved to its own
across the route, provided these troops are not to citizens or subjects.
be used against any Central American nation friendly Art. 3 puts both nations on the footing of the to Nicaragua. The United States Postmaster-General most favored nation,
to be at liberty to transport the mails across the route. ART. 4 forbids other and higher duties on imports.
Art. 16. The republic of Nicaragua agrees to emArt. 5 forbids other and higher duties on account ploy military force for the protection of persons and of tonnage, lights, etc.
property passing over any of the routes, but, upon Art. 6 makes the duties on United States imports the consent or at the request of the republic of Nica
failure from any cause, the United States may, with the same, whether made in American or Nicaraguan ragua, employ force for this and no other
purpose. bottoms, and vice versa.
Art. 1. Shipmasters and others to manage their In exceptional cases of unforeseen or imminent danger own affairs or employ a broker, factor, agent, or in- the United States forces may act without such conterpreter as they please. Absolute freedom also for sent previously obtained—such exercise of force to buyer and seller. The citizens of both nations to
be subject to the laws of the United States Congress. have free access to the courts and enjoy in every
Art. 17. The United States protection is condimatter the same rights and privileges as native citi- tional on the good faith of the company controlling
the route, but protection is not to be withdrawn withArt. & gives the citizens and subjects of both the out six months' notice. right to hold and inherit real estate within the States
Art. 18 makes article 14 inoperative if there is now of the American Union or the republic of Nicaragua, in existence any valid concession by the Nicaraguan in which foreigners shall be entitled to hold or in- Government having reference to the interoceanic herit. But in case real estate situated within the route, and the protection of the United States stiputerritories of one of the contracting parties should lated under artícle 15 is reserved until the owners of fall to a citizen of the other party, who could not on
such concession recognize the concession made in account of his being an alien be permitted to hold
such this treaty to the Government and citizens of the property in the State in which it may be situated,
United States. there shall be accorded to him such time as the laws
Art. 19. After ten years from the completion of a permit for him to sell it and withdraw and export the railroad or any other route of communication from proceeds thereof, without paying to the government the Atlantic to the Pacific, the company in possession other charges than would be paid by the
inhabitant. shall not directly or indirectly divide by the issue of In case of intestates, the minister of the country to
stock more than fifteen per cent. per annum. Whenwhich the deceased belonged shall take charge of his
ever the rates produce a greater revenue, they shall be effects for the benefit of his lawful heirs and credito reduced.
Art. 20. The treaty to last fifteen years, and terArt. 9, section 1, permits citizens of both parties minate by twelve months' notice on either side at or to intermarry with natives of the other party, hold after that time. and possess, by purchase, marriage, or descent, any es
ART. 21. The treaty to be ratified and the ratificatate, real or personal, without thereby changing their tion exchanged
within one year, or sooner if possible, national character, subject, however, to the laws at the city of Nicaragua. which may exist or which may be enacted in this 5. Costa Rica.—The President of the rerespect.
Section 2 exempts citizens of both countries from public for the term of 1866 to 1869, Dr. José forced loans and military service by the other, but Maria Castro, was overthrown by a řevolution obliges them to pay the same lawful taxes as the na- in October, 1868, and Jesus Jimenez declared tives of the country they may reside in.
Provisional President. Area, 21,495 square Sec. 3 provides for full compensation, paid in ad- miles. The population, in 1844, amounted to
Sec. 4. Citizens of both countries to travel as they 79,982; in 1864, to 135,000, of whom 12,000 please to every part of the country of the other were independent Indians. The capital, San party.
José, has about 30,000 inhabitants. Revenue, Art. 10 contemplates the appointment of consuls. about $1,000,000. There is no public debt.
Art. 11. In case of interruption of friendly relations, the citizens of the other party who may be re
The standing army consists of 1,000 men; siding on the coast shall have six months to close up the militia of 5,000. The imports, in 1866, their business and leave, and, if residing in the in- amounted to $2,000,000, and the exports to terior, twelve months. In case of rupture, citizens $1,938,900. The movement of shipping of the who are in settled employment shall have the privi- port of Punta Arenas, which, until 1867, was lege of continuing such trade so long as they behave the only one open to commerce, was as fol. peaceably. Debts between individuals, property in public companies, and shares of companies, shall lows: Arrivals, 71 vessels (18 English, 6 Gernever be confiscated, nor detained, nor sequestered. man, 4 French, etc.), of about 72,000 tons;
clearances, 67 vessels (8 English, 8 German, municated to the Royal Institution of Great 3 French, etc.), of about 69,000 tons. On Britain in May, 1868, a brief history of the September 23, 1867, the port of Lomon, on the progress made by chemical science in the artiAtlantic side, was also opened to commerce. ficial formation of organic substances. He
CERIUM.' M. Wöhler has published an ac- showed that Wöhler's synthesis of urea was count of his researches on cerium. He obtain- one of the earliest in point of date, and his ed the metal by the following process: A solu- method was described, and also Kolbe's new tion of the brown oxide of cerium in hydro- process, by the mere heating of ammonic carchloric acid was mixed with an equivalent bonate to a point just below that at which quantity of chloride of potassium and of chlo- urea is decomposed. The conversion of carride of ammonium, and the whole evaporated to bonic disulphide into carbonic tetrachloride or dryness. The mass was then transferred to a perchlorinated marsh-gas was another examplatinum crucible, and heated till the whole of ple of true synthesis. So was the production the chloride of ammonium was volatilized and of oxalic acid by the direct union of carbonic fusion obtained. The fused mass was poured out anhydride and sodium, recently accomplished and mixed, while still warm, with fragments of by Dr. Drechsel; and it was shown that, as sodium, and introduced into an earthen cru- oxalic acid by distillation yields formic acid, cible previously heated to redness. When the the synthesis of the first acid leads directly to contents had again fused, and the excess of a new synthesis of the second. 'Allusion was sodium volatilized, the crucible was removed made to Berthelot's process of making formic from the fire; the deep-gray resulting mass acid by heating potassic hydrate in an atmoswas filled with little metallic globules. In a phere of carbonic oxide, and Kolbe and second experiment a large piece of sodium was Schmidt's method of making the same subthrown into a red-hot crucible containing chlo- stance by exposing potassium to a warm atmosride of potassium, and then the coarsely-pow. phere of carbonic anhydride. The manufacdered chloride used before. In operating in this ture of acetic acid from carbonic bisulphide way, a larger proportion of metallic globules and the chlorides of carbon, of acetylene by was obtained, some of which weighed 50 to 60 several processes, of succinio acid, of tartaric milligrammes. These metallic globules appear acid, and of organic alkaloids, were succesto consist principally of cerium. The color of sively described and illustrated by experithe metal is intermediate between the color of ments. The author said that one of the most iron and that of lead. The metal is lustrous interesting of the cases of synthesis recently when polished; it is malleable. Its density is accomplished was that in which Mr. W. H. about 5.5 at 12o. Exposed to the air, it loses Perkin had succeeded in producing artificially its lustre, and becomes slightly blue. Ít feebly the odoriferous principle of new hay and the decomposes water at 100° Kydrochloric acid Tonquin bean. The delicious fragrance of new dissolves it with energy; concentrated nitric hay is entirely due to the presence of the acid converts it into clear brown oxide, and the sweet-scented vernal grass, Anthoxanthum ododilute acid dissolves it. By evaporation, a white ratum. It is the same substance which is the salt is obtained, which leaves, after calcination, cause of the sweet smell of the woodruff, Aspea brown oxide, insoluble in nitric acid and in rula odorata ; and the melilot, Melilotos officidilute sulphuric acid. Concentrated sulphuric nalis. It is also the flavoring ingredient in the acid slowly dissolves this oxide, forming a yel- Maiwein of the Germans, which is perfumed low solution which shows the reactions of ceric with woodruff. Until lately, nothing was salts. Hydrochloric acid dissolves this oxide known about coumarin, except that it was a with disengagement of chlorine, forming a colorless crystalline body, having the formula colorless solution. When a globule of cerium –C,1,0,. The crystals of coumarin appear is heated by the blow-pipe to dull redness, the very beautiful under the influence of polarized metal infames and burns vividly, forming light. The image of some artificial coumarin, brown oxide ; but, upon submitting a globule which had been fused and allowed to crystalsuddenly to a very high temperature, it burns lize in a plate of glass, was then thrown upon with explosion, sending out bluish sparks. the screen, and, the light being polarized by Cerium powder can inflame below 100.° When the aid of Nicol's prisms, the crystals assumed the saline mass containing the cerium globules the most gorgeous and varying colors as the is treated with water, a fetid hydrogen gas is prisms were rotated. The clew to its constituliberated, and a brilliant powder of a deep tion was shown to be the circumstance that purple color is deposited, which is easily sep- when heated with potassic hydrate it yields arated by washing. Dilute hydrochloric acid salicylic and acetic acids. The production of entracts from this powder a small quantity of salicylic acid from coumarin was then shown metal, as well as of oxide. This body is a experimentally, the presence of the acid being cerous oxychloride. Concentrated hydrochlo- proved by its yielding a deep-purple coloration ric acid attacks it with difficulty; concentrated with ferric chloride. Artificial coumarin was nitric acid dissolves it, forming
colorless so- obtained from the hydride of salicyl. By lution.
treatment with sodium it yielded hydride of CHEMISTRY. The Artificial Formation of sodium-salicyl; this substance, heated with Organic Substances. -Mr. C. G. Williams com- acetic anhydride, gave hydride of aceto-salicyl. This last substance was then distilled with cle to calculate its efficiency in the living body acetic anhydride and sodio acetate, and, when the assumption of these physicists) as it was the temperature reached 290°, the distillate by the combustion of a dried bee to estimate solidified to a mass of crystals of pure couma- the work which it accomplishes in the flight rin, having all the fragrance and beauty of of many hours, carrying the weight of its own that obtained from the Tonquin bean.
body several miles. The muscle in the living Fermentation and the Source of Muscular body acts like the apparatus in a watch, which Power.–At the May meeting of the Bavarian gradually expends the power stored up in it.Academy of Sciences the president, Baron von (Chemical News, vol. xvii., No. 443.) Liebig, delivered a lecture on this subject. He The Occlusion of Hydrogen Gas by Metals.showed that Pasteur's celebrated discovery of This is the subject of an interesting and valuthe increase and propagation of the yeast-fungi able essay, by Mr. Thomas Graham, Master of in a mixture of tartrate of ammonia, sugar, and the British Mint, read before the Royal Society, yeast ashes, rested on a palpable error. He Mr. Graham had previously published an acexplained that, according to his analysis, the count of his experiments on the occlusion of chief constituent of the yeast was a substance hydrogen by the metals palladium, platinum, similar to the caseine of milk, containing near- and iron, showing that the absorption of the ly 1 per cent. of sulphur, and recognizable gas was of uncertain occurrence at low temwhen in putrefaction, even by the unprofes- peratures, but was insured by heating the sional, through the odor of rotten eggs. Pas- metal, whether in the form of sponge or aggre. teur, according to Liebig, overlooked the fact gated by hammering, and allowing it to cool that his mixture contained soluble and insolu- slowly and completely in a hydrogen atmos. ble phosphates, due to the yeast-ash, and that phere. This fact was referred to the condition on expelling the ammonia with caustic mag- of absolute purity of the metallic surface being nesia, the well-known phosphate of ammonia essential to the absorbing action, as it is to the and magnesia must be formed, and that, hence, action of platinum foil or wire in determining the very means he employed to ascertain the the combustion of the gaseons mixture of oxy amount of ammonia rendered the solution of gen and hydrogen, as observed by Faraday this question impossible. The ammonia, then, The author then goes on to describe and illus. which disappeared, had not been employed in trate a new method of charging metals with the growth of the fungi, but simply had en- hydrogen at low temperatures, as follows: tered into a chemical combination whose for- When a plate of zinc is placed in dilute sul mation Pasteur had overlooked. It has been phuric acid, hydrogen is freely evolved from observed that fresh pure beer-yeast left to it- the surface of the metal, but no hydrogen is self, in the presence of water, disengages car- occluded and retained at the same time. bonic acid and produces alcohol. Liebig found negative result was indeed to be expected from that the power of yeast to excite fermentation the crystalline structure of zinc. But a thir is retained as long as this process is going on; plate of palladium immersed in the same acid at its close, putrefaction sets in. Liebig re- and brought into metallic contact with thi gards this process as a vital act in the interior zinc, soon becomes largely charged with thi of the cell, and as the immediate cause of the hydrogen, which is then transferred to its sur action of yeast in the fermentation. When a face. The charge taken up in an hour by : solution of sugar comes into contact with the palladium plate, rather thick, at 12°, amounter yeast-cell, the inner decomposition of the lat- to one hundred and seventy-three times it ter is retarded, and the molecules of sugar in volume. contact with the cell are decomposed. One The absorption of hydrogen was still mor hundred parts by weight of yeast left to them- obvious when the palladium plate was consti selves furnished 9.18 per cent. of alcohol. Pas- tuted the negative electrode in acidulate teur has assumed that this alcohol is produced water to a Bunsen battery of six cells. Th from the cellulose of the yeast, which had evolution of oxygen gas at the positive elec changed itself into sugar. If this assumption trode continuing copious, the effervescence a were true, the cellulose ought to disappear en- the negative electrode was entirely suspende tirely: it remains, however, unaltered behind. for the first twenty seconds, in consequence o During the formation of alcohol no trace of the hydrogen being occluded by the palladium ammonia is generated. As some of the most The final absorption amounted to 200.4 volumes remarkable products of this vital process, Lie- and was greater in amount than the volume o big mentioned leucine and tyrosine, and a nitro- hydrogen occluded by the same plate heate genous substance containing a certain amount and cooled in an atmosphere of the gas, whic of sulphur. With regard to the investigations did not exceed ninety volumes. of Fick, Wislicenus, and Frankland, which have A thin plate of palladium, charged wit been regarded by many as a proof against Lie- hydrogen in the manner described, was washed big's theory of the mode in which muscular dried by a cloth, and then sealed up in an ex power is generated, Liebig remarked that they hausted glass tube. On breaking the tube ar rest upon imperfect conceptions of the nature der mercury after two months, the vacnur of the organic process involved. It was just was found perfect. No hydrogen had vapo as impossible by the combustion of dried mus- ized in the cold (about 12°); but, on the app!
cation afterward of a heat of 100° and up- and in fact increased greatly in permeability at ward, three hundred and thirty-three volumes still higher temperatures, and without becomof gas were evolved from the metal.
ing permeable to other gases at the same time. It appears that when hydrogen is absorbed In a striking experiment, a mixture of equal by palladium the volatility of the gas may be volumes of hydrogen and carbonic acid was entirely suppressed; and hydrogen may be carried through a small palladium tube, of largely present in metals without exhibiting which the internal diameter was three milliany sensible tension at low temperatures. Oc- metres, and the thickness of the wall 0.3 millicluded hydrogen is certainly no longer a gas, metre. From the outer surface of this tube whatever may be thought of its physical con- gas escaped into a vacuum, at a red heat, with dition. The same conclusion was indicated by the enormous velocity of 1017.54 cubic centianother series of experiments, in which it was metres per minute for a square metre of surfound that, to be occluded by palladium, and face. This gas did not disturb baryta-water. even by iron, hydrogen does not require to be It was pure hydrogen. applied under much pressure, but, on the con- The quantity of hydrogen held by the metal trary, when highly rarefied is still freely ab- at these high temperatures may become too sorbed by these metals.
small to be appreciated; but Mr. Graham prePlatinum may be charged with hydrogen sumes it is still present, and travels through by voltaic action, as well as palladium, but the metal by a kind of rapid cementation. with the usual inferior proportion of gas.' The This extreme mobility is a singular property charge of hydrogen taken up in a decomposing of hydrogen, which was involved in the funvoltaic cell by old platinum in the form of a damental discovery, by MM. H. Sainte-Claire tube, of the thickness of a small crucible, was Deville and Troost, of the passage of that gas 2.19 volumes. This absorbed gas was also readily through plates of iron and platinum at high withdrawn from the platinum and oxidized on temperatures. reversing the place of the metal in the decom- Liquid diffusion has also a bearing upon the posing cell. The platinum acquired its well- rapid dissemination of hydrogen through a soft known polarizing power in virtue of the oc- colloid metal, like palladium or platinum, at a cluded hydrogen. This power was retained by high temperature. The liquid diffusion of the metal after being washed with pure water salts in water is known to be six times as rapid and wiped with a cloth, and was brought into at 100° as at 0°. If the diffusion of liquid hy, action on placing the metal in dilute acid. The drogen increases with temperature in an equal temperature required to expel the hydrogen so ratio, it must become a very rapid movement absorbed by platinum was found to be little at a red heat. Although the quantity absorbed short of a red heat, although the gas had en- may be reduced (or the channel narrowed), tered the metal at a low temperature.
the flow of liquid may thus be increased in Soft iron, left some time in a dilute acid, velocity. The whole phenomena appear to be occluded 0.57 volume of hydrogen. This consistent with the solution of liquid hydrogen charge of gas was also retained at low tem- in the colloid metal. The “solution affinity” peratures, and did not escape into a vacuum of metals appears to be nearly confined to hytill the temperature was raised nearly to red- drogen and carbonic oxide, so that metals are ness. This proves that, like platinum, iron is not sensibly penetrated by other gases than not penetrated through in the cold by hydro- these. gen, the temperature of emission being elevated The Velocity of Chemical Changes.-Mr. A. considerably.
Vernon Harcourt, Secretary of the Chemical While hydrogen was absorbed freely by Society, associated with Mr. Esson, arrives at palladium and platinum as negative plates, no the following conclusions after an investigation oxygen whatever was absorbed by plates of of the rates at which chemical action takes the same metals in the position of positive place: electrodes. Oxygen gas was disengaged freely
1. The rate at which a chemical change proceeds on the surface of the latter without being con- is constant under constant conditions, and is indedensed. A platinum plate, which had acted pendent of the time that has elapsed since the change for several hours as a positive electrode, gave commenced. afterward, when submitted to heat with ex
2. When any substance is undergoing a chemical haustion, a small trace of carbonic acid but no
change, of which no condition varies, excepting the
diminution of the changing substance, the amount of oxygen.
change occurring at any moment is directly proporThe author is inclined to conclude that the tional to the quantity of the substance. passage of hydrogen through a plate of metal 3. When two or more substances act upon one anis always preceded by the condensation or oc- other, the amount of action at any
moment is directly clusion of the gas. But it must be admitted proportional to the quantity of each of the substances. that the rapidity of penetration is not in pro- fected by the presence of a substance which itself portion to the volume of gas occluded; other- takes no part in the change, the acceleration or rewise palladium would be much more perme- tardation produced is directly proportional to the able at a low than at a high temperature. À quantity of the substance.
6. The relation between the rate of a chemical plate of that metal was sensibly exhausted of change occurring in a solution and the temperature hydrogen gas at 267°, but continued permeable, of the solution is such, that, for every additional degree, the number expressing the rate is to be multi- with the corresponding states of thought and feeling, plied by a constant quantity,
we should be as far as ever from the solution of the
problem, “How are these physical processes conTyndall on Molecular Force. - Professor nected with the facts of consciousness ?" The chasm Tyndall
, in an address delivered before the between the two classes of phenomena would still reMathematical and Physical Science section of main intellectually impassable. Let the consciousthe British Association in August, 1868, made pess of love, for example, be associated
with a rightthe following suggestive remarks :
handed spiral motion of the molecules of the brain,
and the consciousness of hate with a left-handed spis Every particle that enters into the composition of ral motion. We should then know when we love the muscle, a nerve, or a bone, has been placed in its that the motion is in one direction, and when we position by molecular force. And unless the exist- hate that the motion is in the other; but the " why ?" ence of law in these matters be denied, and the ele- would still remain unanswered. ment of caprice be introduced, we must conclude
In affirming that the growth of the body is methat, given the relation of any molecule of the body chanical, and that thought, as exercised by us, has to its environment, its position in the body might be its correlative in the physics of the brain, I think the predicted. Our difficulty is not with the quality of position of the “ Materialist” is stated as far as that the problem, but with its complexity; and this diffi- position is a tenable one. I think the materialist culty might be met by the simple expansion of the will be able finally to maintain this position against faculties which man now possesses. Given this ex
all attacks; but I do not think, as the human mind pansion, and given the necessary molecular data, and is at present constituted, that he can pass beyond it. the chick might be deduced as rigorously and as
I do not think he is entitled to say that his moleculogically from the egg as the existence of Neptune lar groupings, and his molecular motions explain was deduced from the disturbances of Uranus, or as
everything. In reality they explain nothing. The conical refraction was deduced from the undulatory utmost he can affirm is the association of two classes theory of light.
of phenomena of whose real bond of union he is in You see I am not mincing matters, but avowing absolute ignorance. The problem of the connection nakedly what many scientific thinkers more or less of the body and soul is as insoluble in its modern distinctly believe. The formation of a crystal, a
form as it was in the pre-scientific ages. Phosphoplant, or an animal, is in their eyes a purely mechan- rus is known to enter into the composition of the huical problem, which differs from the problems of or
man brain, and a courageous writer has exclaimed, dinary mechanics in the smallness of the masses and in his trenchant German, “Ohne phosphor kein go the complexity of the processes involved. Here you danke.” That may or may not be the case; but have one half of our dual truth; let us now glance at
even if we knew it to be the case, the knowledge the other half. Associated with this wonderful would not lighten our darkness. On both sides of mechanism of the animal body, we have phenomena the zone here assigned to the materialist he is equally no less certain than those of physics, but between helpless. If you ask him whence is this matter which and the mechanism we discern no necessary
of which we have been discoursing, who or what diconnection. A man, for example, can say, "I feel, 1 vided it into molecules, who or what impressed
upon think, I love;" but how does consciousness infuse it
them this necessity of running into organic forms, self into the problem? The human brain is said to be he has no answer. Science also is mute in reply
to the organ of thought and feeling: when
we are hurt, these questions. But if the materialist is confounded, the brain feels. it; when we ponder, it is the brain and science rendered dumb, who else is entitled to that thinks; when our passions or affections are ex
answer? To whom has the secret been revealed ? cited, it is through the instrumentality of the
brain. Let us lower our heads, and acknowledge our ignoLet us endeavor
to be a little more precise here. I rance, one and all. Perhaps the mystery may resolve hardly imagine that any profound scientific thinker itself into knowledge at some future day. who has reflected upon the subject exists, who would not admit the extreme probability of the hypothesis, communicated to the Royal Society the result:
Action of Light.
Professor Tyndall has that for every fact of consciousness, whether in the domain of sense, of thought, or of emotion, a certain of experiments made by subjecting the vapor definite molecular condition is set up in the brain; of volatile liquids to the action of concen that this relation of physics to consciousness is inva- trated solar or electric light. A tube 2. riable, so that, given the state of the brain, the feet long, and 2.5 inches internal diameter corresponding thought or feeling might be inferred; is closed at both ends by glass plates. It ma state of the brain might be inferred. But how in- be connected with an air-pump, and with ferred! It is at bottom not a case of logical inference series of tubes used for the purification o at all, but of empirical association. You may reply air. A number of test-tubes were converte that many of the inferences of science are of this into Wolf's bottles by means of corks an character; the inference, for example, that an electrio current of a given direction will deflect a magnetic
tubes. Each test-tube was partly filled wit needle in a definite way; but the cases differ in this, the liquid to be examined and introduced int that the passage from the current to the needle, if not the path of the purified air. When the exper demonstrable, is thinkable, and that we entertain no mental tube was exhausted, and the air the doubt as to the final mechanical solution of the prob- allowed to bubble through the liquid, a mi lem ; but the passage from the physics of the brain ture of air and vapor entered the experiment to the corresponding facts of consciousness is unthinkable. Granted that a definite thought and a tube together, and was then submitted to t] definite molecular action in the brain occur simulta- action of light. At one end of the expe: apparently, any rudiment of the organ, which would mental tube was placed an electric lamp trar enable us to pass by a process of reasoning from the mitting an intense beam of light through t one phenomenon to the other. They appear together, tube parallel to its axis. When the vapor but we do not know why. Were our minds and amylic nitrite was allowed to enter the tube senses so expanded, strengthened, and illuminated the dark, and the beam of light was then se as to enable us to see and feel the very molecules
of through the tube, the tube appeared for tions, all their groupings, all their electric discharges, instant optically empty; then a sudden shov if such there be ; and were we intimately acquainted of liquid spherules was precipitated on 1