Abbildungen der Seite

and all the towns are in the western portion of ernment of the new Territory of Wyoming, the Territory. On the 1st of July, the entire which was formed from a portion of Dakota, population was 38,875; the real and personal with small additions from Montana, Idaho, property was valued at $9,400,000. There Utah, and Nebraska. The boundaries are as were 243,427 acres of land under cultivation. follows, viz.: Commencing at the intersection The products of the mines were rapidly becom- of the 27th meridian of longitude, west from ing a source of profit; the value of gold and silver Washington, with the 45th degree of north refined and run into bars at that time was latitude, and running thence west to the 34th $8,640,000. Bituminous coal of superior qual- meridian of west longitude; thence south to ities has been discovered, which will be par- the 41st degree of north latitude; thence east ticularly valuable for the purpose of smelting to the 27th meridian of west longitude; and metallic ores. The great interest of the Terri- thence north to the place of beginning. The tory, however, will be its agriculture. It con- rights of property, now pertaining to the Inditains some of the most productive lands in the ans in this territory, are secured to them until Northwest, and it will be found more profitable extinguished by treaty; and the United States for steady industry to cultivate the soil than to expressly reserves the power to divide the Tertake the doubtful chances of getting gain from ritory into two or more, or to attach any porthe mines. A corporation known as the North- tion to another State or territory as may be west Transportation Company was organized deemed best. A Governor and Secretary are in November, 1867, for the purpose of running to be appointed by the President, to hold office a line of steamers up the Missouri from Sioux four years; and a Legislature is to be elected City to Fort Benton, thus establishing commu- by the people, which shall consist of a Council nication with the great States to the East. of nine members, which may be increased to During the past season five steamers were em- thirteen; and a House of Representatives, of ployed in the business of the company, having thirteen members, which may be increased to a carrying capacity of 2,000 tons. The Legis- twenty-seven. lature of Montana met at Virginia City on the This Territory was formerly the abode of the 9th of December, and the Governor in his ad- Crow Indians. The advancement into its limdress recommended the encouragement of im- its of the Pacific Railroad at once drew after migration from Northern Europe as a counter- it a line of settlements, with a rapid springingpoise to the rapid influx of Chinese. The Gov- up of towns in the wilderness. The first stake ernor is Green C. Smith, and J. M. Cavanaugh was driven at Cheyenne, on the 13th of July, is the delegate in Congress.

1867, and in one month there was a town New Mexico. There have been some new of 8,000 inhabitants on the spot. These were, discoveries of silver during the year in New however, made up in a large measure of adMexico which promise very rich results. The venturers and disreputable characters. No mineral wealth of the Territory is undoubtedly sooner was a new station established at Laragreat, but is said to be equalled if not excelled mie, than a large part of this population deby its agricultural resources, which only wait parted from Cheyenne, but the more respectfor enterprise to yield profitable returns for la- able portion remained, and a permanent city bor and capital. The territorial Governor is has undoubtedly been founded there. One year Robert B. Mitchell, the delegate in Congress, from its first inception it had a population of Charles P. Clever. Considerable Democratic 4,000, and had a newspaper already started, gains were reported at the last election. “The Weekly Rocky Mountain Star.” The

Utah. It is stated on good authority, that, resources of the Territory are believed to be out of the 43,000,000 acres of land in Utah very great, but are almost wholly undeveloped. Territory, not more than 500,000 are capable The Indian Territory is still unorganized, of cultivation. Most of that which is actually and chiefly occupied by reservations for the cultivated is occupied in little farms, of ten to Indians and broad pastures for the buffalo. fifteen acres, and frequently requires artificial TEXAS. At the opening of the year 1868, irrigation. The soil is, however, quite pro- Texas formed a part of the “Fifth Military Disductive, and under excellent cultivation. The trict,” General Hancock, commander, and was present population of the territory is estimated at the same time under the immediate comat 115,000. Immigration is encouraged and mand of General J. J. Reynolds of the “Disaided by the Mormons, whose agents travel in trict of Texas." In the latter part of the preEurope to obtain proselytes, and are supported ceding year, General Hancock had been apby the community at home. The Governor of pealed to by Governor Pease, to order a trial Utah is Charles Durkee, and the Superintend- by military commission of a man charged with ent of Indian Affairs, F. H. Head. William H. murder, in Uvalde County, on the western Hooper, of Salt Lake City, represents the Ter- frontier. The only reason given for thus superritory in Congress.

seding the action of the civil tribunals was, Washington.—Governor, Marshall F. Moore, that the county had “only about one hundred Olympia; delegate in Congress, Alvan Flan- voters in a territory of about nine hundred ders, Walla Walla.

square miles," and it was not probable that Wyoming.–An act of Congress, approved the prisoners could be “kept in confinement July 25, 1868, provided for the temporary gov- long enough to be tried by the civil courts of

the county.” General Hancock could not see conclusion that, while any persons are to be in this case sufficient reason for the exercise of found wanting in affection or respect for the the authority vested in him, of ordering a trial Government, or yielding it obedience from no by military commission, “when in his judg- . tives which you do not approve, war and not ment it may be necessary.” He said: “Āt peace is the status, and all such persons are the this time the country is in a state of profound proper subjects for a military penal jurisdiepeace. The State government of Texas, organ- tion.” ized in subordination to the authority of the The registration of voters under the proUnited States, is in the full exercise of all its visions of the reconstruction acts took place proper powers. The courts duly empowered in 1867, but a revision of the lists was made in to administer the laws, and to punish all offend- January, 1868. Under the former commander ers against these laws, are in existence. No the following memoranda and questions had unwillingness on the part of these courts is been issued from the military headquarters for suggested, to inquire into the offences with the instruction of the registrars : which the prisoners in question are charged; Memoranda of disqualifications, for the guidance of nor any obstructions whatever in the way of the Boards of Registrars, under the military bodi, enforcing the laws against them said to exist. passed March 2, 1867, and the bill supplementary Under such circumstances there is no good

thereto: ground for the exercise of the extraordinary 1. Every person who has acted as United States power vested in the commander to organize a

Senator or Representative. military commission for the trial of the persons Vice-President.

2. All who have acted as electors of President er named."

3. Every person who held any position in the army He also expressed his surprise that the mili- or Navy of the United States. tary power should be invoked in such a case, 4. Al persons who held any position under the and declared that the powers possessed by the United States, in which they were required to take State government were sufficient for the trial fice ; such as officers in the custom-house, post-office, of prisoners of this kind, and, if those powers mint, judges, and all officers of the United States were not exercised, it must be attributed to the court, United States marshals, and deputies. “indolence or culpable inefficiency of the offi

5. All who have been Governor of the State, State cers now charged with the execution and en

senator or representative, secretary of State, treasurer,

and all officers provided for in the constitution of the forcement of the laws under the authority of State, made in 1845 and 1852, including judges of the State government.” This called forth a courts, justices of peace, clerks of courts and depereply from Governor Pease, who denied the ties, sheriffs and deputies, constables and deputies, statement that the country was in a state of tax-collectors, assessors, coroners, police, jurors, sceprofound peace, and declared that a large ma

tioneers, pilots, harbor-masters, recorders of con

veyance and mortgages, parish' recorders, notaries jority of the white population was embit

public, and all commissioned officers in the State tered against the Government,” and regarded militia. Every person who has acted as mayor of the legislation of Congress as unconstitutional the city, treasurer, comptroller,

recorder, alderman, and " hostile to their interests.". He argued, Hospital

, a member of the Board of Health, a commismoreover, that it was the duty of the military sioner of elections and his clerks, chief of police lieucommander to take the place of the ordinary tenant of police, and all who have served on the polaws and tribunals in his district and protect lice force. Wardens and under-wardens of the parthe rights and redress the wrongs of the peo- city surgeons and deputies, street commissioner and ple. General Hancock addressed to Governor deputies, city attorney and assistant attorney, superinPease a long letter under date of March 9th, in tendent of public schools, inspectors of tobacco, flour, which he dealt severely with the proposition beef, and pork, and weights and measures, managers of the latter, that the people should be de- of the asylums for the deaf and dumb and blind, and prived of the advantages of the ordinary ad- sextons of cemeteries, ministration of justice because they were not in aliens, or who obained protection papers from the

All who in 1862 and 1864 registered themselves as sympathy with the Government, and expressed representatives of foreign powers. his intention of superseding the laws of the Any person who, at any time, held any of the State and their ordinary execution only in above offices, and who afterward engaged in rebelcases in which it was shown to be absolutely fort to the enemies thereof, is disqualified from vot

lion against the United States, or gave aid and comnecessary. He closed with the following ing. remarks upon the letter of the Provisional

QUESTIONS TO BE ANSWERED BY PERSONS PROPOSING TO Governor: “I have found but little else in your letter but indications of temper, lashed 1. Have you been United States Senator, Repreinto excitement by causes which I deem mostly sentative, or elector of President or Vice-President, imaginary; a great confidence in the accuracy

at any time before January 26, 1861 ? of your own opinions, and an intolerance of Government of any kind whatsoever, before January

2. Did you hold any office under the United States the opinions of others; a desire to punish the 26, 1861 ? thoughts and feelings of those who differ with 3. Did you hold any office under the government you, and an impatience which magnifies the of this State, of any kind whatsoever, to which yoa shortcomings of officials, who are, perhaps, as

were elected or appointed, prior to January 26, 1861! earnest and conscientious in the discharge of ment, of any kind whatsoever, to which you were

4. Did you hold any office under the city governtheir duties as yourself, and a most unsound elected or appointed, prior to January 26, 1861.


5. Did you in 1862 or in 1864 register yourself as turns have been made, was 54,388: for the an alien, or did you obtain protection papers from convention, 43,142 ; against a convention, 11,representatives of any foreign power?

In case any of the precediug questions are answered 246; majority in favor, 30,896. “Yes," or should you know they should be so an- The delegates chosen to frame a constitution swered, it would be proper to ask the following: for the State of exas met in convention on

6. Were you in the Confederate service, military, the 1st of June, in pursuance of a military ornaval, or civil, or did you give aid and comfort to der issued on the 5th of May, by General Buthose engaged'in hostility to the United States ?

If answered “Yes," or if you know it to be so, they chanan, who was at that time holding tempomust not be registered.

rary command of the Fifth Military District On the 11th of January, General Hancock prior to the arrival of General Rousseau, issued an order expressing his dissent from the who had been appointed to succeed Hancock! construction given to the disqualifying clauses The convention consisted of ninety members, of the reconstruction acts in these memoranda, nine of whom were negroes, and but eight or and informing the registrars in Texas that they nine of the whites were adherents of the were to be regarded as of no effect as instruc- Democratic party. The body was, however, tions to them, but that the members of the nearly equally divided into a party inclined to Board were to look to the laws, and to the moderate action, headed by A. J. Hamilton, a laws alone, for the rules which are to govern former Provisional Governor of the State, and them in the discharge of the delicate and im- a party led by his brother, Morgan Hamilton, portant duties imposed upon them.” In case whose temper prompted extreme radical measany questions arose as to the right of persons ures. General E. J. Davis was chosen to preto be registered, the applicants, he said, should side over the deliberations of the convention. have a right to appeal from the decision of the Provisional Governor Pease submitted a mesBoard, and a full statement of the facts should sage, suggesting some of the measures which then be forwarded to the military headquar- he deemed it important for the convention to ters. Such appeals were, in fact, made; and adopt; among other things he recommended in a number of instances the decision of the that they declare null and void ab initio the registrars was reversed.

act of secession and all laws repugnant to the The whole number of white citizens in the Constitution and laws of the United States, and State who would have been entitled to vote repeal all laws making any discrimination under the old laws is said to be about 80,000; against persons on account of color, race, or the number registered under the operation of previous condition. The first part of this recthe reconstruction acts was 56,678. The num

ommendation introduced into the convention ber of colored persons registered was 47,581, a question which led to a long and heated demaking the whole number of registered voters bate, and was finally settled by a close vote re104,259.

jecting the proposition on which the discusBefore the election took place, which was

sion was based, to declare null and void all ordered for the 14th and 15th of February, a

acts of any “body or assemblage of persons or Conservative Convention was held at Houston, men in Texas calling themselves a convention which occupied three days in its deliberations, or Legislature, and not having the sanction of and put forth a platform, the leading features the Congress of the United States.” This was of which were opposition to negro suffrage and called, throughout the discussion on the subto the congressional plan of reconstruction. ject, the ab initio question. Propositions were The following were among the resolutions made both for further disfranchisement and adopted:

for the removal of disabilities, but nothing of Resolved, That the question of African equality importance was done on either of these subrises far above all questions of party, and is vital to jects. The subject of dividing the State was the future interests of this state, as subordinate to brought up, but met with general disfavor. that, we cheerfully concur with all parties who are The Governor, in his message at the opening opposed to the Africanization of the State.

Resolved, That believing it to be the determination of the convention, had declared that crime was of the Radical party to create a convention, and yet never so prevalent in Texas as at that moment; desiring to express our opposition to the Africaniza- and a few days later a military order was istion of Texas, we recommend the people of the State, sued by General Reynolds, of the District of entitled

to register, to do so and vote against a con- Texas, which declared that reliable information, being successfully carried; to vote at the same time received at the headquarters, showed that in for the election of delegates to the convention on the many counties “organized bands of lawless basis of creating a constitution without negro suffrage, men' were committing murders and otherand asking Congress to accept the same, believing wise violating the laws and disturbing the on a footing of equality with the other states, and peace of the country. This subject was taken that the Northern people will demand no more.

up in the Constitutional Convention, and a Resolved, That while we are unalterably opposed special Committee on Crime and Lawlessness to negro supremacy, we are in favor of securing to was appointed to investigate the matter and them the full protection of all their rights of_person report for the information of the delegates. and of property, under just laws bearing equally on all. Their report was submitted on the 30th day of

The whole vote given on the question of June, and stated that about 900 homicides had holding a convention, so far as authentic re- been committed in the State since the close of

the war in 1865. Of these, 304 had been per- of things. These causes were stated to be : 1. petrated since the first of January. These The "general demoralization resulting from crimes were attributed to political differences, the war, and the absence of any government, and a spirit of intolerance toward sentiments civil or military, for several months after the of "loyalty" to the Government. “Many of conclusion of the war, and the sudden disbandthe persons murdered," said a majority of the ment of a large number of Federal and Confedcommittee, “were loyal men, and were mur- erate soldiery," who were thus released from dered for their loyalty.” This was denied in a military restraint at a time when the checks minority report submitted some days later, of civil law were also wanting; 2. The "disorthough prevalence of crime in many parts of ders had been increased in many localities by the State was admitted. The result of the in- taking the execution of the laws from the civil vestigation took the form of a resolution, ap- authorities, without replacing them by any pointing two commissioners to proceed to other power;" 3. The "inefficiency of judicial Washington and lay before Congress “ the con- and ministerial officers appointed by the milidition of lawlessness and violence prevalent in tary authorities;" and, 4. The "changed condithis State, and urge the immediate necessity tion of society resulting from the emancipation for action on the following matter:

of the negroes, the indolent habits and thievish “1. The adoption of some law or regulation disposition evinced by them, and the turbulent that will secure the filling of all State provi- spirit which they have manifested, instigated sional offices with competent and loyal incum- by bad and designing men, and in many inbents.

stances supported by the officers of the Freed“2. The organization of loyal militia, to be men's Bureau.” placed under the direction and control of the The committee denied that freedom of loyal provisional authorities of Texas.”

speech and of political sentiment was not alAt about the same time, a resolution was lowed in the State, and intimated that a libpassed appropriating $25,000, and placing the eral and efficient government was all that was same at the disposal of the Governor, “to en- needed in Texas. In the midst of these invesable him to offer suitable rewards for the ar- tigations on crime and lawlessness, a riot 0crest and apprehension of the desperadoes " curred at Millican, in which several persons who were disturbing the peace of the commu- lost their lives. An armed band of negroes, nity, and to "ferret out their hiding-places.” with a "parson " at the head, set forth on an This resolution was forwarded to General Bu- expedition of vengeance for the supposed hangchanan for his approval, and returned with the ing of a negro in the Brazos valley, and canne following objections :

in collision with the sheriff and his posse, who "1. He (the commander) is unable to find attempted to preserve the peace. This Ocin the reconstruction acts of Congress, under curred on the 15th of July. which the convention assembled, any thing After the restoration of Louisiana to her which authorized it to appropriate the money place in the Union by the act of Congress of of the State for the purpose specified in said June 25th, Texas alone formed the Fifth Military declaration.

District, and on the 28th of July General J. “2. This is properly a subject for legislation, Reynolds was assigned to the command. On and should be left to the consideration of said the 24th of August, the following was adLegislature.

dressed to the president of the convention: *3. The declaration appropriates $25,000 to

HD'Qrs, FIFTH MILITARY Dis’T, STATE OF TEXAS, be used as above stated, with a proviso with

Austin, Texas, August 24, 1868. reference to a military commission, which its Hon. E. J. Davis, President Constitutional Conser author doubtless intended as a gratuitous in- tion, Austin, Texas : sult to the commanding general of the Fifth Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt Military District, by coupling it with conditions of a resolution of the convention, passed on the sot intended to reflect discreditably upon his ad- inst., asking my approval of an additional appropria

tion of $25,000 to defray expenses. ministration of its civil affairs."

The convention has been in session about eighty. The proviso mentioned was in these words: five days, and has expended an appropriation of

Resolved, That no part of the same shall be used $100,000. unless the military commander of the District of The present state of the Treasury, the rate at which Texas shall first be authorized to organize military money is coming in, and the prospective current commissions for the trial of offenders.

wants of the State, forbid the appropriation of asy

more money from the Treasury for the expenses of The Democratic Convention, which met on the Constitutional Convention. the 6th day of July, at Bryan, also appointed a The resolution is respectfully returned without apCommittee on Crime and Lawlessness, and a proval. I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient


J. J. REYNOLDS, report was published which contained the views of the better portion of the conservative peo

Brevet Major-General U. S. A., commanding. ple of the State. They did not deny the prev- All the committees on the different portions alence of crime, but admitted it “ with sor- of the constitution had made their reports row.” They did, however, differ with the com- and the instrument was engrossed, but, on the mittee of the Constitutional Convention with receipt of the above communication, it was de regard to the causes of this unfortunate state termined to take a recess. The convention accordingly adjourned from the 31st of Au- question into this body, they divided into two gust to the first Monday in December.

factions, and finally adjourned without making The Democratic party in Texas held a con- any nominations. vention on the 7th of July, and took steps to The Democratic State Central Committee organize its forces for the presidential cam- published a circular under date September 28th, paign. Electors were nominated, a platform in which it was claimed that the laws provided adopted, and an address to the people was for the holding of an election for presidential published. The following are the principal electors in every State, and that there was resolutions contained in the platform:

nothing to prevent the people of Texas from 2. That we acquiesce in good faith in the abolish- exercising the right. As no provision had ment of negro slavery, the repudiation of the war been made by the State authorities for the debt of the State, and its abandonment of the doc- regular holding of such election, the people trine of secession as a peaceable remedy for State grievances, as results of the war finally settled, and assemble peaceably at their usual voting-places,

were advised and earnestly recommended to 3. That it is our purpose to adhere in good faith to appoint a presiding officer, and proceed to cast our renewed allegiance to the Constitution and Gov- their votes for electors of President and Viceernment of the United States, and to cultivate frater- President.” It was particularly and urgently nal good-will with the people of all parts of the advised that, in organizing the polls, casting country; and we repel with indignation the charges the votes, and in making returns, the law be party for the purpose of perpetuating military des- strictly complied with. This circular was potism over us, and as a pretext for the disfranchise- submitted to General Reynolds, with a letter rement of those who do not agree with their political questing him to order the election, and suggestpower, in disregard of right and of the popular, in the event that the general commanding

4. That we earnestly desire the restoration of the should doubt his power, and decline to order Constitution of the United States to its original su- the election," that “the laws of the State of premacy and vigor, and the faithful enforcement of Texas as now in force are broad enough to authe Federal laws within their sphere in all the States thorize the people of the State to assemble at of the Union ; that we earnestly seek to be restored their usual voting-places and appoint the neto all the rights of local self-government; that we earnestly desire the reëstablishment of the civil law cessary officers to conduct the election." In administration by constitutional courts, and to see reply, General Reynolds transmitted to the we are unalterably opposed to the consolidation of tract from Special Orders, No. 44: its supremacy established over the military,; that chairman of the committee the following exthe powers of the Federal Government in the legislative department, or to the encroachment of the legis

Special Orders, No. 44. lative upon the executive and judicial departments; that we deplore the unlimited and irresponsible mili

Ho’qzs , %, }

Austin, Texas, September 29, 1868. tary despotisms which now exist in the States of the American Union, and we earnestly appeal to the

[Extract.] people of the States now represented in Congress, to

IV. The following Act of Congress, passed the remove the odious and oppressive tyranny from over and guidance of all concerned:

20th of July, 1868, is published for the information us; that we declare the practical operation and usual effect of the Freedmen's Bureau established amongst Joint Resolution excluding from the Electoral College us, is to cultivate and stimulate discontent, with both

votes of the States lately in Rebellion which shall not the white and black races, and calculated to promote

have been reorganized. differences of opinion and contests between the races, Resolved, etc., That none of the States, whose inhabiwhich may prove more disastrous to both, and highly tants were lately in rebellion, shall be entitled to repreinjurious to the whole country. That we declare it

sentation in the electoral college for the choice of Presi. to be our deliberate conviction that there exists no

dent or Vice-President of the United States, nor shall necessity for continuing the disfranchisement of any such States, unless, at the time prescribed by law for the

any electoral votes be received or counted from any of portion of the white people of the Southern States, choice of electors, the people of such State, pursuant to and that the continued disfranchisement of the large the Acts of Congress in that behall, shall

have, since the number of intelligent classes now deprived of politi- 4th day of March, 1867, adopted a constitution of State cal rights, while the rights of suffrage and the hold-government, under which a State government shall have ing of office are conferred upon all the negroes, must,

been organized, and shall be in operation; nor unless

such election of electors shall have been held under the in the nature of things, endanger the stability of authority of such

constitution and government, and such government, the peace and security of society, and State shall have also become entitled to representation in prove destructive to good order and happiness Congress, pursuant to the Acts of Congress in that beamongst us. That we entertain no feelings of ill- half Provided, That nothing herein contained shall be will or hostility to the negro race amongst us, and construed to apply to any State which was represented that we desire to see them protected by the laws of in Congress on the 4th day of March, 1867. the State in all their rights of person and of property,

No election for electors of President and Viceand will do whatever we can to promote their im- President of the United States will be held in the provement in knowledge and virtue, this being alike State of Texas, on the third of November next. Any necessary for the general welfare, and for the happi- assemblages, proceedings, or acts for such purpose ness of both races.

are hereby prohibited, and all citizens are admon5. That we adhere to the constitutional doctrine ished to remain at home, or attend to their ordinary that the power to regulate the question of suffrage business on that day. in the States, rests exclusively with the States them- By command of selves, and we therefore deny that Congress has any

Brevet Major-General J. J. REYNOLDS. constitutional power whatever to enact laws on that The State of Texas accordingly took no part subject.

in the presidential election of 1868. The Republicans also held a convention, but The Constitutional Convention reassembled carrying their disagreement on the ab initio early in December, and spent upward of two

« ZurückWeiter »