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performed also much literary labor. His prin- ascribes it to this king, and adds the circumcipal published works were: “The Christian stance that, frightened by the response of an World,” “The Book and Journal,” and “The oracle foretelling the invasion of barbarians Bible Times” (periodicals devoted to the dif- through the canal, if completed, he desisted fusion of primitive and scriptural Christianity); from the enterprise, yet not till 120,000 Egyp“The Pastor's Tribute” (poems), 1848; "Float- tians had perished in the work. It was tining Flowers from a Hidden Book” (poems), ished and opened, however, in the succeeding 1844; “Something New” (poems), 1844; reign. That historian, who lived in the fifth “The Bible Alliance," 1850; “Sermons for century B. o., bears witness to the existence of the People," 1854; "Stand up for Jesus," and the canal of the Pharaohs at the time when ho “The Blessing," small illustrated volumes, 1858; visited Egypt, relating that it was wide enough “Poems with Autobiographic and other Notes," to admit of two triremes sailing abreast
, that 1862; "The Peerless Magnificence of the Word it was much frequented by trading-craft
, and of God,” and a work on "The Mediation of that the navigation on it from sea to sea lasted Christ,” published since his death.
four days. The nations, under whose subjecSUEZ CANAL, THE. Among the many tion Egypt successively passed afterward, did works of extraordinary magnitude, expense, not fail to give their attention to this canal as and general usefulness, which have been re- a matter of great public importance. On the cently executed in different countries, the Arab invasion in the seventh century of our nearly-completed excavation and opening of era, however, it was no longer existing, as apthe Suez Canal, in Egypt, is the most impor- pears from the fact that Omar's vicegerent in tant. It connects the Mediterranean with the Egypt proposed to open a channel from Suez Red Sea, placing the East and the West in to the Gulf of Pelusium, and supply it with easy communication with each other by the water by restoring the canal of the Pharaohs. shortest route.
Omar at first disapproved the project, lest its The low, swampy, and in some parts sandy, execution should be a means for Christian instrip of land which now separates the two cursions, but finally consented to it, in order to seas, makes one conjecture and almost believe furnish Arabia with provisions. The canal that their waters once mingled over this de- remained in a navigable condition from 649 to pression, and the Nile flowed through them 767, when the Caliph El Mussour Abool Hadur across into Lake Timsah. Hence, dividing its filled it up, for the purpose of starving the peowaters into two branches, the one flowed ple of Mecca and Medina. northward to the Mediterranean, the other The vestiges of the old canal are still dissouthward through the Bitter Lakes to the cernible, showing its width to have been Red Sea near Suez, from which the whole from 100 to 200 feet. Men of power in the isthmus has derived its name.
world have subsequently directed their attenThe ancient Egyptians appreciated the im- tion to its reopening, and even taken some portance of a water communication from sea to preliminary measures toward its realization, sea, and eventually opened it, though they con- regarding it as vastly important to the developfined their views to an intercourse with Arabia. ment of European commerce in the Eastern But, enterprising though they were, and having seas. Napoleon Bonaparte, when he went, or inexhaustible means of manual labor at com- was sent to Egypt in 1798, discovered the mand, as their works attest, they shrank from traces of the ancient canal near Suez, and, apthe difficulty of cutting a canal across the preciating its use, appointed a commission
, in isthmus in a direct line, on account of the va- which M. Le Pire was prominent, for the purrious obstacles presented by the condition of pose of inquiring into the subject of excavating the place, and sought to effect their passage in one across the isthmus, a body of engineers an easier'manner by a roundabout way. They being employed to survey the line. Although followed the course of the Nile, sailing on its the then disturbed state of the country renwaters so long as it was navigable, and from dered the work both difficult and slow, the enthe point where it ceased to be so, they cut an ġineers being unable to proceed without an esartificial channel supplied with water from cort, and obliged to return with the escort when that river, and debouching into the Red Sea at this was called back for active military service, a point near the present site of Suez. Their which frequently happened, yet the survey was line was, as it were, divided into four sections, finally got through. Before seeing the report having an aggregate length of 927 miles : presented by the commission, however, Naponamely, 134 miles from Suez to the Bitter leon had returned to France, and, his attention Lakes, 27 through these lakes, 40 from the being engrossed by other matters, the project
Bitter Lakes to El Ouady (of Tomat), and 12 of the canal could hardly be advanced toward from El Quady to Bubastis, then one of the realization, though he never abandoned it. principal branches of the Nile.
M. Le Pire's report stated that the level of The origin of this canal of antiquity is as- the Red Sea was 30 feet higher than that of signed by some to Rameses II., or to Se- the Mediterranean ; but the eminent French sostris, about 1300 years before the Christian engineer M. Bourdaloue, having in 1846 acera, by others to Psammetichus's son Necho, curately surveyed the grounds from Suez to who reigned six centuries later. Herodotus Tineh, and again from Tineh to Suez, ascer tained the difference of the levels to be quite second concession was obtained this year by insignificant, so that the current of the canal, M. de Lesseps from the viceroy, though the when in actual operation, could present no Sultan had declined to sanction the first one serious obstacle to its navigation either way. previously submitted to him.
But, prior to this double survey of M. Bour- As the terms, on which the two parties daloue, M. Ferdinand de Lesseps had recog- stand at present toward each other in regard nized the excavation of a navigable canal be- to their respective rights and duties concerntween the Mediterranean and the Red Sea as ing the Suez Canal, are about the same as were practicable, and conceived the idea of actually reciprocally stipulated in the first two concesexecuting it. Besides his own ability and en- sions just referred to, we here subjoin their ergy of character, he was powerfully helped in principal clauses, which are as follows: this by the happy concurrence of extrinsic cir- 1. M. F. de Lesseps to form a company called "La cumstances, chiefly the favor of the Egyptian Compagnie Universelle du Canal de Suez," and of Government. His father, being attached to the which he is to be appointed the director, for the purFrench consulate in Alexandria, had become pose of making a canal across the Isthmus of Suez,
the formation of a port at each end of the said canal. personally acquainted and rather intimate with
2. The managing director always to be appointed Mehemet Ali, then pacha, and M. Lesseps's by the Egyptian Government, and chosen, if possible, influence was probably no mean cause of Ali's from among the largest shareholders. being recognized as Viceroy of Egypt by the
3. The concession to last ninety-nine years from Sultan, who is said to have consulted the the opening of the canal to navigation.
4. The works to be all at the company's expense, former on the subject. This circumstance and to whom all requisite lands for construction and could not but strengthen the relations of in- maintenance, not belonging to private individuals, timacy between Mehemet Ali and M. Lesseps, shall be conceded. If the Egyptian Government whose son Ferdinand became the friend of shall not be liable for the expense of construction. Saïd, the son and heir-apparent to the viceroy. 5. The government shall receive 15 per cent. anHaving long and carefully studied his plan, nually of the earnings of the company, without refertaken soundings in both seas, tested the cur- ence to interest or dividend derived from any shares rents and levels, bored the ground at different they may hold, or hereafter take, in the company. points along the intended line, and thus thor- 15 per cent. for the general shareholders,
and 10 per oughly ascertained that no insurmountable cent. for the original founders of the company. obstacles were presented by Nature to the 6. The tariff for ships passing through the canal opening of a canal from sea to sea, he com- (and agreed on mutually by the Egyptian Governmunicated his project to Saïd, who understood ment and the company) to be always the same for
ships of all nations. its feasibility, as well as its importance and 7. Should the company deem it advisable to join beneficial results, and, professing himself a firm the Nile and the Maritime Canal by a navigable supporter of the enterprise, authorized M. channel, the land now uncultivated may be irrigated Lesseps to organize his company. The latter and cultivated at their expense and charge. The travelled for that end to Europe, where his company to have these lands free of any charge for
ten years, dating from the opening of the Maritime project found favor, and even in England Canal. During the remaining eighty-nine years they several capitalists were ready to take a part will pay one-tenth of the usual land-tax, after which in it. The English Government, however, on the whole usual tax on irrigated land in Egypt. political and other grounds, not only discoun
8. A plan to be made of all lands ceded to the
company. tenanced, but positively opposed the enterprise
9. The company to be allowed to quarry stone on in all its stages, both in England and at Con-government lands free of charge. Also to be permitstantinople, through its ambassador, in order ted to import any material, machinery, and supplies that the Sultan, in exercising his rights of sov- for the workmen, free of custom-duty. ereignty over Egypt, should refuse to sanction tian Government will be substituted in lieu of the
10. At the expiration of the concession the Egypthe acts of the viceroy in the matter. Its op- company, and will enter into full possession of all position, however, has proved unavailing so the property and rights appertaining to the canal befar as the ultimate result aimed at is concerned. tween the two seas. A due valuation to be made for
M. de Lesseps organized his company in material, etc., etc. 1854, and obtained his first concession (or, To these, which form the basis of all the arrather, a contract was entered into by the rangements subsequently agreed upon by the Egyptian Government on one side, and M. de parties, a most important clause was added in Lesseps, for himself and his company, on the a later concession, dated January, 1856, proother), when two engineers of the viceroy com- viding that, of the workmen employed on the menced and in the autumn of 1855 completed canal, “in all cases, four-fifths at least should a new survey, recognizing the practicability be Egyptians." This contingent of workmen of the project. This new survey was submit- to be employed by the company, and furnished ted to an international commission which was of course by the Government, amounted to no nominated by the leading powers of Europe less a number than 20,000 Egyptian fellahs and met at Paris, deciding that five of its (agricultural laborers), their wages being fixed members should visit Egypt and examine all at one-third of the European rates for similar the parts of the project in detail. They went, work; which third, however, was again oneand by the end of 1855 presented their report, third more than what the fellahs were paid in confirming the feasibility of the enterprise. Å their own country. They were also to be provided with habitations, food, and medical as- canal, and its longitudinal section showing the sistance, and while in hospital receive half progress of the work up to October 15, 1868, their pay when at work. This clause, which, confining ourselves to the bare mention of some while it imposed an obligation, conferred alsó few of its principal features. a benefit on the company for quick dispatch in The whole course of the canal, from the the work, and even economy, was objected to Mediterranean to the Red Sea, is one hundred by the Sultan, and in 1859 the fellahs were miles, though the distance in a direct line withdrawn. 'This involved the company in would be about 70 miles. For more than 60 no small embarrassment, as well as loss of time miles it runs through the intervening lakes and money for procuring an adequate number Menzaleh, Ballah, Timsah, and the
Bitter Lakes, of workmen from other countries. The Sultan embankments having been formed on each side refused also to confirm the clause enabling the of it during its course through the two firstcompany to sell or let any portion of their named lakes. Its width has been fixed at 398 property in Egypt.
feet in those portions where the land-level is The withdrawal of the fellah labor and other low. The width at the base is 246 feet, and the wrongs heaped on the company, who were at depth of water 26 feet. These dimensions, repreone time even ordered to leave the country, re- senting those the canal itself, convey but litsulted in an almost total cessation of the works tle idea of the amount of excavation that had to for two years. But they manfully stood their be carried out in many places where it traverses ground, and, after a hard struggle, finally con- elevated plateaus, which entailed cuttings of quered all opposition. They have even a suffi- great depth, as the longitudinal section shows. cient number of native laborers, who flock to On the northern extremity of the canal, the company for work on their own motion, where it debouches on the Mediterranean, a induced by good wages and punctual payment. port has been constructed, named Port Said,
As to the losses suffered by the company on consisting of two breakwaters, or moles, 2,726 the two above-mentioned points, and others, and 1,962 yards long respectively, embracing their complaints had at last the effect that thé a triangular area of about 550 acres, a safe viceroy remitted their settlement to the arbi- harbor and easy to make. They are 26 yards tration of the French Emperor, who in July, at the base, 6 yards at the summit, and 12 1864, decided as follows: 1. That the conces- yards in height, and formed of huge bloeks of sions of November, 1854, and January, 1856, concrete, measuring 12 cubic yards, and weighhad the form of a contract, and were binding ing 22 tons each, prepared and made on the on both parties. 2. That, as, by the withdrawal spot, by machines, from the harbor-dredgings of the fellah labor, the cost of the works would and one-third hydraulic lime. The moles are be increased, the viceroy should pay an indem- visible at about 12 miles' distance. A writer nity of £1,200,000 sterling on that account. says: "When we observe the scale on which 3. That the company should code to the vice- Port Saïd now exists, no other portion of the roy all their fresh-water canals, reserving only vast engineering works along the line of the the right of passage through them ; that the canal appears more strongly to exemplify the viceroy should pay £400,000 representing the talent and indomitable zeal that have succeeded cost of the construction of the canals, and in so effectual a manner in surmounting those £240,000 as compensation for the tolls which natural obstacles which here presented themthe company thereby relinquished. . 4. That selves.” Besides being a port, properly so the company should retain only such lands called, Port Said is now also a town regularly along the line of the Maritime Canal as might laid out in squares and streets, containing albe necessary for the care and maintenance of ready 10,000 inhabitants, churches, mosques, the said canal. 5. That the company should hospitals and all the adjuncts of a thriving sescede to the viceroy their title to all lands capа- port town, the Sisters of Charity being also ble of cultivation by means of irrigation from there to minister peace to patients in the hosthe fresh-water canals, and for which the vice- pitals, and educate the children of this large roy should pay £1,200,000. The total sum French colony. awarded as indemnity to the company thus On the north of Lake Timsah, about the midamounted to £3,360,000.
dle of the whole course of the canal,"stands But, in the face of such obstacles and dis- Ismailia (named after Ismail Pacha), a flourishcouragements as would appear capable of stop- ing French town, full of life and activity, a real ping the course of any enterprise, M. de Les- oasis in the desert. It contains a population seps and his engineers have persistently fought of five thousand inhabitants, and is divided their way and progressed in the mighty work, into French, Greek, and Arab quarters." It is, and finally brought it, as it is at present, to the as it were, the headquarters of the administrspoint of its completion.
tion of the company. To enter into details concerning the variety, At its southern extremity the canal runs into magnitude, and difficulty of the works on and the Red Sea, where, after entering the sea, its for the canal, and the several kinds and power embouchure gradually widens to about 300 of the machinery used, would occupy too much yards, and the
depth in this portion is to be 27 space. We lay before the reader the two cats feet. "Here stands Suez, which, to use the same exhibiting the surface representation of the writer's words, “no more than four or five
I. S T 21
years ago, was an insignificant Egyptian village pany) has brought about a marvellous change. containing 4,000 inhabitants, but exhibiting no The population has now increased to 25,000, signs of life. The absence of water, and the and there is a degree of life and activity about dearness of provisions, both of which had to the place clearly indicating the energy that is be brought from Cairo and the surrounding being displayed on all sides. The principal districts, rendered it as uninviting a spot as can operations of the company consist: firstly, in well be imagined. The advent of the Fresh- constructing a mole 850 yards in length at the water Canal (excavated by the Suez Canal Com- mouth of the canal, to serve as a protection
against southerly gales, and against the action of the tide at high water; secondly, in dredging to the requisite depth the channel leading from the canal to the road of Suez; and thirdly, the reclamation of land. The mole which projects from the Asiatic shore is nearly completed. It has been constructed with a kind of calcareous rock, quarried on the western shore of the bay.”
Though not yet open to general and through navigation, the canal in its finished portion is, and has been for some time, already in operation, passengers and merchandise having been carried through it to a considerable and steadily increasing extent.
To give an idea on what a scale the company is formed, what sort of enterprise it has engaged in, and its means, we subjoin the final sums of its debit and credit accounts, taken from
an abstract of the general account laid before the shareholders April 30, 1868": Total expenditures to April 30, 1868, £11,532,171. Total receipts to April, 30, 1868, £13,853,866. The Viceroy of Egypt is personally interested in the undertaking to such an extent, that he holds 177,642 shares of the original capital, which represent a payment on his part of £3,552,840.
ASIN ETA DATTER LAKE
SUGAR INSECT, THE (Acarus sacchari). " The number of Acari found in raw sager Professor Cameron, of Dublin, writes: “In is sometimes exceedingly great, and in noinmy capacity of public analyst for the city of stance is the article quite free from either the Dublin, I have had occasion to examine, more insects or their eggs. Dr. Hassall (who is or less minutely, nearly 150 specimens of sugar, the first to notice their general occurrence in in quality varying from the purest white to the raw sugar sold in London) found them in the darkest brown. The greater number of a living state in no fewer than 69 out of 72 these samples were perfectly genuine : some samples. He did not detect them in a single were of rather indifferent quality: and the specimen of refined sugar. The results of my rest—about 15—were so impure as to be quite examination of the sugar sold in Dublin coinunfit for use: they abounded in organic filth, cided pretty closely with Dr. Hassall's experiand contained great numbers of disgusting in- ence. In the refined sorts, I found nothing sects. All the samples of very inferior sugar but crystallizable and non-crystallizable sugar, were of the kind known as raw; and in no and a little saline matter; in the raw kinds, instance did I detect in the refined article the organic and mineral filth-often in great slightest trace of any substance injurious to abundance. In one of the samples examined, the health or repugnant to the feelings. very inferior sugar, extremely damp, contain
“ The insects found in sugar are beetles and ing a very large proportion of treacle, and a Acari, or mites. The beetles, which are more considerable amount of such impurities as familiarly known to the sugar-dealers than to sporules of a fungus, particles of cane, albuthe general public, may frequently be seen run- men, and starch granules, it is no exaggeration ning nimbly along the tables in the sugar to affirm that there could not be less than warerooms. The Acari are minute insects, 100,000 of these insects in every pound of this and do not attract attention. There are sev- sugar. Many persons believe that coarse eral kinds of Acari : the cheese-mite, the in- brown sugar sweetens better, or, to use the sect found in partially decomposed flour, and common phrase, 'goes farther,' than white the minute parasite, which, by burrowing be- sugar; but that is a mistake. A teaspoonful neath the skin, produces the disease termed of damp brown sugar will certainly sweeten s the itch-are all different varieties of Acari. larger quantity of fluid than a spoonful of white The mite found in raw sugar, termed the Aca- sugar; but it does so because it is much heavirus sacchari, or sugar-insect, is a formidably- er than the latter; but if equal weights be organized, exceedingly lively, and decidedly used it will be found that the white variety is ugly, little animal. From its oval-shaped body by far the better sweetener. The kind of sugar stretches forth a proboscis terminating in a kind which is both healthful and economical is the of scissors, with which it seizes upon its food. dry, large-grained, and light-colored variety. Its organs of locomotion consist of eight legs, “Two samples of the sugar were also exeach jointed and furnished at its extremity with amined, one by Dr. John Barker, curator of a hook. In the sugar, its movements from one the Royal College of Surgeons, Ireland; the place to another are necessarily very slow, but, other by Dr. Hassall, of London, a very emiwhen placed on a perfectly clean and dry sur- nent authority upon the subject. In 15 grains ' face, it moves along with great rapidity. weight, Dr. Hassall found considerably over
“ The itch is produced by an Acarus making 100 living insects, or at the rate of 42,000 per burrows beneath the skin, and depositing pound; and Dr. Barker estimated no fewer therein its eggs; and hence the insect has than 1,400 in 45 grains' weight, or at the rate been named the Acarus scabiei, or scab-mite. of 268,000 Acari in each pound weight of Mange in horses, cattle, and dogs, and scab in sugar. sheep, are essentially the same disease as itch “With the exception of the date-sugar made in man. Now, it is a noteworthy fact that in the East, * every kind of raw sugar contains grocers' assistants and sugar warehouse-men Acari. They are least numerous in the very are peculiarly liable to a kind of itch which damp, treacley kinds, because, as they are airaffects their hands and wrists, but does not ex- breathing animals, they cannot exist in treacle tend to any other part. These persons are or water. If a spoonful of raw sugar be disusually of cleanly habits, and do not belong to solved in a wineglassful of water, the animalthe classes amongst whom the ordinary itch is cules will speedily come to the surface, from so prevalent; there is, therefore, but one way which they may be skimmed off and transof accounting for their tendency to contract ferred to the object-glass of the microscope. that disease-namely, that the Acarus sacchari, On the surface of the water they appear as having, like its congener, Acarus scabiei, bur- white specks, and, as they swim about vigorrowing propensities, bores into their skin, and ously, their movements are quite apparent to breeds there. The two kinds of Acari resem- the naked eye. ble each other very closely, but the sugar in- “The Acari sacchari do not occur in refined sect appears to be the larger and more formi- sugar of any quality, for the following reasons : dable. So common is this pustulous diseasо 1. Because they cannot pass through the charamongst persons engaged in the handling (i. e. mixing) of sugar, that it has been termed cally a refined kind its crystals having been repeatedly
* The date-sugar, which is free from Acari, is practithe 'grocer's itch.'
“clayed," or washed with water.