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clusively of members of the Conservative under martial law; but no serious outbreak (Moderados) and Neo-Catholic parties, as all occurred. the Liberal parties abstained, in March, 1867, But the situation became very grave in July. from taking part in their election (see An- The Government claimed to have satisfactory NUAL AMERICAN CYCLOPÆDIA for 1867). The evidence that the three great sections of the only opposition made to the ministry pro- Liberal opposition, namely, the “Liberal ceeded from the Senate, in which from 30 to Union," of which the late Marshal O'Donnell 40 members belonged to the Liberal parties. had been the chief; the “Progressists," to which On the 2d of January, the Chamber of Depu- belonged Espartero, Prim, Olózaga, and Madoz; ties unanimously passed the draft of an address, and the Democrats, who embraced a large rein reply to the speech of the throne on the publican element—had united in a more extenreassembling of the Cortes in December, 1867. sive revolutionary scheme than any that had The most important passage of this address is yet threatened the reign of Isabella. On the the following, in which the Chamber refers to 7th of June, Generals Serrano, Cordova, Dulce, the position of Spain with regard to the Roman Bedoya, Latore, Letona, and Zabula were arquestion :
rested at Madrid, and lodged in prison. SimulThe deputies may be permitted to express their taneously with the arrest of the generals, the satisfaction at the flattering and pacific
state of our Government requested the Duke and the Duchrelations with friendly powers, and to render them
ess de Montpensier, who were likewise suspected selves the interpreters of the extreme joy that has been produced in all truly Spanish, and consequently of being implicated in the conspiracy, to leave Catholic hearts, by your Majesty's magnificent words the country. The ministerial papers announced relative to the Pontificial power, and favorable to the that this measure had become necessary, in independence and stability of the legitimate power order “ that the Duke might not be used as & and the incontestable rights of the Holy See. While making use of the initiative, and taking up Previous
to their exile, the Duke and Duchess
flag by the enemies of Spanish institutions." the attitude suitable to an eminently Catholic nation, and while offering to the Emperor of the French, a de Montpensier refused to comply with the friend and ally of Spain, the support of our moral co- orders of the Spanish Government, on the operation, and even
of our forces in case it should be ground that an Infanta of Spain could only rethe legitimate rights of the Holy See, the Government ceive orders direct from the sovereign. "Isahas deserved well of the nation, has shown itself bella thereupon signed the decree exiling them worthy of the Queen who happily occupies the throne from Spain. After this step had been taken, of Isabella I., and worthy also of the nation which has the generals belonging to the Liberal Union combated for the integrity of its faith during seven centuries. In the horrible struggle of the revolution party were also all exiled without exception. Inagainst legitimacy of force against right, the Holy See surrectionary attempts were at once made in symbolizes the cause of right and of legitimacy. By Barcelona, Valencia, and Saragossa, but they her filial love toward this Holy Father, by the moral were suppressed. Dissatisfaction with the influence of her opinion, by her language and her Government increased, however, rapidly in all vote, if the European Conference came to be realized the provinces, and a number of prominent at the right of the Sovereign Pontiff, who is the most generals, among them the Captain-Generals of august, the calmest, and the most venerable figure of Madrid and Barcelona, tendered their resignacontemporary history.
tions. Preparations for a great rising were Conformably to these sentiments, the Span- made in all the provinces, and a perfect accord ish Minister of Foreign Affairs, on January 22d, between all the oppositional parties secured. informed the Italian Government that Spain The expected revolution began on the 17th was determined to uphold the temporal power of September, with an insurrectionary more of the Pope. A brigade of volunteers was also ment in Cadiz, and assumed at once formidable formed for the support of the Pope, but it was dimensions, when the commander of the navs! dissolved before starting for Rome, owing to force off Cadiz, Topete, declared in favor of the remonstrances of France.
the insurrection. Within a few days, pronunThe proceeding of the Cortes did not present ciamientos were made in almost every province, many points of interest. On March 11th the Local and provisional juntas were formed Minister of Finance was authorized to contract everywhere,' to assume the control of the a loan of fifty-five millions of francs. The diffi- movement, and all the generals, exiled in June, culty with England, arising out of the seizure as well as General Prim, appeared upon the of the British ship Queen Victoria, was settled scene, to place themselves at its head. Serrano by the payment of an indemnity to England. and Prim were at Cadiz as early as the 19th of A treaty of commerce was concluded with the September. On the 21st the city of SantanNorth-German Confederation. The formation der fell into the hands of the insurgents, but it of a new ministry, after the death of Marshal was recaptured on the 24th by General Calonge, Narvaez, produced no change of policy. The after a sharp fight with the insurgents, who Cortes were adjourned on May 20th.
numbered about 1,800. The general reported During all this time, Spain was comparative- a loss of 600 killed and wounded on the rosal ly quiet. The Carlists had made preparations side, and 300 on that of the insurgents. After for a rising in February, but the scheme utterly the reoccupation of the city, a number of eitifailed. There were slight tumults in Cata- zens, who were found with arms in their hands lonia in April, and the province was placed were tried by court-martial and immediately shot. Against Serrano, advancing from Cadiz, who had just returned from a visit to the General Pavia y Lacy (Marquis de Novaliches) Emperor Napoleon at Biarritz, was at St. Sewas sent with troops from the capital. On bastian, in the Pyrenees, near the French the 28th an encounter between the two armies frontier. The defeat of her troops at Alcolea took place at Alcolea, two leagues from the decided her to leave Spain at once for France. city of Cordova, in the province of Andalusia. The Emperor sent three officers of the imperial The first shots of the guerillas were heard tow- household to meet the Queen, who on her ard three o'clock P. M. on the flank of the route at flight was accompanied by the King-consort, the gorge of the Sierra. Immediately after the her four younger children, her uncle Don Seartillery of the Marquis de Novaliches opened bastian, the Minister of State, and several offi& well-sustained fire on the bridge and the cers of the household, at the frontier. At the country-houses beyond Las Ventas. After railway station at Hendaye, the Emperor, the three hours and a half of a furious struggle the Empress, and the Imperial Prince awaited the insurgents suspended their fusillade, and then arrival of the Queen, who, after a brief interthe commander-in-chief and his staff rushed on view with the imperial family, proceeded to to the bridge to the cry of “Viva la Reina !” Pau, where she took up her residence at the They expected to pass without difficulty, but castle which the Emperor had placed at her the troops of General Serrano, ambushed and disposal. From Pau she at once issued the folcovered by parapets, opened so violent a firelowing protest addressed to the Spanish people: upon them that the troops of the Government A conspiracy, for which the history of no European had to fall back. The Marquis de Novaliches people offers a parallel, has just
flung Spain into all himself was seriously wounded in the throat. the horrors of anarchy: The army and navy, which The defeat of Novaliches was immediately fol. I have always been
so happy to reward, forgetting
the nation so generously kept up, and whose services lowed by a revolution in Saragossa, the whole glorious traditions and trampling upon the most of Andalusia, and in Madrid. In Madrid, the sacred oaths, turn against their country, and involve soldiers refused to fight any longer for the her in mourning and desolation. The cry of the Queen, and made common cause with the citi- rebels raised in Cadiz Bay, and repeated in a few zens who declared in favor of the revolution. hearts of the immense majority of Spaniards as the
provinces by part of the army, must echo in the General Concha, who commanded in Madrid, forerunner of a storm which perils the interests of resigned, and a provisional junta, composed religion, the principles of legitimacy and right, and of 14 Progressists, 9 Liberal Unionists, and 7 the independence and honor of Spain. The lamentDemocrats, was established to carry on the able series of defections, the acts of incredible disGovernment. All further resistance to the of time, offend my dignity as a Spaniard even more
loyalty which have occurred within so short a space advance of Serrano was abandoned, and unop- than they affect my dignity as a queen. Let not the posed he entered with his troops on the 3d of greatest enemies of authority themselves, in their October the city of Madrid, when he met with insane dreams, imagine that a power which emanates an enthusiastic reception. Equally or even
from so high an authority can be conferred, modified,
or suppressed by the intervention of brute force, more enthusiastic was the reception by the under the impulse of deluded soldiers. If the towns capital of General Prim on the 7th of October. and the provinces, yielding to the first pressure of vioThe entire town turned out, and the crowds in lence, submit
for a time to the yoke of the insurgents, the streets were immense. Deputations ar
soon public feeling, hurt in inmost and noblest rired from all parts, and they, with the troops, that the eclipse of reason and of honor in Spain can
parts, will shake off its torpor, and show the world sailors, and civic bodies, escorted the general. not last long. Until that time arrives I have thought It took upward of four hours for the proces- proper, as Queen of Spain, and after due deliberation sion to pass through the streets. The traffic and sound advice, to seek in the states of an august was completely stopped, and several men and ally the security requisite to enable
me to act, under
these difficult circumstances, in conformity with my women were crushed to death by the crowd in position as a queen, and with the duty that devolves front of General Prim's hotel, and in the Puer- on me to transmit unimpaired to my son my rights, ta del Sol. French, Italian, and Swiss depu- sanctioned by law, acknowledged and sworn to by tations and musical bands' accompanied the the nation, and fortified by thirty-five years of sacriprocession. General Prim made a speech to ting foot on a foreign soil, my heart and eyes turned the people from the balcony of the office of the toward that which is the land of my birth and that ministry, and laid stress upon the intimate of my children. I hasten to frame my explicit and unity existing between Marshal Serrano and formal protest before God and before mankind, dehimself
, and urged the necessity for Liberals of claring that the force to which I yield in leaving my all shades, for the people, and for the army, to compromise them in any way. Neither can those
kingdom cannot invalidate my rights, nor lessen nor preserve concord."" The victory of the revolu- rights be affected in any way by the acts of the revotion,” he said, "was due to the joint action of the lutionary Government, and still less by the regulafleet, Marshal Serrano, and the exiled generals."
tions of its assemblies, which must needs be formed At the conclusion of the speech, General Prim obvious conditions of violence as regards the con
under the pressure of demagogic fury, and under embraced Serrano, exclaiming aloud,“ Down science and will of the people. Our fathers mainwith the Bourbons !” This was received by tained a protracted but successful struggle for the all the people with unanimous applause. In religious faith and the independence of Spain. The the evening Madrid was magnificently illumi- present generation has unceasingly toiled to connect nated.
all that was great and glorious in past ages with what
modern times contain that is sound and fruitful. At the outbreak of the revolution, the Queen, Revolution, that mortal foe to traditions and legitimate progress, wars against all those principles meeting of the Cortes. The Central Junta conwhich constitute the vital strength, the soul, and tinued its functions until the 21st of October, the manhood of the Spanish nation. Liberty in its when it dissolved. All the local juntas followed unimited expansion and in all its manifestations, attacking Catholic unity, the monarchy, and the legal this example, and Marshal Serrano, until the exercise of power, disturbs family ties, destroys the close of the year, remained the head of the sanctity of the domestic hearth, and kills virtue and provisional government. patriotism. If you think that the crown of Spain, On the 20th of October the Provisional Gor worn by a queen whose fortune it has been to connect her name with
the social and political regenera- ernment offered a manifesto, explaining the tion of the state, be the symbol of those sound prin- reasons which compelled the Spanish people to ciples, you will, as I hope, remain faithful to your throw off the yoke of the Bourbon dynasty. oaths and to your creed; you will allow to pass away, After explaining the grievances of the nation gratitude, felony, and ambition, jostle each other. against the late Government, the manifesto You will live in the assurance that, even in the hour says: of misfortune, I shall omit nothing to uphold that The people must now regain the time which it has symbol, apart from which Spain has not a single en- lost. The principle of popular sovereignty which is dearing recollection nor a single sustaining hope, now naturalized in Spain is the principle of national The insane pride of a few is for a time upsetting and life, and the ideal type of the nation's aspirations distracting the whole nation, throws men's souls We may, therefore, be permitted to affirm that the into a state of confusion, and society into a state of national sovereignty, exercised in the first place by anarchy. There is no room in my heart for hatred the vote of all, and subsequently by those elected by even against that small number. I should fear, lest the people, will decree a complete system of liber any feeling of petty resentment should weaken the ties, which form, or will form, soon the rich and infeeling of deep tenderness I entertain toward those alienable patrimony of a civilized country. loyal men who have risked their lives and shed their blood in defence of the throne and public order, and
The circular also examines at length the toward all those Spaniards who witness with grief question of freedom of public worship, and exand terror a triumphant insurrection—a shameful presses hopes for the free exercise of every page in the history of our civilization. In the noble religion. It also states the desire of the Gosland whence I now
address you, and everywhere, I ernment to be on good terms with foreign come, the misfortunes of my beloved Spain, which Powers, and to obtain the moral concurrence are my own. Had I not to support me, among many of foreign Governments, adding : others, the example of the most venerable of sovereigns, a model of resignation and courage, also a
But if we should fail in this respect, if the example prey to bitter tribulations, I should derive strength to lowed, we shall not be discouraged. We can tran
of America in recognizing the revolution be not foldo so from my confidence in the loyalty of my sub- quilly proceed
with our task, for our independence is jects, from the justice of my cause, and, above all,
not threatened, and we have no foreign intervention from my trust in the power of Him who holds the
to fear. To legitimize the revolution we have sought fate of empires in His hands.
the sole criterion now considered infallible-namely, A monarchy embodying fifteen centuries of strug
an appeal to universal suffrage. The aim which we have gles, patriotism, victories, and grandeur, cannot be in view is to place ourselves on a level with the
most destroyed by fifteen days of perjury and treason. advanced nations, and thus cease to form a disso Let us have faith in the future the glory of the Spanish people was ever connected with its kings; fect right to expect from foreign countries respect for
nance in the great concert of nations. We have a perthe misfortunes of its kings ever fell heavily on the the state of things which we have created, and we people. In my firm and patriotic hope that right, entertain a justifiable hope that the Governments honor, and legitimacy will be maintained, your which march at the head of civilization will not reminds and your efforts will ever unite with the fuse to Spain those proofs of amity and fraternity energetic decision and maternal affection of your which they accorded to the power that crushed and queen,
humiliated us. CHATEAU DE PAU, September 30, 1868.
The new electoral law announced by the The Queen remained at Pau a few weeks, Provisional Government was as follows: Every and then took up her residence at Paris. Spaniard twenty-five years of age has a right Immediately after
the success of the revolu- to vote. The only persons disqualified are the tion in Madrid, a Central Junta was elected, following: Convicts not rehabilitated; men which called upon Marshal Serrano to organize under criminal accusations at the moment of the a ministry. Marshal Serrano accepted the task, elections; those deprived of their political and the ministry was formed on the 8th of rights; individ als against whom a judgment October, consisting of the following members: has been given, declaring them incapable of Marshal Serrano, President; General Prim, managing their own affairs; bankrupts; insol. War; Admiral Topete, Marine ; Figuerola, vent traders or manufacturers; and individaals Finance; Lorenzana, Foreign Affairs; Ortiz, prosecuted to recover payment of their taxes. Justice ; Sagasta, Interior; Ayala, Colonies; Soldiers and sailors will vote at the places in Ruiz Zorilla, Public Works. It was at once which they are garrisoned, provided that they announced that the definite organization of the have a two months' residence. All electons country, and in particular the future form of dwelling in the communes and engaged in trade government, would be left to the constituent are eligible to municipal functions; they may Cortes which were to be elected, as soon as also form part of the provincial councils, propracticable, by universal suffrage. The Central vided they do not occupy any office paid by the Junta, and the several members of the minis- local government or the state. No Government try, issued a number of decrees for the provi- functionary is qualified in the province, dissional administration of the country until the trict, or commune in which he holds his office.
The functions of deputy are incompatible with can remain in these convents may leave whenany post requiring the holder to reside away ever they please by an order given at their from Madrid, and the acceptation of the former request by the civil governor, the bishop of implies the resignation of the latter. The the diocese being duly informed thereof. The elections for the Cortes will take place by nuns who took their vows before July 29, provinces. Those returning from six to nine 1837, have a right to their pension of five reals deputies will form two circumscriptions; and a day, but those who have taken orders later those of ten and upward, three. The Balearic have only right to their entrance-fee. The and Canary Islands are to be the object of a associations called Sisters of Charity, St. Vindivision in which their particular situation will cent de Paul, St. Isabella, the Christian Docbe taken into account. There is to be a deputy trine, and such others as were dedicated only for every 45,000 inhabitants, and for a fraction to teaching and to beneficence, are to remain, above exceeding 22,500. The ballot will last but hereafter, instead of having independent three days, and a special decree will fix the jurisdiction in their own affairs, they must mode of voting in the islands. The electoral come under that of the bishop. Another lists will be made out from November 15th to decree was issued by the same minister with November 25th. The number of deputies is to special regard to the Jesuits, suppressing the be 350. A special decree indicating the manner Society throughout Spain and the Spanish in which the elections are to be conducted in islands, ordering that its colleges and instithe Spanish possessions will shortly be pub- tutions be closed within three days, and delished.
claring its movable and immovable property The Minister of Public Instruction issued a sequestrated to the state. decree ordering that henceforward primary Sefior Figuerola, the Minister of Finance, education shall be absolutely free, restoring the published a financial statement, in which he normal schools, and reappointing the professors estimates the deficit at 2,500,000,000 reals, removed by the late Government. The minister attributing it to the necessity for extraordialso announced that he was preparing meas- nary expenditure in consequence of the preures for establishing free secondary and supe- vailing distress and the want of work for rior education. The Minister of Justice and the lower classes, though, he says, the GovernPublic Works, Antonio Romero Ortiz, decreed ment did not acknowledge the right of the the immediate extinction of all the monasteries, citizens to be provided with work by the state. convents, religious houses, and congregations of This statement, which enters into a full explaboth sexes that have been established in Spain nation of the real state of the finances in Spain, and the adjacent islands since July, 1837, when was accompanied by a decree opening public they were last abolished. The decree provides subscriptions to a loan of 200,000,000 crowns, that all the buildings, real property rents, issued in 1,250,000 Treasury bonds, bearing six rights and shares in these buildings are to be- per cent. interest. The issuing price was 80, come national property. The monks and nuns and the interest payable on June 30th, and Deex-cloistered in consequence of this decree are cember 31st, reckoning from January 1, 1869. not considered to have any right to the pension The redemption of the loan would be by drawthat was granted to monks and nuns who were ings, commencing in 1869 and teruninating expelled in 1837. The nuns whose convents in 1688. are suppressed in consequence of the decreo Señor Sagasta, the Minister of Justice, issued may either go into such convents as still exist a decree promulgating the absolute liberty of according to law; or they can claim to be paid the press, abolishing the office of a special back the dotation which they gave when they judge for press trials, and placing all press ofentered. This dotation or fee is 11,000 reals, fences within the jurisdiction of the ordinary or about $555 in gold. All these convents, penal code. The decree also suppresses the monasteries, etc., that were declared legally censorship on literary and dramatic producestablished by the law of July 29, 1837, are tions. The number of political journals in now to be reduced to half their number in Madrid, in consequence of the liberty of the every province, and the civil governors of the press, increased very rapidly. The most improvinces will consult with the bishops and portant of these at the close of the war were point out within the term of one month which the Pensamiento Español, the Esperanza, Sigof these establishments shall be preserved, and lo, the Estandarte (reactionary), Diario Eshey are to take care that they preserve those pañol and Politica (Liberal Union), Novedades hat have architectural and artistical merit, and Iberia (Progressist), Discusion (Republiind they are to send the nuns of suppressed can). onvents to those that are left. The admission The Protestants of Spain were authorized to f novices in all the convents and nunneries of hold meetings, and to erect churches in Madrid,
pain is prohibited, and the novices that are Seville, Barcelona, and other places. low preparing to become monks or nuns are The Minister of Foreign Affairs, Lorenzana, rohibited from taking the vows, even though sent a circular to the foreign representatives hey
should have entered these monasteries as of Spain abroad, in which the minister explains rganists, singers, or with any other pretext. the causes, character, and political bearing of 'he nuns who, by virtue of the present decree, the revolution. Spain had, under the rule of
VOL. VIII.45 A
her last two monarchs, presented the sad spec- sonal liberty, property, freedom of worship, freeda tacle of a loyal and generous people lavishly of the press, right of meeting. devoting their wealth and their blood for the monopolies of the sale of salt
and tobacco, tass a
7. The penalty of death, slavery, imprisonet. benefit of kings who repaid these heroic sacri- consumption, etc., are to be abolished. fices with the blackest ingratitude. The peo- 8. Customs, prisons, and judicial processes t» ple patiently waited until their sufferings were immediately reformed. overflowing. That moment having arrived,
9. Domicile and private correspondence to be
violable. the people took their stand upon the ground
10. Education, choice of professions and an of modern popular right. The circular treats ments, banks and credit institutions to be free. upon the question of religious liberty, stating 11. The provincial deputations, alcaldes, munita that the useless legal obstacles hitherto thrown councils and magistrates to be elected by wires in the way of other creeds would disappear, the proceedings to be published. These bodies
suffrage, their meetings to be open, and a report i even as they had already disappeared from the decide upon all questions which do not come mi habits of the people. In conclusion, the min. the control of the central government. ister says that the Spanish revolution could 12. Revenue to be raised by one tar, directed cause no alarm to other countries, and, there- general, fore, the Government was in hopes that for
13. The Spanish possessions abroad to enjoy the
same rights as the mother country. eign nations would not refuse to entertain
14. The post-office, telegraphic, and other service friendly relations with revolutionary, Spain, to be paid for out of the profits they prodece,
The first country which recognized the Pro- taxation to be reduced in proportion as these pres visional Government of Spain was the United
15. The civil guard alone shall act as a police. T States. Mr. Hale, the ambassador of the army to be for, the national defence, and a volunteer United States, notified Marshal Serrano of the force to be proposed for the preservation of intera fact on the 9th of October. All the other order. Spain renounces wars of conquest, and 2 Governments represented in Madrid soon fol- make war only when its independence is mensced lowed.
On the 18th of December municipal electio: While the leaders of the different parties took place throughout Spain, upon the basis of which effected the revolution were agroed universal suffrage. The Republicans obtaineis that the future form of government should be majority in most of the large cities, excep decided by the constituent Cortes, the Liberal Madrid. The participation of the people in Union and the Progressists were unanimous these elections was, on the whole, but smal. in declaring their preference for a monarchy. In Madrid the schedules or tickets to be issued The Democrats split on the question, one sec- to the electors to empower them to vote vere tion joining the Liberal Union and Progressists, 76,432. Of these only 53,612 were either & and the others declaring in favor of a republic. tributed or applied for; 22,820 were left u Actually, there were henceforth, besides the claimed at the mayor's office, The setus! Reactionists, two great parties,' the Liberal voters in the city were only 27,600, of wbom Monarchists and the Republicans. The latter 24,000 gave their suffrage for monarchic counparty soon developed a strength which aston- cillors, and_3,600 favored Republican candiished the Provisional Government. The lead- dates. In Barcelona the voters were 47,000, ers of the Republican party were José Maria de of whom only 17,000 pronounced in favor of Orense, who for some years had lived a refugee monarchic candidates, and 30,000 voted for the in the south of France; Garrido, a distinguished Republicans. In Valencia the voters were less writer on Spanish affairs; Castelar, the best than 4,000: the Republican candidate at the orator of the party; and General Pierrad. Señor head of the poll only obtained 2,524 rotes; Orense, in the name of the Central Republican and the most successful of his monarchic opCommittee, published the programme of the ponents only 806. party, of which the following are the principal As soon after the success of the revolution heads:
it was generally regarded as probable that 1. Form of government: democratic federal re
Spain would remain a monarchy, the question public.
who would be elected King by the Cortes 2. Legislative power: A single Chamber, elected greatly agitated the public mind. It became annually by universal suffrage.
apparent that, among the many names pro3. Executive power :: A President, nominated by posed, those of the Duke de Montpensier, and the Chambers without limitation of time, but removable at the pleasure of the Chamber.
of Dom Fernando of Portugal, father of the 4. Judicial power: Appointment of judges, to be King of Portugal, had the greatest number of wholly independent of the legislative and executive partisans. Dom Fernando was generally repowers. 5. The central, or national, government to manage of the throne, in case it should be offered. The
ported as decidedly opposed to an acceptance the army and navy; the code ; external and
diplo Duke de Montpensier, on the other hand, made lasts; post-office and telegraphs ; disputes between great exertions to secure his election. In acprovinces ; unity of money, weights, and measures; cordance with a wish, expressed by the Proriextinction of the public debt (the money to be pro- sional Government, he did not return to Spain, vided from the
sale of the royal patrimony, national except for a few days during December, after 6. The security to every citizen of his individual the outbreak of disturbances in Cadiz, when and primordial rights, which are as follow: Per- he asked for permission to aid in putting down