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the “Liberal Union,” the “Progresistas,” and Turkish ambassador left Athens, and the the “Democrats.” The determination of the Greek ambassador Constantinople, and the future government of Spain was referred to relations between the two countries became so the Constituent Cortes, to be elected by uni- unfriendly that, for some days, a war was reversal suffrage, in January, 1869. Hardly any garded as inevitable. But the great powers of opposition was made to the Provisional Govern- Europe promptly interfered, and agreed upon ment by the few partisans of the ex-Queen, or a European Conference, to be held in Paris in the Absolutists (partisans of the family of Don January. (See CANDIA, GREECE, TURKEY.) Carlos); but serious dissensions arose in the No agitation at all was caused during the last weeks of the year between the Republican year by the question of the annexation of party and the Provisional Government. The Rome to Italy, or by the efforts made in Gerlatter, instead of awaiting the decision of the many for the consummation of German unity. Constituent Cortes on the form of government, The Roman question again formed the subject used their whole influence in behalf of the re- of a diplomatic correspondence between the establishment of a monarchy. This led to Governments of Italy and France; but the bloody conflicts in Cadiz and Malaga, and Italian party of action took no steps toward threatened more disturbances during the com- another expedition against the temporal powing year. The strength of the Republican er, and the Italian Government put off to the party was a surprise to the entire world, and future all its hopes for consummating the unity even appeared to be greater than in any other of the kingdom. Prussia expressly vindicated monarchical country of Europe. (See SPAIN.) her right to comply with the application of

Soon after the beginning of the Spanish revó- any of the South-German States for admission lution, insurrectionary movements broke out into the North-German Confederation; and in Cuba. Being at first somewhat undefined, the Government and people of Baden expressed and directed partly against the reëstablishment a great desire to enter the Confederation at of a monarchical government in the Spanish once, but practically no step was taken in addominions, and partly for severing the connec- vance, and, this being so, France appeared very tion of Cuba with Spain, they soon became anxious to avoid any quarrel with Prussia. entirely a war of independence. The great (See FRANCE, GERMANY, ITALY.) majority of the population in Cuba showed it- The party of progress in Europe, which self in sympathy with the insurrection, and at aims at narrowing the prerogatives of royalty the close of the year still held out against the and of aristocracy, and of reconstructing the Spanish forces. (See SPAIN.)

states on the principles of popular sovereignty England, at the beginning of the year, found and universal suffrage, gained several imporherself at war with Abyssinia. The landing of tant victories during the past year. In Spain the troops had begun in October, 1867, but a the Provisional Government ordered the munireal advance did not take place until January, cipal elections and the election for the Con1868. Hardly any resistance was offered by stituent Cortes to take place, on the basis King Theodore until the arrival of the English, of universal suffrage; and as three of the politin April

, 1868, before his stronghold, Magdale, ical parties—the Republicans, the monarchical where he made a desperate fight, and, after the Democrats, and the Progressists—are in favor capture of the fort, fell by his own hand. The of universal suffrage, it was expected that, English troops at once evacuated the country. whatever form of government may be decided (See ABYSSINIA.)

upon by the Constituent Cortes, universal sufRussia is steadily advancing in Central Asia, frage will be engrafted upon the new Spanish and, during the past year, conquered the wholé Constitution. Next in importance was the country of the Emir of Bokhara. The Rus- great victory of the Liberal party in England. sian Government disclaims any intention of They had, in 1867, compelled the Tories to annexing, for the present, additional territory; consent to a considerable enlargement of the but, at all events, she is steadily increasing her law of suffrage. This year the majority of the power and influence in Asia. Russian writers House of Commons, under the leadership of claim that Russia is, and England and France Mr. Gladstone, passed resolutions in favor of are not, Asiatic powers, and that the time will disestablishing the State Church of Ireland, come when European powers like England and when thereupon Parliament was dissolved and France will receive notice to quit Asia. and an appeal made to the people, the new (See Russia.)

election largely increased the Liberal majority The insurgents in Candia continued through- in the House of Commons, and led to the forout the year to defy the authority of the Turk- mation of a Liberal Cabinet, under the leaderish Government, being encouraged by the ship of Mr. Gladstone. The Liberal ministry in frequent arrival of men and ammunition from Austria, which was appointed in December, Greece, and by the sympathy of Russia and 1867, maintained itself, notwithstanding all the the United States. In December, the Turkish violent attacks upon it on the part of the priestGovernment presented to that of Greece an hood. The Concordat of 1855 was abolished, ultimatum, demanding a pledge that no further and the principles of religious and civil liberty aid should be given to Candia. The ultimatum struck deep root throughout the land. was rejected by the Greek Government, the In France the Liberal party remained de

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