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a real desire on the part of the population to contrib- breakwater and docks at Alexandria. The comtion of the ondes system is completely effected. Res pany is authorized to levy the same dock-dues
as are paid at Liverpool. In the event of the quests for concessions of land not included in the cadastre have been accorded. My government will Egyptian Government taking possession of the again submit this question to your examination. I enterprise when completed, interest at the rate think that the period of the concessions might be ex- of twelve per cent. will be allowed on the purtended, and
greater facilities accorded: this would be chase-money until paid off. an encouragement to the agricultural population, and
The Slave-Trade Blue Book, published by an augmentation of the general welfare. The public works voted by you have been carried out with ac- the English Government in 1868, contains new tivity in the twenty-three localities you have desig- charges against the Egyptian Government for nated. The necessary contingents cannot be definitive- conniving at the
slave-trade on the
White Nile. ly fixed until after the completion of the general census Mr. Reade, the English consul at Cairo, denies been unable to carry out this operation, the impor- the truth of the statements made in July, 1867, tance of which I leave to your appreciation, and the by the Viceroy in Paris, to a deputation of the radical solution of which I confide to your enlighten- British and Foreign Antislavery Society, that, ment. A census system carried out with intelligence
“though he could act against his own people, and equity offers manifest advantages without causing any annoyance to the inhabitants, and without inter he was defeated when he sought to do so fering with individual liberty. The regulations you against Europeans, who were the chief delinhave established with regard to the bonds to be sub- quents," and that, “if he were free to act scribed by native borrowers have been communicated against European slave-traders, the slave-trade to the moudiriens. The application of these regula- would soon disappear.” Mr. Reade, rejecting tions is subordinated to the operation of a law upon this charge against Europeans in Upper Egypt deliberations. The monthly collection of the terri- as impossible, the whole number of whom, he torial dues was to undergo modifications in uniform- says, is under a dozen, and who are regarded ity with the desire you expressed last year. The with much jealousy by the local authorities, the reasons which have prevented the government, proceeds to say: in presence of the difficulties which resulted from it, from putting in execution the new mode of collec- from ten to fifteen thousand 'slaves are annually
It is, however, a matter of public notoriety that tion. The proposals that my government will submit to
brought down the Nile to Cairo, while an equal or your deliberations this year relate to three principal the Red Sea. The principal dealers are well known,
even greater number find their way to Souakin and questions-hygiene, the cultivation of cotton, and the and allowed by the local authorities to pursue unmosluices and dams. Various causes of insalubrity have lested their abominable traffic. True it is that some been pointed out to me. In a great number of locali- of these delinquents are occasionally arrested and ties there are lakes of stagnant water and marshes. their property confiscated, and sometimes a few Now, experience has shown that in draining these slaves are even set at liberty; but the great bulk of lakes and marshes the atmosphere is purified and the the trade is tacitly sanctioned, if not actually, congerms of sickness destroyed. It is of importance, nived at, by the authorities themselves. At Galabat, therefore, that you should deliberate upon the measures to be taken in order to ameliorate the sanitary is constantly open.
on the Abyssinian frontier, an enormous slave-mart
Two hundred Nile-boats, emstate by proceeding gradually and taking into account ployed regularly in this trade, are permitted to navilocal exigencies. For two years the cotton crop in gate with impunity, upon the payment for every certain provinces has not answered our expectations. Egypt had, nevertheless, conquered an eminent place authorities,
while a similar impost is levied on every
voyage they make of a certain tribute to the local among producing countries by the excellent quality slave caravan that passes along
the desert of Korusco. of her cotton. It had been distinguished at the Paris Universal Exhibition. But in the majority of the cerely desirous of checking the progress of so great
If, my lord, the Egyptian Government were sinprovinces of Lower Egypt the abundance of the crops has diminished, while the quality has deteriorated. inflicting a severe blow on the slave-trade in this
an evil, a good opportunity is now afforded to it for This latter fact arises from the introduction of foreign part of the world. I must confess, however, I am seed. As to the diminution in the quantity, you will far from sanguine that much can be expected from have to seek the causes in order to combat them with that governinent of its own volition, and for several success. I also call your attention to the means of developing and perfecting all the branches of agri- aries of the government derive considerable profit
reasons: 1. That important persons and functionculture. The works of the sluices, dams, and
bridges, and advantage from the trade, either directly or indihave already absorbed considerable sums. We ought rectly directly, because their palaces, houses, and to pursue with energy the accomplishment of these eminently useful undertakings, the fertile sources of
estates are supplied with slave labor; indirectly, bepublic wealth. To seek the means of developing the
cause inasmuch as the trade is ostensibly a forbidden
one, they are enabled to levy on the dealers heavy prosperity of the country, such, gentlemen, is our
toll for permission to evade the law. 2. That the duty. May God protect and bless our efforts'!
army of Egypt is largely recruited from the male On September 26th Mr. Charles Hale, United black adult slaves. And 3. That the fellahs, or farmStates consul-general, entertained at dinner, er population, are glad to have the means of sending at Alexandria, Mehemet Tefvik Pacha, heiras "substitutes for themselves and children, when apparent to the throne of Egypt, together with summoned by the government to forced labor, slaves twelve other pachas, principal ministers of the Egyptian Government. Tefvik Pacha proposed Mr. Reade, in the disguise of an Arab, visited the health of the President of the United States a number of slave-markets in Cairo and Tanand the happiness of the American people. tah. In the former city he saw between two
On June 17th a contract was signed between hundred and fifty and three hundred. There the Egyptian Government and an English com- would have been three thousand on sale there, pany for the construction of the proposed but the greater number had been removed to Tantah for an approaching fair. At Tantah pole fixed upon the bank of the canal. The he saw between five and six hundred, but be- conductors submerged were copper-wire ropes lieves the total number there on sale to have of various lengths, but of the same diameter been about two thousand. Having made these and construction as those used for the aērial discoveries, he informed the mudir or governor connection. Mr. Wilde's experiments with of the province, who undertook to seize all the these contrivances were very numerous, and slaves in the night and have them freed. He the general conclusions at which he arrived only partially fulfilled his promise, and Mr. can only be given here. He regards the fact Reade tells Lord Stanley that the governor as established, that currents of electricity of was ordered to desist from the work of eman- great quantity, but of an intensity below that cipation by a superior functionary, the Inspec- which is required to effect the electrolyzation tor-General of Provinces.
of the liquid in which the conductors are subRepresentations made by Mr. Reade to Sherif merged, may be transmitted to considerable Pacha were met by an evasive reply. Mr. distances without the necessity of surrounding Reade had afterward an interview with the the conductors with an insulating envelope. minister, and convinced him that the charge But he remarks that it is impossible for him to against Europeans of complicity in the slave- say, without further experiments with contrade was untrue.
ductors of much greater length than those emThe Pacha then complained that European Chris- ployed by him, whether it would be practicable, tians in Upper Egypt were largely engaged in the under the most favorable circumstances, to slave-trade, but I believe I very soon satisfied him transmit to distant places electric currents that such was not the case. The unsatisfactory na- sufficiently powerful to be made available for with regard to the slave markets at Tantah and Cairo any useful purpose, under such conditions. will prove to your lordship, better than any thing I One of his experiments on naked copper can state from my own experience, that no reliance wires, 750 feet Îong, in water, is worthy of Whatever can be placed in the antislavery protesta- mention. When currents of high tension were tions of this government.
sent through these wires, a marked diminution The Blue Book contains further communica- of electrodynamic effects was observed at tions, of great interest as to the slave-trade car- the other ends of the wires, but currents of ried on in Upper Egypt, from M. Saulter, a low tension passed over the wires with but litGerman missionary at Khartoum, and from the tle diminution of their primitive intensity. Prussian consular agent and the Austrian vice- Using the current from a 10-inch intensity arconsul at Khartoum.
mature, a sufficient quantity of electricity was ELECTRICITY. Submerged Uninsulated transmitted through the wires to produce a Cables. -Mr. H. Wilde, of England, the inventor brilliant electric light, and to melt 22 inches of of the powerful magneto - electric machine iron wire, .050 of an inch thick. With the which bears his name, has been making experi- current of lower intensity from a 5-inch quanments to ascertain with what degree of facility tity armature, 7 inches of the same wire, .035 electric signals may be transmitted through of an inch in diameter were melted. metallic çables submerged, without an insulat- Electric Lights for Light-houses and Ships. ing envelope.
The principal electro-motors --M. Ernest Saint Edme presented this subject employed by him were three magneto-electric in a communication to the September number machines of different degrees of power, a
of the Annales du Génie Civil. He says that, Grove's battery, and a Daniell's battery. The since the report made by M. Reynaud, director test of the magnitude of the current adopted of the administration of light-houses in France, by Mr. Wilde in every case was, the melting three years ago, electric lighting in lightof a given quantity of wire, because he håd not houses, etc., has not achieved much progress. been able to discover any other method which The reasons of this are stated by the author as could at all compare with that in expressing follows: To transform existing light-houses, easily, and without ambiguity, the associated existing apparatus must be sacrificed for a solé properties of quantity and intensity, especially advantage of increasing the light at any mowhen dealing with currents of such magni- ment. It is doubtful whether all light-houses tude as those evolved from the five and ten are large and strong enough for the accommoinch magneto-electric machines. The building dation of the new machinery; this is certainly which contained the various electro-motors the case with most of those on the French Was situated about 100 feet from the edge of coast. As to the light-houses of inferior order, the basin of a navigable canal in which most it would be illusory to think of altering them. of the experiments were made. Connection And other difficulties are inherent in electric between the electro-motors and electrodes and lamps, which, however well designed, are subother conductors submerged in the canal was ject to causes of derangement which render effected by means of two lengths of copper- necessary the best mechanism; and the craywire rope, each 140 feet long and nearly half ons, if impure, may scale, and cause interrupan inch thick. These wire-rope connections tions; and these impurities might cause misconsisted of seven thick copper wires twisted takes incompatible with the service of the lighttogether, and were supported through the air, house. When a new light-house is to be built, and insulated from one another, by means of à it will be advantageous to adopt the electric light; but the importance of the question, rel- marked; indeed, the one may be said to put ative to the general administration of light- the other out. But the most beautiful feature houses, is much less than was at first supposed. of the electric was the extraordinary beam it
In 1863, in a notice of the applications of the gave. It shone night after night, large, steady, electric light, the author suggested the lighting and lustrous as a planet, and you could see in of vessels by it. The maritime exhibition at the darkness a beam passing as far as the eye Havre shows that the suggestion has been con- could see. From the tower, with the light at sidered, at least in principle. In the point of the back, it was very marked, and quite lit the view of lighting the course of a ship, no one hills round Paris. The whole horizon in the will deny that the oil lantern is insufficient to plane of the light showed the white beam, and prevent collisions at night; while the electric at the distance of four miles it shone upon the lantern would illumine the air all around, and windows of some houses, making them appear the rocking of the vessel would cause such to be lit up. By extinguishing and relighting changes of light as would attract the notice of quickly several times this was very plain. Altothe men on other vessels. When the whole gether the light was very remarkable, and the cost of a ship is considered, that of electric en- committee were glad to be able to report such gines is insignificant; two or three horse-power an advance as the powers of the light show will work a magneto-electric machine. And over that at Dungeness ; indeed, the latter the electric light will serve other purposes on gives to the observer no conception of what board a ship. Recent experiments have shown the present one is; and it is satisfactory to that it would be possible to assist a ship in her know that the result of five years' work and course by dazzling the steersman by a jet of observation, with imperfect and ill-arranged light, when an oil lantern would not be seen apparatus, has now borne such good fruit; and by him. It can also be used to light under that as England was the first to test and adopt water; an application that concerns the repairs this adjunct to the sources of light-house illuof the sheathing and hulls of vessels, the find- mination, so she still retains her superiority. ing of lost articles, and the catching of fish. It is due, however, to Mr. Holmes to say that The fish are confused by the light, and then great as are the improvements already effected, easily caught. Mons. Dubosc has constructed he states that he is confident he can yet greata lantern well fitted to enclose an electric lamp. ly increase the illuminating power before the The conducting wires are connected so that present apparatus is reērected at a permanent there is no chance for water to leak into the station. lantern. This apparatus can, without fear of Satisfactory experiments have been made too high pressure, be lowered to great depth with the electric light on board the French in the sea.—(Translated for Van Nostrand': iron-clad ship Heroine and the yacht Prince Engineering Mag.)
Jerome, to ascertain the value of the light for The London Chemical News states that the signalling purposes.
The machine was furelectric light at Dungeness can now be worked nished by the Alliance Company, producing a by either of the two engines, so that no dis- light equal to two hundred Carcel burners, or turbance occurs when one requires repairs. sixteen hundred candles. An ordinary newspaThe vices of the high-class engineers and per could be read in the direct line of the light firemen have been dispensed with, and the at the distance of 1,531 yards. Signalling was Elder Brethren have their own ordinary keep- most easily done by short and long flashes, and ers trained to drive the engines as well as to was found to be practicable. The Government attend to the lamps, a steady, old, experienced commissioners reported, after an investigation, keeper being placed at the head of the estab- that the apparatus showed a very powerful lishment. Since the alterations made at Dun- focus of light, perfectly suited to night signalgeness, the light there has worked with great ling, or for throwing a light over a coast or a regularity and efficiency, and the Elder Breth- ship; and that it would be most useful on board ren have proposed to place similar lights at the flag-ship of a commander-in-chief. By the the South Foreland, Lowestoft, and Souter aid of this light, the Prince Jerome was enabled Point. The English Board of Trade approve to steam by night through the intricate navithe extension of this mode of illumination to gation of the Bosphorus, when the yacht bethe South Foreland and Lowestoft, but sus- longing to the Viceroy of Egypt was obliged pend their decision respecting Souter Point, to wait until daylight. On some steamers of The committee of Elder Brethren who attend- the French commercial marine the same light ed the Paris Exhibition say, that so far as the produced by the magneto-electric engine has eye is a test, the power of the English fixed been introduced, and is regarded as a practical light was considerably in excess of the French, and when both machines were in use, and Experiments in Electrolysis.-M. Bourgoin there was a good current, the fixed beam of has published a memoir on the electrolysis of the English light did not contrast unfavorably organic acids and their salts. He has found by with the revolving one of the French, the flash experiment that the action of the electric fluid of which is of great power. The contrast of is in reality only a fundamental action on all the electric fixed light with the French first- acids and salts, whether mineral or organic. It order oil dioptric revolving light was very separates the basic element which goes to the
negative pole, while the elements of anhydrous battery was tried a rest was always sufficient acid and oxygen, which answer to basic hydro- to restore its action; but after each trial the gen or to metal, fly to the positive pole. Such, force became less, until, after trying it for he claims, is the fundamental action of the thirty-five days, it became so weak as to give electric current. M. Bourgoin has specially only 3o on the galvanometer, and at that studied the action of the current on neutral period a remarkable change took place. The tartrate, on a mixture of tartrate and alkali, sign of the current altered: the current, and on free tartaric acid. To examine the ac- which hitherto had been passing from the agtion on tartaric acid, a concentrated solution glomerated to the gas carbon, was now proof the neutral tartrate of potash is conven- ceeding in the opposite direction. M. Cauderay iently operated upon. As soon as the current states that, on the second day after the fixing passes, the solution becomes alkaline at the of the battery, he thought he remarked a strong Degative pole; only a moderate disengagement smell of gas-tar. He perceived that this smell of gas is produced at the two poles. The prin- was accumulated around the last gas carbon cipal result is the formation of a white precip- forming the positive pole of the battery. It itate, which is slowly but continuously de- seemed to him then extremely probable that posited from the positive electrode. Analysis the gases which diffused those smells had been shows this substance to be wholly cream of withdrawn from the interior of the carbons by tartar. The solution at the positive pole re- the current, to be accumulated and disengaged mains neutral during the experiment. The at the positive pole, for previous to their being gas evolved at the positive pole was composed immersed the carbon had no smell whatever. of carbonic acid, oxygen, carbonic oxide, and The agglomerated carbon placed in the same nitrogen. Nearly the whole of the loss takes cell was covered by bands of very brilliant place at the positive pole.
colors, among which were Prussian blue, vioThe tartaric acid thus regenerated at the let, green, etc., arising, he supposes, from the positive pole forms, with the neutral tartrate, decomposition of salts, or, perhaps, from a cream of tartar; there is, however, some tar- small quantity of tar contained in the gas cartaric acid destroyed by oxidation. The action bon. A peculiar fact in connection with these of the current on a mixture of neutral tartrate bands is, that they were precisely similar in and alkali produces quite different results to order to those of the solar spectrum—the red those obtained with neutral tartrate only, not- at top and the violet below, with all the interwithstanding that the fundamental action is mediate colors of the spectrum. the same. At the positive pole a mixture of M. G. Plante has invented a new secondary carbonic acid, carbonic oxide, oxygen and hy- battery," as he calls it. It consists of a novel dride of ethylen is evolved. M. Berthelot dis- and peculiar arrangement for multiplying the covered acetylen also in the sample of the gas power obtained from a weak source. In form sent him by M. Bourgoin. The decomposition it is not unlike an ordinary condenser. There of free tartaric acid yielded the same products is a rectangular gutta-percha vessel provided as the neutral tartrate, though in different pro- with lateral grooves, and containing a series of portions. The carbonic acid is the dominant lead plates immersed in dilute sulphuric acid. product from the first; the carbonic oxide di- As in a large condenser, the odd plates are minishes as the experiment proceeds; the same joined in one series and the even plates in anis the case with the oxygen and nitrogen, other series ; to either end is attached one of though to a less extent. Acetic acid is formed the poles of a weak source. Such a battery, at the positive pole. After the fifth day the with six plates only, and a source of two small experiment had been in progress, the solution nitric couples, was strong enough to create in the neighborhood of the positive pole con- temporary incandescence in a platinum wire tained a large quantity of acetic acid, which was one millimetre thick and eight centimetres isolated as acetate of baryta.
long. By increasing the size and number of New Batteries.-M. Cauderay has devised a the plates, more powerful calorific effects, such battery, composed of four elements, of awhich as incandescence
of iron and steel rods, may be the electro-motors consist of perfectly new car- obtained by charging the battery with two or bon plates
, the one being what is termed ag- three Bunsen's elements. An arrangement, glomerated carbon, the other gas carbon. termed by the same inventor his “secondary These plates never having been previously tension battery," produces still more remarkused, were, consequently, free from acids and able results. The apparatus consists of forty salts
. The battery was connected up in the secondary couples, each couple of lead plates ordinary manner, the carbon of one cell being being in a narrow gutta-percha vessel, imconnected to the gas carbon of the other, and mersed in dilute sulphuric acid, the pole of 80.on. Immediately on being placed in action each vessel being connected to a peculiar comthe battery gave a current of 45° on a galva- mutator, so that the plates could be joined as nometer, and rang a bell perfectly for a space of an arrangement of tension or as one of surface. about ten minutes. The intensity diminished This battery was charged with three couples rapidly after that time; but after a rest of of Bunsen's medium-sized battery. On applyabout one hour the battery had almost recov. ing the current from the secondary circuit, a ered its previous force. Each time that the platinum wire, two metres long and one-quar
ter of a millimetre thick, was rendered incan- Magnetic Alphabetical Telegraph.-Rev. H. descent for a few moments, and the voltaic arc B. Wilde, of Reading, England, has invented was also obtained. M. Plante remarks upon a new magnetic alphabetical telegraph. The this that it is not, as in the case of induction, sender has a dial plate, inscribed with the letthe direct production of one physical effect by ters of the alphabet and other signs. This another physical action; but the final result is has a jointed handle, which may be quickly none the less an accumulation or a modification moved round the dial, and may be checked at of electrical force, which can be utilized under any point, by a ratchet. The instrument upon certain circumstances.—(Mechanics' Magazine.) which the messages are received has a smaller
An Electric Piano.-M. Spies, of Paris, has dial, traversed by a delicate indicator hand. invented an electric piano, which has been ex- The movements of the handle by the sender hibited at a meeting of the “Société d'Encou- of a message are accurately reproduced on the ragenient," and elicited great surprise and index plate at the other end of the line, and admiration. The electrical arrangement con- may be easily read. A series of permanent sists, in the interior of the piano, of a horseshoe magnets furnishes the power. These series of electro-magnets, which act upon the are united to form a compound magnet, to the bammers that strike the wires. These ham- north and south poles of which are fixed, vermers communicate in the ordinary way with tically, independent electro-magnets, their upthe keyboard, but on their opposite side they per ends being inserted through holes in a brass have small wooden rods, terminating with plate, and planed off so that the iron and brass armatures, which are attracted to the elec- present one smooth, flat, surface. The handle tro-magnets whenever they become active employed in sending messages gives motion to The "directing organ," as it is called, is con- a thick, circular piece of soft iron, which is supstructed as follows: First, there are two ported above the compound magnet by a suitwooden rollers, with an intermediate roller of able socket-piece. The edge of this plate is dimetal. The paper, specially prepared with a vided into twenty-eight equal spaces, which are series of holes, placed in positions representing alternately notched out right and left, so that the several notes of music, is rolled around there are fourteen projections or teeth and the one of the wooden rollers; passing over the same number of corresponding spaces. The metal roller, it is drawn off and wound around iron plate in its rotary movement lightly rubs the second wooden roller. This unwinding the brass plate through which the ends of the keeps it always at a uniform tension. Second, electro-magnets are inserted, and as the proa clockwork movement gives motion to the jections and spaces at the edge of the plate rollers. Third, a small keyboard, with mov- alternately pass over these ends, positive and able copper hammers, is placed above the negative currents are excited in the insulating intermediate roller, so that the heads of wire surrounding the electro-magnet. The the hammers rest upon the paper band (pre- currents being conveyed to the receiving inpared as described) which represents the mu- strument induce rapid changes in the polarity sical notes. The battery is a series of thirty- of an ordinary electro-magnet, between the six Daniell's cells. One pole of the battery poles of which a small permanent magnet connects with the small keyboard; the other, vibrates; each vibration liberating the teeth through the various electro-magnets of the of an escape-wheel propelled by a very light piano, with the metallic roller. The rollers train of clockwork wheels and mainspring. being set in motion by the clockwork, cause The axis of the escape-wheel carries the hand the prepared band to be unrolled and pass on or index of the dial. Thus, as the sender the metallic roller. Whenever a hole in the moves the handle over the letters on the dial, paper comes under the keyboard, the lightly- positive and negative currents are alternately resting hammer at once makes contact, a cur- induced in the conducting wires, which current passes through to the electro-magnet, rents cause the hand of the receiving instruwhich attracts the hammer, and the required ment to pass over the same letters. note is struck; and so, from a series of these Electric Apparatus for Blasting Purposes.prepared holes a number of successive electric A new dynamo-electric apparatus, especially contacts are made, acting upon the several elec- adapted for blasting operations, the invention tro-magnets, causing the various hammers to of Mr. O. W. Siemens, is described by the strike the required notes. The principle of the Mechanics' Magazine. It is an adaptation of piano is really that of automatic telegraphy, the larger machine contrived by him for the except that, in transmitting messages automa- conversion of great mechanical force into tically by the ingenious apparatus devised for dynamic electricity (see ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA that purpose, the result is a permanent and for 1867). The essential difference between the visible record; whereas, in the case of the elec- Siemens apparatus and that of Wilde is the tric piano, the result is simply one of sound. absence, in the former case, of the magnetoThe electric current being uniform throughout, electric machine as the exciting agent. An produces a uniform blow with all the ham- electro-magnetic machine is alone employed, mers; but, by the application of pedal and having as its exciting agent its residuary magsoardines, M. Speiss causes any music to be netism only. The electro-magnet is provided played with the required expression.
with a magnet-cylinder, within which revolves