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they die have the privilege of being buried EGYPT, a dependency of Turkey in Africa. among the trees outside the church, but no The government, since 1841, is hereditary in stone or memorial is there to recall the dear the family of Mehemet Ali, and since May 14th departed.
the rulers bear the title Khedervi, the Arabic * Polygamy exists to a fearful extent. All equivalent for viceroy. Present Viceroy, Iswho can afford it keep several wives and con- mail Pacha, born November 26, 1816, eldest cubines. Though there is a religious marriage, surviving son of Ibrahim Pacha, who was the few avail themselves of it, as it binds both for eldest son of Mehemet Ali. Heir-apparent to life. Abyssinians prefer the more simple cere- the throne, Mehmed Tefvik Pacha, born in mony of marrying by the ‘King's death' (the 1852. usual form of oath in the country), a marriage
At the head of the administration is a Council as easily contracted as dissolved. But even of State (established in 1856), which consists this shadow of morality is generally dispensed of the princes of the viceregal family, four with. Men and women live in concubinage generals, and four high dignitaries. In 1868 with no other tie but the pleasure they find in Sherif Pacha was president of the Council of each other's society-short passing intercourse State. The Cabinet, in 1868, embraced the sutficient only to gratify their grossest passions. Ministers of the Interior, Foreign Affairs, the Women are kept in a very degraded position; Viceregal House, Instruction, Finances, and they are not allowed to sit or eat in the pres- three ministers without portfolio. The minence of the men; they cook the food, spin the isters of the Marine and War did not belong to cotton, clean the stables, and carry water and the Cabinet. Since 1866, there is also an Aswood. Men, on the other hand, wash the sembly of Delegates which holds annual sesclothes, go to the market, are dress-makers, sions. embroiderers, and tailors."
The area of Egypt is estimated at 659,000 ECUADOR, a republic in South America. square miles, and the population at 7,465,000. President, since January 30, 1868, Dr. Xavier Cairo has about 260,000 inhabitants; AlexEspinosa. Area, 218,984 square miles; popu- andria, 170,000; Damietta, 37,000 ; Rosetta, lation, 1,300,000. The value of exports from 18,000; Suez, 5,000. The annual revenue of the port of Guayaquil (exclusive of precious the Government is estimated at £8,000,000. metals) amounted, in 1867, to 3,894,234 pias- The tribute to the Sultan was largely increased tres (that of cacao alone 2,614,651). The num- in 1866, and is said to amount now to 150,000 ber of entries in the port of Guayaquil, in 1867, purses (one purse=500 piastres, or £4.54 sterwas 108 vessels, together of 11,798 tons. The ling, or about $21). The total public debt revenue of the republic amounted, in 1865, to amounted to £19,420,000 at the end of 1868. 1,401,300 piastres (522,122 from customs), and The strength of the Egyptian army is 14,000 the expenditures to 1,399,672 piastres. The men, 8,000 infantry, 3,000 cavalry, artillery, foreign debt was, in 1866, 9,390,554 piastres, and engineers, and 3,000 black troops. The and the home debt, 3,692,955 piastres. There navy, in 1867, comprised seven ships-of-the is neither a standing army nor a fleet.
line, six frigates, nine corvettes, seven brigs, At the elections for a new Congress, which eighteen gunboats and smaller vessels, and ended on the 7th of May, the Conservative twenty-seven transports. In 1868 the English party was almost everywhere successful, ex- captain, McKillop, was appointed to reorganize cept in Guayaquil and Imbalura, and the north the fleet, which is to be largely increased. and south frontier.
The exports from Alexandria, in 1866, In August the republic was visited by one of amounted to 1,307,000,000 Egyptian piastres the most terrific earthquakes known in history. (20 Egyptian piastres=$1). The number of In the three districts of Otavalo, Ibarra, and entries in the port of Alexandria, in 1866, was Cotacachi, of the province of Imbalura, in par- 3,698 vessels, of which 980 were steamers, toticular, the disaster was overwhelming, and it gether of 1,373,217 tons. was calcolated that more than one-half of all The Egyptian Assembly of Delegates was the inhabitants had perished. Altogether the opened on Monday, March 16th, by the Vicenumber of lives lost was estimated at more roy, who delivered a speech in Arabic. The than 30,000.
principal internal and foreign questions were In October, the Ecuadorian minister to Chili, thus referred to: Don Antonio Flores, brought about an ar
I feel, gentlemen, a just pride in the assistance you rangement with Chili to this effect: That Span- lend me for the development of the prosperity of ish vessels coming to the Pacific, whose desti- Egypt, and I have the firm hope that the approaching nation is Ecuador, shall in no case be mo- deliberations, like those of last year, will have the lested by the Chilian navy, and, in case of ne
most salutary effect for all. During the year which cessity, they may touch at any Chilian port. towns of Benha and Siout. My government is occu
has just elapsed schools have been opened in the This concession was made by Chili in conse- pied with the creation of similar establishments in the quence of the great damages which Ecuador localities which are still deprived of them. Public had suffered from the earthquake, and the ne
instruction is a capital question, the importance of Cessity of securing her some relief from the which has been felt. I have seen the proofs of this misfortunes brought upon her by joining a
in donations made to our national schools, and have
heard of those donations with sensible' pleasure. profitless alliance.
Such acts of generosity deserve all praise, and show
a real desire on the part of the population to contrib- breakwater and docks at Alexandria. The comute to the development of instruction. The abolition of the ohdes system is completely effected. Re- pany is authorized to levy the same dock-dues
as are paid at Liverpool. In the event of the quests for concessions of land not included in the cadastre have been accorded. My government will Egyptian Government taking possession of the again submit this question to your examination. I enterprise when completed, interest at the rate think that the period of the concessions might be ex- of twelve per cent. will be allowed on the purtended, and greater facilities accorded: this would be chase-money until paid off. an encouragement to the agricultural population, and an augmentation of the general welfare. The public the English Government in 1868, contains new
The Slave-Trade Blue Book, published by works voted by you have been carried out with activity in the twenty-three localities you have desig- charges against the Egyptian Government for nated. The necessary contingents cannot be definitive- conniving at the slave-trade on the White Nile. ly fixed until after the completion of the general census Mr. Reade, the English consul at Cairo, denies upon which they are established. Hitherto we have been unable to carry out this operation, the impor- the truth of the statements made in July, 1867, tance of which I leave to your appreciation, and the by the Viceroy in Paris, to a deputation of the radical solution of which I confide to your enlighten- British and Foreign Antislavery Society, that, ment. A census system carried out with intelligence “though he could act against his own people, and equity offers manifest advantages without causing he was defeated when he sought to do so any annoyance to the inhabitants, and without interfering with individual liberty. The regulations you against Europeans, who were the chief delinhave established with regard to the bonds to be sub- quents,”_ and that, “if he were free to act scribed by native borrowers have been communicated against European slave-traders, the slave-trade to the moudiriens. The application of these regula- would soon disappear.” Mr. Reade, rejecting tions is subordinated to the operation of a law upon this charge against Europeans in Upper Egypt mortgage, which will shortly be submitted to your deliberations. The monthly collection of the terri- as impossible, the whole number of whom, he torial dues
was to undergo modifications in uniform- says, is under a dozen, and who are regarded ity with the desire you expressed last year. The with much jealousy by the local authorities, Minister of Finance is instructed to explain to you . proceeds to say: the reasons which have prevented the government, in presence of the difficulties which resulted from it, from putting in execution the new mode of collec- from ten to fifteen thousand 'slaves are annually
It is, however, a matter of public notoriety that tion.
brought down the Nile to Cairo, while an equal or The proposals that my government will submit to your deliberations this year relate to three principal the Red Sea. The principal dealers are well known,
even greater number find their way to Souakin and questions-hygiene, the cultivation of cotton, and the and allowed by the local authorities to pursue unmosluices and dams. Various causes of insalubrity have lested their abominable traffic. True it is that some been pointed out to me. In a great number of localities there are lakes of stagnant water and marshes. their property confiscated, and sometimes a few
of these delinquents are occasionally arrested and Now, experience has shown that in draining these slaves are even set at liberty; but the great bulk of lakes and marshes the atmosphere is purified and the the trade is tacitly sanctioned, if not actually, congerms of sickness destroyed. It is of importance, nived at, by the authorities themselves. At Galabat, therefore, that you should deliberate upon the measures to be taken in order to ameliorate the sanitary is constantly open.
on the Abyssinian frontier, an enormous slave-mart
Two hundred Nile-boats, emstate by proceeding gradually
and taking into account ployed regularly in this trade, are permitted to navilocal exigencies. For two years the cotton crop in certain provinces has not answered our expectations. gate with impunity, upon the payment for every Egypt had, nevertheless, conquered an eminent place authorities, while a similar impost is levied on every
voyage they make of a certain tribute to the local among producing countries by the excellent quality slave caravan that passes along the desert of Korusco. of her cotton. It had been distinguished at the Paris Universal Exhibition. But in the majority of the cerely desirous of checking the progress of so great
If, my lord, the Egyptian Government were sinprovinces of Lower Egypt the abundance of the crops has diminished, while the quality has deteriorated.
an evil, a good opportunity is now atforded to it for This latter fact arises from the introduction of foreign inflicting a severe blow on the slave-trade in this seed. As to the diminution in the quantity, you will part of the world.., must confess, however, I am have to seek the causes in order to combat them with that governinent of its own volition, and for several
far from sanguine that inuch can be expected from success. I also call your attention to the means of developing and perfecting all the branches of agri- aries of the government derive considerable profit
reasons: 1. That important persons and functionculture. The works of the sluices, dams, and bridges, and advantage from the trade, either directly or indihave already absorbed considerable sums. We ought rectly-directly, because their palaces, houses, and to pursue with energy the accomplishment of these
estates are supplied with slave labor; indirectly, beeminently useful undertakings, the fertile sources of
cause inasmuch as the trade is ostensibly a forbidden public wealth. To seek the means of developing the
one, they are enabled to levy on the dealers heavy prosperity of the country, such, gentlemen, is our duty. May God protect and bless our efforts!
toll' for permission to evade the law. 2. That the
army of Egypt is largely recruited from the male On September 26th Mr. Charles Hale, United black adult slaves. And 3. That the fellahs, or farmStates consul-general, entertained at dinner, er population, are glad to have the means of sending at Alexandria, Mehemet Tefvik Pacha, heir
as substitutes for themselves and children, when apparent to the throne of Egypt, together with summoned by the government to forced labor, slaves
bought at these marts. twelve other pachas, principal ministers of the Egyptian Government. Tefvik Pacha proposed Mr. Reade, in the disguise of an Arab, visited the health of the President of the United States a number of slave-markets in Cairo and Tanand the happiness of the American people. tah. In the former city he saw between two
On June 17th a contract was signed between hundred and fifty and three hundred. There the Egyptian Government and an English com- would have been three thousand on sale there, pany for the construction of the proposed but the greater number had been removed to Tantah for an approaching fair. At Tantah pole fixed upon the bank of the canal. The he saw between five and six hundred, but be- condnctors submerged were copper-wire ropes lieves the total number there on sale to have of various lengths, but of the saine diameter been about two thousand. Having made these and construction as those used for the aërial discoveries, he informed the mudir or governor connection. Mr. Wilde's experiments with of the province, who undertook to seize all the these contrivances were very numerous, and slaves in the night and have them freed. He the general conclusions at which he arrived only partially fulfilled his promise, and Mr. can only be given here. He regards the fact Reade tells Lord Stanley that the governor as established, that currents of electricity of was ordered to desist from the work of eman- great quantity, but of an intensity below that cipation by a superior functionary, the Inspec- which is required to effect the electrolyzation tor-General of Provinces.
of the liquid in which the conductors are subRepresentations made by Mr. Reade to Sherif merged, may be transmitted to considerable Pacha were met by an evasive reply. Mr. distances without the necessity of surrounding Reade had afterward an interview with the the conductors with an insulating envelope. minister, and convinced him that the charge But he remarks that it is impossible for him to against Europeans of complicity in the slave- say, without further experiments with contrade was untrue.
ductors of much greater length than those emThe Pacha then complained that European Chris- ployed by him, whether it would be practicable, tians in Upper Egypt were largely engaged in the under the most favorable circumstances, tó slave-trade, but I believe I very soon satisfied him transmit to distant places electric currents that such was not the case. The unsatisfactory, na- sufficiently powerful to be made available for ture of Sherif Pacha's reply to my representations with regard to the slave markets at Tantah and Cairo any useful purpose, under such conditions. will prove to your lordship, better than any thing I One of his experiments on naked copper can state from my own experience, that no reliance wires, 750 feet long, in water, is worthy of whatever can be placed in the antislavery protesta- mention. When currents of high tension were tions of this government.
sent through these wires, a marked diminution The Blue Book contains further communica- of electrodynamic effects was observed at tions, of great interest as to the slave-trade car- the other ends of the wires, but currents of ried 'on in Upper Egypt, from M. Saulter, a low tension passed over the wires with but litGerman missionary at Khartoum, and from the tle diminution of their primitive intensity. Prussian consular agent and the Austrian vice. Using the current from a 10-inch intensity arconsal at Khartoum.
mature, a sufficient quantity of electricity was ELECTRICITY. Submerged Uninsulated transmitted through the wires to produce a Cables.-Mr. H. Wilde, of England, the inventor brilliant electric light, and to melt 22 inches of of the powerful magneto - electric machine iron wire, .050 of an inch thick. With the which bears his name, has been making experi- current of lower intensity from a 5-inch quanments to ascertain with what degree of facility tity armature, 7 inches of the same wire, .035 electric signals may be transmitted through of an inch in diameter were melted. metallic cables submerged, without an insulat- Electric Lights for Light-houses and Ships. ing envelope. The principal electro-motors –M. Ernest Saint Edme presented this subject employed by him were three magneto-electric in a communication to the September number machines of different degrees of power, a
of the Annales du Génie Civil. He says that, Grove's battery, and a Daniell's battery. The since the report made by M. Reynaud, director test of the magnitude of the current adopted of the administration of light-houses in France, by Mr. Wilde in every case was, the melting three years ago, electric lighting in lightof a given quantity of wire, because he had not houses, etc., has not achieved much progress. been able to discover any other method which The reasons of this are stated by the author as could at all compare with that in expressing follows: To transform existing light-houses, easily, and without ambiguity, the associated existing apparatus must be sacrificed for a sole properties of quantity and intensity, especially advantage of increasing the light at any mowhen dealing with currents of such magni- ment. It is doubtful whether all light-houses tude as those evolved from the five and ten are large and strong enough for the accommoinch magneto-electric machines. The building dation of the new machinery; this is certainly which contained the various electro-motors the case with most of those on the French was situated about 100 feet from the edge of coast. As to the light-houses of inferior order, the basin of a navigable canal in which most it would be illusory to think of altering them. of the experiments were made. Connection And other difficulties are inherent in electric between the electro-motors and electrodes and lamps, which, however well designed, are subother conductors submerged in the canal was ject to causes of derangement which render effected by means of two lengths of copper- necessary the best mechanism; and the craywire rope, each 140 feet long and nearly half ons, if impure, may scale, and cause interrupan inch thick. These wire-rope connections tions; and these impurities might cause misconsisted of seven thick copper wires twisted takes incompatible with the service of the lighttogether, and were supported through the air, house. When a new light-house is to be built, and insulated from one another, by means of á it will be advantageous to adopt the electric
light; but the importance of the question, rel- marked; indeed, the one may be said to put ative to the general administration of light the other out. But the most beautiful feature houses, is much less than was at first supposed of the electric was the extraordinary beam it
In 1863, in a notice of the applications of the gave. It shone night after night, large, steady, electric light, the author suggested the lighting and lustrous as a planet, and you could see in of vessels by it. The maritime exhibition at the darkness a beam passing as far as the eye Havre shows that the suggestion has been con
From the tower, with the light at sidered, at least in principle. In the point of the back, it was very marked, and quite lit the view of lighting the course of a ship, no one hills round Paris. The whole horizon in the will deny that the oil lantern is insufficient to plane of the light showed the white beam, and prevent collisions at night; while the electric at the distance of four miles it shone upon the lantern would illumine the air all around, and windows of some houses, making them appear the rocking of the vessel would cause such to be lit up. By extinguishing and relighting changes of light as would attract the notice of quickly several times this was very plain. Altothe men on other vessels. When the whole gether the light was very remarkable, and the cost of a ship is considered, that of electric en- committee were glad to be able to report such gines is insignificant; two or three horse-power an advance as the powers of the light show will work a magneto-electric machine. And over that at Dungeness; indeed, the latter the electric light will serve other purposes on gives to the observer no conception of what board a ship. Recent experiments have shown the present one is; and it is satisfactory to that it would be possible to assist a ship in her know that the result of five years' work and course by dazzling the steersman by a jet of observation, with imperfect and ill-arranged light, when an oil lantern would not be seen apparatus, has now borne such good fruit; and by him.
It can also be used to light under that as England was the first to test and adopt water; an application that concerns the repairs this adjunct to the sources of light-house illuof the sheathing and hulls of vessels, the find- mination, so she still retains her superiority, ing of lost articles, and the catching of fish. It is due, however, to Mr. Holmes to say that The fish are confused by the light, and then great as are the improvements already effected, easily caught. Mons. Dubosc has constructed he states that he is confident he can yet greata lantern well fitted to enclose an electric lamp. ly increase the illuminating power before the The conducting wires are connected so that present apparatus is reërected at a permanent there is no chance for water to leak into the station. lantern. This apparatus can, without fear of Satisfactory experiments have been made too high pressure, be lowered to great depth with the electric light on board the French in the sea.—(Translated for Van Nostrand's iron-clad ship Heroine and the yacht Prince Engineering Mag.)
Jerome, to ascertain the value of the light for The London Chemical News states that the signalling purposes. The machine was fur. electric light at Dungeness can now be worked nished by the Alliance Company, producing a by either of the two engines, so that no dis- light equal to two hundred Carcel burners, or turbance occurs when one requires repairs. sixteen hundred candles. An ordinary newspaThe services of the high-class enginee and per could be read in the direct line of the light firemen have been dispensed with, and the at the distance of 1,531 yards. Signalling was Elder Brethren have their own ordinary keep- most easily done by short and long flashes, and ers trained to drive the engines as well as to was found to be practicable. The Government attend to the lamps, a steady, old, experienced commissioners reported, after an investigation, keeper being placed at the head of the estab- that the apparatus showed a very powerful lishment. Since the alterations made at Dun- focus of light, perfectly suited to night signalgeness, the light there has worked with great ling, or for throwing a light over a coast or a regularity and efficiency, and the Elder Breth- ship; and that it would be most useful on board ren have proposed to place similar lights at the flag-ship of a commander-in-chief. By the the South Foreland, Lowestoft, and Souter aid of this light, the Prince Jerome was enabled Point. The English Board of Trade approve to steam by night through the intricate navithe extension of this mode of illumination to gation of the Bosphorus, when the yacht bethe South Foreland and Lowestoft, but sus- longing to the Viceroy of Egypt was obliged pend their decision respecting Souter Point. to wait until daylight. On some steamers of The committee of Elder Brethren who attend- the French commercial marine the same light ed the Paris Exhibition say, that so far as the produced by the magneto-electric engine has eye is a test, the power of the English fixed been introduced, and is regarded as a practical light was considerably in excess of the French, and when both machines were in use, and Experiments in Electrolysis.-M. Bourgoin there was a good current, the fixed beam of has published a memoir on the electrolysis of the English light did not contrast unfavorably organic acids and their salts. He has found by with the revolving one of the French, the flash experiment that the action of the electric fluid of which is of great power. The contrast of is in reality only a fundamental action on all the electric fixed light with the French first- acids and salts, whether mineral or organic. It order oil dioptric revolving light was very separates the basic element which goes to the negative pole, while the elements of anhydrous battery was tried a rest was always sufficient acid and oxygen, which answer to basic hydro- to restore its action; but after each trial the gen or to metal, fly to the positive pole. Such, force became less, until, after trying it for he claims, is the fundamental action of the thirty-five days, it became so weak as to give electric current. M. Bourgoin has specially only 3o on the galvanometer, and at that studied the action of the current on neutral period a remarkable change took place. The tartrate, on a mixture of tartrate and alkali, sign of the current altered: the current, and on free tartaric acid. To examine the ac- which hitherto had been passing from the agtion on tartaric acid, a concentrated solution glomerated to the gas carbon, was now proof the neutral tartrate of potash is conven- ceeding in the opposite direction. M. Cauderay iently operated upon. As soon as the current states that, on the second day after the fixing passes, the solution becomes alkaline at the of the battery, he thought he remarked a strong negative pole; only a moderate disengagement smell of gas-tar. He perceived that this smell of gas is produced at the two poles. The prin- was accumulated around the last gas carbon cipal result is the formation of a white precip-forming the positive pole of the battery. It itate, which is slowly but continuously de- seemed to him then extremely probable that posited from the positive electrode. Analysis the gases which diffused those smells had been shows this substance to be wholly cream of withdrawn from the interior of the carbons by tartar. The solution at the positive pole re- the current, to be accumulated and disengaged mains neutral during the experiment. The at the positive pole, for previous to their being gas evolved at the positive pole was composed immersed the carbon had no smell whatever. of carbonic acid, oxygen, carbonic oxide, and The agglomerated carbon placed in the same nitrogen. Nearly the whole of the loss takes cell was covered by bands of very brilliant place at the positive pole.
colors, among which were Prussian blue, vioThe tartaric acid thus regenerated at the let, green, etc., arising, he supposes, from the positive pole forms, with the neutral tartrate, decomposition of salts, or, perhaps, from a cream of tartar; there is, however, some tar- small quantity of tar contained in the gas cartaric acid destroyed by oxidation. The action bon. A peculiar fact in connection with these of the current on a mixture of neutral tartrate bands is, that they were precisely similar in and alkali produces quite different results to order to those of the solar spectrum—the red those obtained with neutral tartrate only, not- at top and the violet below, with all the interwithstanding that the fundamental action is mediate colors of the spectrum. the same. At the positive pole a mixture of M. G. Plante has invented a new secondary carbonic acid, carbonic oxide, oxygen and hy- battery,” as he calls it. It consists of a novel dride of ethylen is evolved. M. Berthelot dis- and peculiar arrangement for multiplying the covered acetylen also in the sample of the gas power obtained from a weak source. In form sent him by M. Bourgoin. The decomposition it is not unlike an ordinary condenser. There of free tartaric acid yielded the same products is a rectangular gutta-percha vessel provided as the neutral tartrate, though in different pro- with lateral grooves, and containing a series of portions. The carbonic acid is the dominant lead plates immersed in dilute sulphuric acid. product from the first; the carbonic oxide di- As in a large condenser, the odd plates are minishes as the experiment proceeds; the same joined in one series and the even plates in anis the case with the oxygen and nitrogen, other series; to either end is attached one of thongh to a less extent. Acetic acid is formed the poles of a weak source. Such a battery, at the positive pole. After the fifth day the with six plates only, and a source of two small Esperiment had been in progress, the solution nitrio couples, was strong enough to create in the neighborhood of the positive pole con- temporary incandescence in a platinum wire tained a large quantity of acetic acid, which was one millimetre thick and eight centimetres isolated as acetate of baryta.
long. By increasing the size and number of New Batteries.-M. Cauderay has devised a the plates, more powerful calorific effects, such battery, composed of four elements, of which as incandescence of iron and steel rods, may be the electro-motors consist of perfectly new car- obtained by charging the battery with two or bon plates, the one being what is termed ag- three Bunsen's elements. An arrangement, zlomerated carbon, the other gas carbon. termed by the same inventor his secondary These plates never having been previously tension battery," produces still more remarkused, were, consequently, free from acids and able results. The apparatus consists of forty salts. The battery was connected up in the secondary couples, each couple of lead plates ordinary manner, the carbon of one cell being being in a narrow gutta-percha vessel, imconnected to the gas carbon of the other, and mersed in dilute sulphuric acid, the pole of 89 on. Immediately on being placed in action each vessel being connected to a peculiar comthe battery gave a current of 45° on a galva- mutator, so that the plates could be joined as nometer, and rang a bell perfectly for a space of an arrangement of tension or as one of surface. about ten minutes. The intensity diminished This battery was charged with three couples rapidly after that time; but after a rest of of Bunsen's medium-sized battery. On applyabout one hour the battery had almost recov. ing the current from the secondary circuit, a ered its previous force. Each time that the platinum wire, two metres long and one-quar