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Railway Bridge at India Point, Providence. twenty-two feet long, and six feet thick, resting -Soundings for this bridge were made to ascer- on piles driven to a depth of thirty feet below tain the nature of the river-bed, the depth of the river-bed. The superstructure is of the water, etc., in June, 1868. A good solid bottom ordinary form of Howe truss. was found, consisting of gravel, covered with Bridge over the_Alleghany. - The bridge a layer of mud, on top of which is a crust of of the Pittsburg, Fort Wayne, and Chicago oyster-shells, forming the river-bed. In the Railroad, over the Alleghany River, is now places where the piles were to be sunk, no completed. An interesting account of its conobstructions were discovered, with the excep- struction we extract from the Pittsburg Gation of the stump of an old pile, which was zette: The original superstructure for double removed by the divers. On account of the track was of wood, on the Howe-truss plan, soft, muddy layer of several feet in thickness, with arches for additional strength, and conwhich covers the solid bottom, the piles were sisted of seven spans of various lengths, being driven from temporary platforms. They were in all 1,172 feet long. On account of the pecuconstructed of piles driven in four rows, about 20 liar form and location of the company's freightfeet into the bed of the river, and about 9 feet yard at Pittsburg, an additional pier 101 feet apart; these piles were capped with hard pine, long was built on the wharf, under the first about 13 inches square, and then covered with span on the Pittsburg side, and the abutment spruce plank. The permanent piles are arranged extended parallel with the river, along Duin clusters of 12 for the 2 piers west of the quesne Way, to 148 feet in length. By this draw, and also 2 groups under the draw con- arrangement the bridge opens gradually like a tain the same number. The other groups, five in fan toward the Pittsburg freight-yard, being number, contain 9 piles each. The piles were at the narrowest part, next to the main span, driven in the following manner : the first pile 55 feet in width, and extending out for 176 feet driven in was sharpened on all sides, the bevel in length, to the point where it connects with commencing about 18 inches above the lower the yard, where the width is 138 feet. For end, and the end left about 4 inches square; symmetry and economy in the construction, all the remaining piles, that presented only one another pier was also built on the wharf at the side to those already driven, were sharpened Alleghany City end span of the bridge. At only on one side, and the corner piles and those both of these end spans the tracks are now that were in contact with other piles were supported from below by girders, made ensharpened upon the two opposite sides. They tirely of plate and angle iron. The two westare encased in cast-iron cylinders driven over ern spans have each three girders 89 feet in them, the space between the piles and cylin- length and 6 feet 6 inches deep, to support the ders being firmly packed with concrete; the double line of railway, the middle one being diameter of the cylinders west of the draw is made proportionately stronger. On the two 6 feet; the other 5 feet. The castings were eastern spans, which form the above-mentioned made four and a half feet long, one and an addition to the yard, eighteen iron-plate girders, eighth inches thick, having a flange four and varying in length from 86 to 93 feet, all 6 feet five-eighths inches wide. The weight of the 1 inch deep, are placed, distributed according sections, as they came from the moulds, was, to the tracks they are intended to support. The for those six feet in diameter, 5,459 pounds, five large spans over the main part of the Alleand those five feet in diameter, 4,360 pounds. ghany River are built for a double line of railThe rough castings were covered with a coat- way, with one projecting footpath on the outing of cement, which attached itself firmly to side, consisting of three main girders, one on the rough scale, thus forming a solid, durable each side and one in the centre, between the covering; the sections were then firmly bolted ways. The average length of the spans is 1533 together and carried by a scow to the platform, feet in the clear, with a bearing of 5 feet on upon which they were hoisted, and from there each pier. The depth of the girders is 19 feet. forced down over the piles by means of a pow. The clear width between the outside and the erful screw-press. Notwithstanding the im- central girders is 14 feet, except the south part mense pressure brought to bear upon the cyl- of the first main span, where it widens from inders, they were unable to penetrate the solid 14 feet at one end to 32 feet at the other. The crust of oyster shells at the river-bed; the crust top and bottom sections of the girders are in was then broken up by driving piles all aroundthe form of the letter T; the cross-sectional and the cylinder again lowered; its weight area of the top chord consists of 4 thicknesses alone, this time, carried it about four feet into of iron laid one over the other, well riveted, the crust, and upon piling about ten tons of and forming together a plate 24 inches thick iron together, with continued rocking (accom- and 24 inches wide in the centre part of the plished by means of levers), the cylinder was girder, and diminishing gradually to about two finally forced home; all the others were sunk thirds' its cross-section at the ends, where i in a similar manner.

rests on the piers. In addition to which ther The capping of the piers west of the draw are 2 large angle-irons 5 inches by 3} * incl consists of yellow pine, that of the draw is to } inch thick, and two vertical bars 12 inche formed of oak; the pier upon which the east by 1 inch on the inside between the angle-iron end of the draw rests consists of granite, running along the centre of the horizonta plates which form the top and bottom portion musical note of the monochord exactly coinof the girders, to which they are attached by cided with the note of the tie under comparitwo of the angle-irons, the other two serving son. In this condition, since the two wires to join the flanges to the bars, which form the are of the same steel and of the same length, vertical web. The cross-sectional area of the bot- and give forth the same musical note, their tom chords consists of three thicknesses of iron, tensions are equal, and the weight in the scalewell riveted, forming together a plate, in the pan is the tension of the tie. In this way centre part 24 inches thick, and 27 inches wide, every tension was determined separately and the balance of the construction being similar independently. Mr. Airy reckons that he deterto the top chord. The vertical web is com- mined all the tensions on his model to the exposed of lattice-work, which is framed with tent of Thoth part of the whole tension of each. two sets of bars six inches wide, crossing each An ingenious artifice was employed to elimother and inclined to the top and bottom at an inate the unavoidable errors of original adangle of 48 degrees, and forming a network, justment of the wires, and at the same time the distance of the crossing apart being 2 feet to obtain expressions for the strains of thrust 1 inch between the centres of the rivets, meas- as well as strains of tension; it is clear that ured along the bars, the thicknesses of the bars there must be errors of original adjustment of increasing from inch at the centre part, to the wires, for, even if it were possible so to

inch at the ends of the girders. They are adjust the lengths of the wires that each secured at their crossings by two rivets. The should have the strain due to a certain disposilattice-work is stiffened by vertical angle-irons tion of load, yet this very condition assumes fixed double on both sides, at distances of about that the problem is already solved, and that 8 feet apart. The central girder has about one- we know the exact strain that each wire ought third more iron in the cross-section than the to have; consequently, the determination of outside girders. The principle of the construo- the strains is throughout a differential process : tion is known as the latticed-girder plan with a certain load is laid upon the model, and each Tertical stiffenings.

wire acquires a degree of tension, the precise Bridge Strains.—Mr. W. Airy has invented amount of which is determined by the method and applied a very novel and ingenious of comparison with the monochord; these method of determining bridge strains. The tensions are booked, and an additional load is problem was on the determination of the then introduced ; this will cause an alteration strains on every one of the intermediate bars of the tensions on every wire, and the tenconnecting the top and bottom members of a sions of all are again taken. The differences bowstring bridge as ordinarily constructed, of the tensions, before and after the introducthe said strains being those due to various ar- tion of the additional load, are formed for rangements of weights upon the bridge. To every wire, and these represent the strains on solve this problem practically, Mr. Airy has the wires due to the additional load only. The availed himself of the sense of hearing, or same process determines also the strains of rather of comparison of musical sounds. It thrust, for thrust is but negative tension, and is well known that a steel wire, if stretched if the tension of a wire, after the additional and sounded, will give forth a note dependent load is introduced, be less than it was previouson its weight, length, and tension. If, there- ly, the difference is negative, and represents a fore, two wires of the same steel, and of equal thrust strain of that amount on that wire. lengths, and at equal tensions, are sounded, Mr. Airy also discovered a ready method for they will give forth the same note, and, con- throwing all the wires into tension, by a uniFersely, if they give forth the same musical form distribution of the preliminary load note, it is to be inferred that the tensions are along the whole length of the model. equal. In order to turn this principle to ac- BŘOOKE, Sir JAMES, K. C. B., D. C. L., count, a model of a bowstring girder was con- · Rajah of Sarâwak, and Governor of Labuan, structed with great care, of which the inter- an English knight-errant, philanthropist, and mediate ties were of thin steel wire. If, governor, whose love of adventure made his therefore, a load were hung from the string career one of the most remarkable of modern these ties would at once go into tension, and times, born in Bandel, Zillah Hoogly, Bengal, each one, if sounded, would give forth a music in 1803; died at Burrator, Devon, June 11, cal note due to its length and tension. To de- 1868. His father, who was a government termine this tension, a wooden frame was con- officer of considerable wealth and prominence, structed, and in this frame was hung a wire of returned to England when James was a child, the same steel as the ties; a sliding bridge was and he received his education there. His provided by which the wire could be cut off to father's influence secured him a cadetship in any required length, by merely leaning against the East-Indian army, and he soon distinguished the bridge, and a small scale-pan was fastened himself by his bravery and daring. He was to the end of the wire. This frame was in most of the engagements of the Burmese moved close up to the model, and the wire in War, under Sir Archibald Campbell, but in the the frame being cut off by the bridge to the storming of a stockade, in 1826, 'received a exact length of any one of the ties, the scale- severe gunshot wound in the chest, and was pan was gradually loaded with weights till the forced to return to England for surgical treat

VOL. VIII.-6

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ment. Having recovered, he was ordered to investigation of his conduct. This resulted in report for duty in India, but, his furlough being a complete approval, in his receiving the honor extended, he travelled for a time on the Con- of being created Knight Commander of the tinent, and, being shipwrecked on his voyage Order of the Bath, and a baronetcy, and of his to India, did not reach headquarters till some appointment as Governor of the island of Labtime after its expiration. Finding that he had uan, near Sarawak (which had been purthus forfeited his position in the army, he re- chased by the British Government), with a signed, and sailed from Calcutta, for China, in salary £2,000. He still retained his office as 1830. Observing the condition of the islands Rajah of Sarâwak. He returned to his Dyaks of the Indian Archipelago, and the prevalence and prosecuted, with even more zeal than of piracy there, he formed the determination to before, his measures for their improvement and attempt the improvement of their condition. elevation. The port of Sarâwak, which at bis Returning to Europe in 1834, after the death of first visit contained but 1,000 inhabitants

, had his father, he purchased one of the yachts of the risen, under his management, to a population Royal Yacht squadron, and, selecting a crew of 25,000, and its exports from £25,000 to with great care, whom he drilled thoroughly in more than £300,000. He compiled laws, a preliminary cruise in the Mediterranean, he coined money, made roads, established schools, sailed from London, in October, 1838, for the raised a regular revenue, and provided for the East. Arriving at Sarawak, a province on the security of persons and property, and the north west coast of Borneo, he found Muda strict administration of justice. But his Hassim, the uncle of the Sultan of Borneo, enemies were still unsatisfied. Taking advanand acting Rajah of the province, carrying on tage of a change of administration, they proan unequal contest with rebel tribes from the cured his removal from the governorship of interior, who descended in large bands upon Labuan, thwarted his projects for making the his territory to plunder and lay it waste. He ports of Borneo free to British vessels, and proinptly offered his assistance, and, with his professed the utmost horror at the strictness of guns and trained troops, soon punished the his rule over the lawless and thievish tribes of rebels so severely that they were glad to make the interior, and the Chinese pirates, who peace. Muda Hassim at once prompted his began again to make their appearance on the nephew to offer the Englishman the rajahship coast of Borneo. The attachment of his peoand make him absolute governor of the prov- ple was strikingly manifested in 1857, when ince. Mr. Brooke accepted the appointment, he was suddenly attacked in his house, at and, selecting a council of intelligent Dyaks to night, by a band of about 4,000 Chinese aid him in administering the government, he pirates and opium-smugglers, who hated him commenced a series of reforms which, carried for his interference with their nefarious busiout through many years, entitled him to be re- ness. They burned his house, destroyed his garded as the greatest benefactor of the native gardens, and committed terrible havoc with population of Borneo. He would not suffer his property, and he was compelled to save the people of Sarawak to be taxed for his sup- his own life by swimming. In the early port, but maintained himself upon his own in- morning, however, he had collected his faithcome, and the rewards paid by the British ful Dyaks, who were almost frantio with grief Government for the suppression of piracy. for the losses which the Chinese had inflicted His people had been a nation of pirates, but, upon him, and, leading them in person, attacked by attaching the native rulers to himself by the Chinese, defeated them in several succeshis astute measures for their welfare, and by sive fights, and drove them into the jungle, making war upon pirates a pastime, he suc- with a loss of over 2,000 killed. The next ceeded, in a few years, in clearing the entire year he returned to England again, and though archipelago of its bands of freebooters. He a public subscription was made, amounting to accustomed his people to the strict execution a large sum, to reimburse his losses at Sarawak, of justice, suffered no bribes to be given, was yet the bitter attacks made upon him by his a9 accessible to the lowest and humblest of enemies in Parliament distressed him, and bis subjects as to the mightiest; encouraged probably induced a paralytic attack, from industry, commerce, and such manufactures as which he suffered that year. He made his they were capable of producing, and so won residence thenceforward in Burrator, Devon, the love of his people, that they almost paid but in 1861 made two voyages to Borneo, for him divine honors. The jealousy of some of the purpose of suppressing an insurrection, the officials of the East India Company was and settling the government, which he afterexcited, by the independence of the Rajah; ward left in charge of his nephew, though they coveted his territory, and desired to he retained the title and anthority of Rajah squeeze from the natives the revenue which till his death. Portions of his journals have Rajah Brooke had so nobly refused, and hence been published, and also “The Private Letters they were loud in their clamors against him, of Sir James Brooke, K. O. B., from 1838 to to the English Government, to which he was 1853,” edited by J. C. Temples, Esq., in three really not responsible. Waiving his rights in vols., London, 1853. the matter, however, Mr. Brooke visited Eng- BROUGHAM, HENRY, Lord BROUGHAM AND land, in 1847, and courted the most thorough Vaux, a British statesman and reformer, Lord Chancellor of England 1830–1834, born in Edin- practice in the common law courts, and in the burgh, September 19, 1778; died in Cannes, northern circuit. He was employed in the France, May 9, 1868. His father, Henry winter of 1809-'10 by some Liverpool merBrougham, was the descendant of an ancient chants to bring their grievances before the family in Westmoreland, and his mother, Eleo- House of Commons, and ask for the repeal of nora Syme, was a niece of Robertson the his- the Orders in Council, and in his advocacy of torian. Young Brougham was afforded excel their cause displayed such eloquence and legal lent advantages of education, receiving his ability, that he attracted public notice, and beearly training in the Edinburgh High School, came a distinguished favorite of the leading and being transferred at an early age to the Whigs, who caused his election to Parliament University. He was particularly fond of math- the same year for the pocket borough of Camematical studies, and at the age of eighteen or elford. In Parliament his vehemence in denineteen communicated to the Royal Society bate, his aggressive zeal, bis caustic wit, and of Edinburgh three mathematical papers which unsparing sarcasm, combined with a remarkable possessed such merit as to be published in the and convincing eloquence, made him a welSociety's Transactions. He was, even at that come and valued addition to the Whig force, age, a proficient in the highest branches of and a formidable opponent to the Tories. He mathematical science; and late in life he often associated himself with the most advanced avowed the opinion that he had mistaken his Whigs, and proved a valuable recruit to Wilcalling; that he should have devoted his life berforce and Clarkson, who had been, for years, to mathematical studies, and that in them he struggling against the slave-trade. Within a might have surpassed all previous mathemati- few months after entering Parliament, he had cians. After taking his first degree at the Uni- carried the first public measure he proposed, versity, he spent some time in travelling on that of making the slave-trade a felony. He the Continent, and in 1800 was admitted to the was unceasing in his attacks upon the measScotch bar. He became about this time a ures of the Tory Government, and in 1812 member of the “Speculative Club,” an associa- succeeded in carrying the repeal of the obnoxtion for the discussion of metaphysical and ious Orders in Council. He had also successpolitical questions, and was then brought into fully defended Leigh Hunt, the poet-editor, intimacy with Jeffrey, Horner, and Sydney against a libel prosecution instituted by the Smith, with whom in 1802 he participated in Government. He had advocated Catholic the establishment of the Edinburgh Review, to emancipation, reform in the government of which from its commencement he was a con- India, and the abolition of flogging in the army. stant contributor, and the writer of some of its At the general election in 1812, he boldly conmost powerful and caustic articles. So versa- tested (in company with another Whig) the tile were his talents, and so wide the range of membership for Liverpool

, against Mr. Canhis knowledge, that no subject came amiss to ning and his Tory associate. But the great him. He was equally at home in physical and Tory minister was too strong in Liverpool to mathematical science, history, biography, lit- be beaten, and Brougham and his friend were erary criticism, and politics, and even plunged defeated. In a subsequent canvass for a seat into the more recondite investigations of the from Scotland, he was also defeated, and remedical and surgical professions. With two mained out of Parliament till 1816, when he classes of topics, however, he did not interfere, was returned for Winchelsea, and again became theology and poetry. For neither of these had an opposition leader. He signalized his rehe any predilection. He displayed marked turn to the House of Commons also by a moveability as an advocate, but his known liberal ment of inquiry into the state of education of opinions imbittered the Tories, who were the poor in the metropolis, which he followed, largely in the majority, against him, and the in 1818, by procuring the appointment of a character he had acquired

for eccentricity and commission to inquire into the abuses of the indiscretion prevented his attaining a large public charitable foundations of the kingdom practice, except in the unremunerative work of connected with education. These efforts for the criminal courts. In 1807, he was retained the

improvement of the schools and the estabas one of the counsel in the case of the disputed lishment of a system of national education were succession of the dukedom of Roxburgh before never intermitted until the end sought was the House of Lords. His argument in this gained. He had acquired by this time also a case was one of hisefinest efforts, and attracted high reputation as an advocate in the defence the attention of the nation to the eloquent of persons prosecuted for libel or other offences young advocate, who, yet under thirty years by the crown. His most famous appearance in of age, could bring such learning, research, and this capacity was in 1820 and 1821, when, aslegal ability to such a cause. Encouraged by sociated with Lord Denman, he undertook the the warmth of his reception in London, and defence of Queen Caroline against the charges despairing of any speedy success in Scotland, of the King, before the House of Lords. Both Brougham now resolved to remove to the me- the eminent counsel knew that the result tropolis, and was called to the bar at Lincoln's would be their exclusion for years to come Inn in 1808. He rose rapidly in his profes- from all professional advancement; but sion, and soon acquired a large and lucrative Brougham's defence was bold, able, eloquent,

COUNTRIES.

the following statistics were reported of the September 30, 1867, from the mission press at churches in connection with the “Union:" Rangoon, a total of 90,750 copies of books and Number of churches, 2,411; of chapels, 2,642; tracts, comprising 5,502,800 pages. The theoof members, 221,524, a clear increase of 7,757. logical seminary at Rangoon has had an averAdditions to the ministry, 88; 25 new places of age attendance of about 58 pupils, who were worship have been erected at a cost of £33,623, supported at a total expense of $1,375.70, or and 31 others enlarged. The “General Bap- $23.72 each. Two missions (Bassein and Rantists,” who lean toward the “ Unitarians,” re- goon) are supported in Burmah by the Amerported, in 1868, 20,399 members, 537 less than ican Free Mission Society. In the Bassein in 1865. The baptisms of 1867 fell short of mission there is 1 missionary on duty, with a those of 1862 by 619.

Karen co-laborer. Members, 5,862; village The “ Baptist Union,” at its meeting held in schools, 43; pupils, 1,173. In the Rangoon May, declared in favor of the establishment of mission there are 2 'missionaries; nearly 1,000 an equitable system of national education, with members have been added in 6 years ; 20 new separation of secular and religious instruction, chapels were erected last year. Pupils in the the former only to be controlled by the State. schools, 1,500. The receipts of the Baptist Missionary Society The distinguishing feature of the Assamese were £39,912, the largest it ever has had ex- mission (Amer. Bapt. Miss. Union) during the cept in the Jubilee year. The number of past year has been the work among the Garos, missionaries and assistants was 58; of native. where a church of nearly 40 members has churches, 105; of members connected with sprung up almost in a day. There are two missions, 6,200.

schools, and four Garo assistants are already V. BAPTISTS ON THE CONTINENT OF EUROPE. engaged. There has been issued a total of -The Baptist Churches on the Continent of 547,400 pages of books and tracts from the Europe have generally been organized by the press of this mission. American Baptist Missionary Union, and most The Mission to the Teloogoos (Amer. Bapt. of them remain in connection with it. Accord- Miss. Union) reports the following statistics: ing to the last annual report of the Union, the Missionaries, 3, and their wives; native assiststatistics of the Baptist churches on the Conti- ants, etc., 9; stations, 6; members, 139, an innent of Europe were, in December, 1867, as crease of 93. Local receipts of over 1,200 rufollows:

pees have been realized at the Nellore station.

In Siam, the Amer. Bapt. Miss. Union supports 1 missionary and wife, and has 1 station.

There are 24 members, an increase of 2; France.....

373

2 missionaries and their wives and 2 female Germany

67 12,631 11,894 Denmark.

missionaries labor among the Chinese popula17 1,726 1,726 Holland

tion of Siam. The number of members of this Switzerland,

mission is 53; number of baptized during the Poland

352

year, 40. Russia..

857

In China, the Amer. Bapt. Miss. Union has Sweden. 199 7,444 6,875

now two missions: the Southern China Mis297 23,796 22,462 sion (late Tie Chin) and Eastern China Mis

sion (late Ningpo Mission). The statistics of Outside of Sweden, where the Baptist missions the former mission were: Missionaries, 3, and are self-supporting and independent, there are, their wives; out-stations, 11; native assistants, in the European missions, 1,118 stations, with 9, 2 of whom have been ordained during the about 250 ministers and colporteurs; 102 Sun- year. The statistics of the latter: Missionaday-schools, with 3,194 scholars. The church- ries, 4, and their wives; native assistants, etc., es in Sweden form 10 Associations.

16 ; stations and out-stations, 12; preachingVI. Asia.—The missions of the American places, 13; churches, 5; baptized, 30; memBaptist Missionary Union in Burmah now con- bers, 178; local contributions, $93.49. A new stitute a separate Association. The convention station has been opened at Hang Chau, 100 of 1867 was attended by 91 members, of whom miles from Ningpo. It has 8 members. The 15 were American missionaries, 20 native or- Board of Foreign Missions of the Southern dained preachers, 38 native unordained preach- Baptist Convention sustains in China 7 Ameriers, and 18 native laymen. There are 10 dis- can missionaries with several native helpers, at tricts, with 20 missions. The number of bap- Canton, Shanghai, and Shantung. The mission tisms reported in 1866 and 1867 is 1,172; pres- has 180 members, of whom 39 have been bapent number of members, 19,231 ; pupils in tized during the year. The Seventh-Day Bapschools, 4,517; of churches, 360 ; of ordained tist Missionary Society has a mission church native preachers, 66 ; of unordained native of 20 members, with a native pastor. preachers, 246. The total of benevolent con- The mission of the Free-Will Baptists in tributions from 12 missions, for the two years, India has been more than usually successful. is 20,187 rupees. The contributions for schools, There are now some 70 or 80 pupils in the norbooks, etc., from 6 missions, 5,368 rupees. mal schools, over 900 in the boarding and day There have been issued in the year ending schools, and about 700 in the Sabbath-schools.

Churches,

1867.

Members,
Dec., 1867.

Members,
Dec., 1866.

6

358

1 3

60 292

52 292 812

3

918

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