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The area is now (Behm Geogr. Jahrbuch, which is to navigate by steamers and with vol. II., Gotha, 1868) estimated at 535,769 other vessels the Bolivian rivers which are square miles.

The population of the nine tributary to the Madeira, the principal affluent provinces, into which the republic was divided of the Amazon. The Government conceded in 1858, was as follows:

in favor of the company the following priviLa Paz........ 475,322 Veni...... 55,973 leges and rights: Cochabamba... 349,891 Atacama 5,273 1. In the populated ports it gives in property to Potosi... 281,229 Chuquisaca.

the company one square mile of State lands, and at 223,668

1,744,351 the points where new ports should be founded to faOruro 110,931 Indians

24,500 cilitate commerce, according to the judgment of the Santa Cruz 153,164 Tarija..

company, a square of the same lands upon the river 88,900

Total .... 1,768,851 margins, which shall have two leagues front and two The capital, La Paz, has 76,372 inhabitants. of depth, the company having the right to make that The army formerly consisted of 2,000 men,

use of them which may be most to its interests.

2. The Government of Bolivia will pay to the combut was, in 1866, in consequence of the war pany $10,000 gold, the day upon which the first with Spain, raised to 3,000 men, 500 of whom steamer moves upon the waters of the Mamore, as a were cavalry. In 1867 the revenue was 2,471,- premium offered by the Government in supreme de000 piasters, and the expenditures 2,435,000 cree of 1853.

3. The same Government concedes to the company piasters. The revenue in 1865 was estimated the right to cut wood for burning, exportation, and at about 3,000,000 piasters, nearly one million other uses, in the forests which have no private and a half being a tribute from the Indians, owner, and that of collecting, 8,000 head of horned 450,000 import duties, 315,000 export duties, cattle from the herds owned by the State in the deand the remainder the proceeds of mines, this collection in the method most to the advantage

partment of the Beni—it being the obligation to make stamp duties, etc. There is neither a direct of the Government and the company, tax nor a public debt, nor paper money. The 4. The Government guarantees to the company the imports are valued at about 5,570,000 piasters. free exportation of the products of the country with

A new Congress was elected'in 1868, the out paying duties or imposts of any class. The imnumber of deputies elected by the several prov- pay half of the tariff of duties collected upon those

portation of merchandise and foreign effects will only inces being as follows: Chuquisaca, 8; La Paz, imported by Cobija. One and the other privileges 8; Cochabamba, 6; Potosi, 8; Oruro, 4; San- will continue for ten years, counting from the day ta Cruz, 4; Tarija, 4; Cobija, 2; Veni, 2; upon which the navigation of the Madeira may be free Tarate, 6; Mejillones, 2. The new Congress from impediment by the clearing of the rapids, it bemet on August 6th, and confirmed all the acts this time. This term of ten years expired, the Govof President Melgarejo, inclusive of the treaty ernment can only levy upon the merchandise imof Bolivia. As some deputies (especially Se- ported by the Madeira a duty inferior by one-third por Muñoz Cabrera) made, however, a violent part to that recovered by Cobija, until the twenty-five opposition to the treaty, amidst the applause years mentioned in the following article have ex

. of the galleries, the Congress was dissolved at the point of the bayonet.

BRADBURY, WILLIAM B., a musical teacher In September, President Melgarejo issued a and composer, and, since 1854, one of the most decree extending the rights of citizenship to successful piano manufacturers in the United Americans. The articles of the decree are: States, born in York, Maine, in 1816; died in

1: No American shall be considered a foreigner in Montclair, N. J., January 7, 1868. Both his Bolivia.

parents were well known as excellent singers, 2. Every American, of whatever nationality he be, and from them he inherited that musical taste, can obtain Bolivian citizenship by alone declaring in the development of which has rendered his writing, in the presence of any of the prefects, his name a household word. Before he was fourwish to settle in the republic. His name being in- teen, he had mastered every instrument that scribed in the civic register, the same prefect will extend him his citizenship papers.

came in his way; but until 1830 he had never 3. Americans may in like manner freely exercise seen an organ or a piano. In that year he in the republic their liberal, scientific, literary or moved to Boston, where he formed the acartistic professions, in all cases, on presenting their respective diplomas, credentials, or titles extended quaintance of Dr. Lowell Mason and his coadto them by competent and legalized authority, in jutor, George J. Webb, who at that time stood proper form for its examination and acceptation by at the head of the musical celebrities of New the national government.

England. In 1834 he was known as a practical 4. The present decree shall be considered as con- organist, and six years later began teaching in firming that of the 18th March, 1866.

New York under the most flattering auspices. The Minister of Foreign Affairs was directed His free singing-schools in this city and Brookto communicate both decrees to the govern- lyn became very popular, and, on his concert ments of the American nations, soliciting at nights, the old Tabernacle, between Franklin the same time the adoption of like measures to and Leonard Streets, on Broadway, was filled extend to the whole continent the privileges to overflowing. On these occasions, his peraccorded.

formers, all children, numbered from five hunBy a decree of August 27th, a contract was dred to one thousand. These concerts gave made with Colonel George E. Church, engi- Mr. Bradbury great notoriety, and secured him neer of New York, for the establishment of a hosts of friends. He had many enemies, too, “ National Bolivian Navigation Company," among members of his profession, and they

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made more than one futile attempt to destroy Dominio Joseph Gonzalvez de Magelhães, aphis popularity, going so far at one time as to or- pointed in 1867. ganize an association to oppose him. About this The area of Brazil is estimated at about time he published his “Golden Chain,” which 3,231,047 square miles. The population, * achad an immense sale, but was mercilessly crit- cording to a recent work published by the icised by his rivals, on account of a few trifling Brazilian Government (L'Empire de Brésil, errors which it contained. These were cor- Rio de Janeiro, 1867), was 11,780,000, of whom rected by the well-known composer, Hastings, 1,400,000 were negro slaves, and 500,000 Inwho assisted Mr. Bradbury in the preparation dians. The population of the capital, Rio de of several other deservedly popular musical Janeiro, is estimated at 600,000. works. Among these were The Shawm" In the budget for the years 1869–70, the and “The Jubilee.” “The Key Note” and expenditure is estimated at 70,786,927 paper “The Temple Choir,” both very popular, were milreis (350 paper reis, or 180 silver reis, among his later publications. During these are equal to about 19 cents (gold); 1 milreis many years of labor, Mr. Bradbury had not means 1,000 reis), the revenue at 70,000,000 neglected his studies in the art which he somilreis; the deficit at 786,927 milreis. The passionately loved; but, feeling that there was chief source for the revenue are the customs. still much to learn, he went to Leipsic in 1847, The external debt, on December 31, 1866, where he received instruction from the best amounted to 381,189,950 milreis; the interGerman masters. He studied harmony and nal consolidated debt, .

.on April 15, 1868, to composition with Hauptmann, vocal music with 125,206,700 milreis. Boehme, the piano with Wenzel, and a first- The standing army, in 1867, consisted of class teacher superintended his practice on the 25,844 men. The strength of the army emorgan. In 1854 he began in New York the ployed in the war against Paraguay was esti manufacture of pianos, and these soon ac- mated, in April, 1868, at 42,998 men, of whom, quired a very high reputation for their excel- however, 10,816 were reported sick. The tolent tone and perfection of workmanship. tal number of Brazilian troops forwarded to Meantime he was bringing out with great the war since the commencement was 84,rapidity those juvenile collections of music 219 (up to May 1st). The fleet, in 1868, was which have made his name a household word composed as follows: 1. Iron-clads, 17 afloat, all over the land. Among them were the 4 in course of construction. 2. Other armed “Golden Chain,” “Golden Shower,” “Gold- vessels, 63. 3. Vessels not armed: 3 frigates, en Censer,” “Golden Trio," and "Fresh Lau- 2 corvettes, 1 brig, 1 transport. There are also rels," his last work. No collection of religious (since the early part of 1868) twelve screw music ever had so extensive a sale as these launches intended for the police of the Amabooks. More than three millions of copies of zon. They are fifty feet long, draft three feet, his musical works have been sold. His exces- and mount a thirty-two pound swivel forward. sive labors induced pulmonary disease, and for A fine steamer called the Arary had also come two years previous to his death he had been in from England for the Amazonas Navigation very feeble health.

Company, which steamer is 221 feet long, 26 BRAZIL, an empire in South erica. Em- beam, 10 hold, and of 739 tons burden. peror, Pedro II., born December 2, 1825; suc- The imports and exports of Brazil during ceeded his father, Pedro I., on April 7, 1831. the three years 1865–1867 were as follows The Emperor has no son. His oldest daughter, (value expressed in milreis): Princess Isabella, is married (since October, 1864) to Count d’Eu, grandson of the late king


156,900,000 143,800,000

1865-'66. Louis Philippe of France. The second daugh

157,000,000 138,100,000 1864–65.

141,100,000 131,600,000 ter, Princess Leopoldina, is married (since December, 1864) to the Duke Augustus of Saxe- Chiefly concerned in the foreign trade of Coburg-Gotha. Duke Augustus has two sons: Brazil, in 1867, were the following countries: Prince Pedro, born March 19, 1866; and



Great Britain and Prince Augustus, born December 6, 1867.



58,300,000 A new ministry (Conservative) was appointed United States...... 31,200,000 4,300,000 in July, 1868, composed of the following mem- France..

18,660,000 22,000,000 bers: President and Minister of Finance, Sen

Argentine Republic 7,000,000 12,300,000 ator Viscount de Itaborahy; Interior, Dr. Pau


4,300,000 5,600,000 lin Joseph Soarez de Souza; Justice, Dr. Jo- The chief article of export is coffee, of which seph Martiniano de Alencar; Foreign Affairs, Rio de Janeiro alone, in 1867, exported 425,5 Senator Joseph Maria da Silva Paranhas; War, millions of pounds, valued at 87.8 millions of Senator Baron de Murityba; Navy, Senator · milreis. Baron de Cotegipe; Public Works, Commerce, The movement of shipping of the year 1866– and Agriculture, Joachim Antāó Fernandez '67 was as follows: Leão.

Minister of the United States in Brazil, in * The names of the twenty provinces into which Bra1868, was J. Watson Webb (accredited October zil is divided, with the pame of the capital of each, and 21, 1861); Brazilian Minister at Washington, AMERICAN CYCLOPÆDIA for 1867.

the free and slave population, are given in the ANNUAL










Foreiga. Brazilian



under Brazilian

eral of a mild character, the public health returning in a little time to a satisfactory condition.

The Government of the United States of America

again offered its gracious mediation for the reëstab3,439 | 1,245,214


1,496,274 lishment of peace with Paraguay. While thanking 43,570


that nation, the Government of Brazil declared, how3,694 1,288,784 2,638 1,543,977 ever, in agreement with the allied republics, that the Coasting Tessels

same reasons existing, strengthened by the late tri

umphs, which prevented acceptance of the first offer, 4,038 796,757 3,661 642.799 a different procedure could not now be taken. The port of Santos, which is the only port of March, 1867, a treaty of friendship, boundaries,

The empire celebrated with Bolivia, on the 25th of foreign trade allowed to the province of São navigation, commerce, and extradition. Paulo, rose in 1868 to the fourth rank as re- An agreement as to the meaning of the 9th article gards exportation, being exceeded only by Rio of the consular convention with Switzerland has been Janeiro, Bahia, and Pernambuco. In imports signed at Berne, with the purpose of preventing any it would have the same rank, instead of the dispute regarding the collection, administration, and

liquidation of inheritances. seventh, if it were not that six-sevenths of its

With the product of the new taxes the revenue of imports of foreign goods come from Rio Ja- the empire exceeds the ordinary expenditure, and neiro, where the duties are paid, the bonded the estimates show a surplus. Notwithstanding this, system not having been adopted in Brazil as

economy is an unavoidable necessity, so much the

more as the exigencies of the war require extraordiyet. In the financial year of 1866-'67 the com

nary expenditures, for which I hope you will empower merce of the port was as follows:

the Government. The development of education and Esports of produce.....


public instruction should be one of the principal obEsports of produce coastwise.. 2,900,000

jects of your watchfulness. Esports of foreign goods coastwise.. 30,085

The municipal institution requires a reform based Imports from abroad, direct... 773,380

on the dictates of experience. The law of elections Imports from abroad, coastwise. 4,477,680 urgently demands a modification, in order that it may Imports of produce coastwise... 696,000

assure the liberty of vote. A law of recruitment and

a military penal and practice code continue to be Total .........


much-felt wants in our legislation, as it becomes inThe duties on these exports and imports of the national guard. Immigration calls for special

dispensable to reform the law of December 3, 1841, amounted to $490,000.

solicitude, and the means of facile communications The General Assembly of Brazil was opened are equally worthy of particular care. The servile by the Emperor, on May 9th. The principal element has been an object of assiduous study, and

at a convenient moment the Government will submit points of the home and foreign policy of the

a suitable bill for your wisdom. empire were thus referred to in the speech fron the throne:

On July 11th, a difference occurred between

the Emperor and the (Liberal) Zacharias minPublic tranquillity has been maintained throughout istry upon the question of the Emperor's selecthe empire, an evident proof of the deep love of the tion of a Conservative instead of a Liberal as a peace with the foreign powers, and seeks to cul- senator for the province of Rio Grande de tsitate their good relations. The war, to which we Norte; the ministry resolved to resign, and, as were provoked by the President of the Republic of it persisted in its determination, the resignaperunced in the speech with which I closed the legis- tion was finally accepted upon the 14th. The latise session of last year, glorious and important Emperor then instructed the Visconde de Itaboceeds, such as Potreira Ovelha, Tayi, the defence of rahy, Conservative, to organize a ministry, and Tayuty, the passage of Humaita, and the taking of on the 16th the decrees of appointment were Estabelecimento, and also the repulse of the boarding signed. (The names of the ministers have been Curapaity, and of a great part of the enemy's lines, given above.) On the 17th the programme of save proved still more the value

of our sea and land the new ministry was declared, acknowledging furces and those of our allies,

and promise a brief and the need of some reforms, but postponing their henorable termination to the war. I have again the consideration, and asking the Ohamber of been sided by every Brazilian in the defending of the Deputies to proceed at once to vote the supsational honor, outraged by the President of Para- plies, indispensable in the present condition of

the Treasury. But a vote of want of confiI feel deep sorrow in telling you that small-pox dence was at once proposed by Senhor José mised so considerable losses to the expeditionary Bonifacio, and, after a short debate, in which prienn from the capital of Matto Grosso as to force it the ministry declared that it would accept the

any lives in that city and its neighborhood. The motion as equivalent to a refusal to give supplies, treat of the column was signalized by the brilliant it was carried in the same session by 85 to 10, les del Alegre, showing that the diminished number all the Liberals uniting against the ministry. * Brazilians fighting in that province-a province On Saturday, the 18th, the decree of dissolusal worthy of respect for its constancy in adversity tion was signed, and on Monday the Chamber to them in material resources. Cholera morbus, of Deputies was formally dissolved. The new with a short time ago, unhappily desolated Monte- ministry dismissed all the Presidents (Governiles and the Argentine Republic, likewise made vic- ors) of States, Vice-Presidents, chiefs of pofimus in our transports and stations, and some caseg lice, and, in general, all blic officers belong

places in some of our provinces, but, thanks to ing to the Liberal party. Extraordinary efforts Divine Providence, did not spread, and was in gen- were made by the new ministry to carry the


126 183



election, and, in September, they were success- The merchant navy, at the close of the year ful, the result being an overwhelming majority 1867, consisted of 287 vessels, together of for the Conservatives.

115,587 lasts (one last =4,000 lbs.). General Caxias, the commander of the Bra- The movement of emigration from the port zilian troops in Paraguay, having refused to let of Bremen, since 1854, has been as follows: the American gunboat Wasp go up the Paraguay River for Mr. Washburn, the Ainerican minis

Emigrants ter in Paraguay (see Paraguay), General Webb,


73,971 226 the American minister in Brazil, on July 7th, de- 1866.

61,877 179 manded, first, an ample apology; second, a con- 1861–65 (annual average). 20,397 demnation of the conduct of Caxias; third, free 1856-'60.

32,450 .

31,550 174 license for the Wasp to go up at once, threaten

76,875 ing to close his diplomatic relations with Brazil if a satisfactory reply were not given by August Total since 1854...... 528,595 2,484 4th. The Brazilian Government complied with the demand, and friendly relations between the BREWSTER, Sir David, K. I., F. R. S. L. two Governments were restored. The repeated and E., LL.D., D. C. L., associate member of the offer of the United States to mediate in the war Imperial Institute of France, etc., a distinguished against Paraguay was declined by the Brazilian British physicist and author, who had done Government.

more than any other man of his time to popuThe Conservative party, which has been in larize science, born at Jedburgh, Scotland, Depower since July, being opposed to freeing cember 11, 1781 ; died at Allerly, near Melrose, slaves and to taking any steps toward such an February 10, 1868. His father, who was rector object, no further advance was made by the of the Grammar School of Jedburgh, had descause of emancipation. The (Liberal) Žach- tined him as well as his three brothers for the arias ministry were in favor of declaring all the ministry, but his love for natural science was so births after a certain future date to be free, so strong, that he chose to devote himself to it as to get rid of slavery entirely when the genera- rather than to theology, though all his brothtion then existing should be extinct. This mat- ers had followed the paternal wishes. He ter, however, it did not intend to take in hand was educated at the University of Edinburgh, until the war was over and the army returned, where he enjoyed the society as well as the so that, in case of any troubles through the ex- instructions of Robinson, Playfair, and Dugald citement of the slaves or slave-owners, the Stewart. Early in his twentieth year he commeans might be ready to repress the turbulence. menced those researches into the composition

The war against Paraguay continued through- and influence of light which were continued out the year. The levying of fresh troops led for many years, and which were eventually to several times to riots, all of which were make his name so famous. In 1807 his repromptly suppressed. (On the progress of the markable researches had caused the University war, see ParagUAY.)

of Aberdeen. to confer upon him the degree of BREMEN, a republic belonging to the North- LL. D., and in 1808 he was elected a fellow of German Confederation. Burgomasters, Johann the Royal Society of Edinburgh. In that year Daniel Meyer (1867–1871); President of the also, at the age of twenty-seven, he projected Senate for the year 1866, Arnold Duckwitz and commenced that great work, the Edin(1865–69). Area, 74 square miles; population burgh Cyclopædia, of which he continued the in 1867, (109,572 (in 1864, 104,091). Popula- editor till its completion in 1830, and in which tion of the city of Bremen, in 1867, 74,945 (in he first published the results of his researches 1864, 70,692). In the budget for 1868, the rev- on light, and kindred topics. In 1813, he pubenue is estimated at 1,960,113 thalers, the ex- lished a “Treatise on New Philosophical Inpenditure at 2, 286,557

thalers; deficit, 326,444 struments," in which, after describing various thalers. The public debt, in 1867, amounted optical instruments used in the arts and to 12,066,394 thalers. In virtue of a conven- sciences, he detailed some of his important estion concluded with Prussia, on June 27, 1867, periments in light and colors. He commenced the recruits of Bremen are incorporated with also about this time his contributions of imthe Prussian army. The value of imports and portant papers to the Royal Society of London, exports of Bremen, in 1867 and 1866, as com- two of which are particularly noticeable, that pared with the annual average of former peri- "On some Properties of Light," and that on ods, was as follows (value expressed in million Polarization of Light by Reflection.” The thalers (gold]):

latter gained him the Copley Medal, and led to

his election as a fellow of the Society. In 1816 Importe. Exports.

he invented the popular scientific toy, the

“Kaleidoscope," which brought him fame but Total for 1867

98,17 92,31

no pecuniary reward. In 1818, he received

89,22 80,33 Annual average 1862–66. 73,55 66,89

from the Royal Society of London the Ram1857–61. 66,95 61,19

ford al, for further “Dis eries relating 1852-56.

50,34 45,27 to the Polarization of Light," and soon after 1847-'51.

32,06 27,72 twice received the Keith Medals from the Royal

16 1866..

Society of Edinburgh, of which he was for in exposing the literary forgery of the pretendmany years Vice-President. He had already ed correspondence between Sir Isaac Newton (in 1816) received half the French Institute's and Pascal. Sir David was the last as he was physical prize bestowed for two of the most one of the ablest of the great physicists of the important discoveries made in Europe during last generation. the two preceding years. In 1819, in con- BŘIDGES. Quincy Railway Bridge. This junction with Professor Jamieson, he under- bridge, crossing the Mississippi, and connecttook the editing and publication of the Edin- ing with the Chicago, Burlington, Quincy, burgh Philosophical Journal, which he subse- and the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railways, quently continued alone, through sixteen vol- having just been completed, was opened for omes, under the title of the Edinburgh Journal general traffic on the 7th of November. The of Science. He was also, for many years and design and execution were intrusted to Mr. T. until his death, one of the editors of the Lon- C. Clarke, of Chicago. The part of the bridge don, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical crossing the main branch of the river, consists Vagazine. In 1825 he was elected a corre- of two draw spans of 180 feet each, 11 spans of sponding member of the Institute of France; 157 feet each, 2 spans of 250 feet, 3 of 200 feet, in 1830 he received the Royal Medal from the 1,400 feet of embankment and trestle-work, and Royal Society of London, for his further dis- a smaller bridge 613 feet long, divided into one coveries in the polarization of light, and the draw span 160 feet long, and four openings of same year received from William IV.. the 85 feet each, making the total length of the Guelphie Order, and the following year was bridge and embankment from one railway to knighted. From 1827 to 1833 he was engaged the other nearly two miles. The bridge is elein investigations on the best methods of illu- vated 10 feet above high-water, and 20 feet mination for light-houses, and published a above low-water mark, and the iron superstructreatise on the subject, which led to the great ture, on the Pratt-truss system, is supported improvements that have been made in light- on stone piers and abutments. The work was houses since that time. In 1833 he was chosen completed with unusual expedition, the first principal of the United Colleges of St. Leon- stone having been laid on September 25, 1867, ard's and St. Salvator at St. Andrew's, which and the bridge finished on the 5th of August, position he continued to hold till his death. 1868. The total cost was $1,500,000. In 1859 he was chosen as one of the eight The bridge is so proportioned that, under the foreign associates of the Institute of France, greatest loads, the utmost strain that can be ard, the same year, Principal and Vice-Chan- brought upon it is 7.500 tons to the inch, the cellor of Edinburgh University. He was one ultimate strength being 60,000 lbs. to the inch. of the prime movers in the organization of the In selecting the iron employed, all bars were -- British Association for the Advancement of tested up to a strain of 23,600 lbs. to the inch. Science," and attended its annual sessions very The average quality of the material resisted a regularly till within the last two years of his tension of 28,000 lbs. to the inch before a perlife

. In 1857 he presided over its session at manent set took place; some of the specimens Edinburgh. Though not the discoverer of the broke under a strain of 80,000 lbs. The bridge prineiple of the stereoscope, he was the first before it was opened was subject to the folto reduce it to practical uses. His improve- lowing tests : Three of the heaviest locomoments upon the construction of microscopes tives upon the Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy and telescopes were numerous and of great Railroad, weighing together 300,000 lbs., were Falue to science. Among his other contribu- coupled together, and placed upon each of the tions to practical science were the initiation of 250-feet spans, in succession, and the deflection the Bude Light, and his demonstration of the was accurately observed. The maximum deatility of dioptric lenses and of zones in light- flection under this load was 2718 inches, houses

. Few men were as familiar as he with being less than one-sixteenth of the previous the profoundest secrets of natural science, yet calculation. The same load was then placed no man of his time did as much to popularize upon a span 157 feet; the deflection in this it , and excite a thirst for scientific knowledge case was 137. inches

. The three locomotives, in the hearts of even the illiterate. His works still coupled together, were then run backward on the " Kaleidoscope," "The Stereoscope," and forward over the 157-feet span, at rates

“Martyrs of Science," varying from 10 to 16 miles an hour. The de* More Worlds than One" (a reply to Dr. flection produced was 1-40%% inches, or Top of Thewell's “Plurality of the Worlds"), his ad- an inch more than was produced by the load mirable Life of Newton," and that long suc- when at rest. In every case the structure reeestion of brilliant and charming articles on sumed its form when the engines were withscientific subjects in the North British Re- drawn, no permanent set being visible. On Tiere

, and Popular Science Magazine, gave the 157-feet span the load applied was equivaevidence of his disposition in this respect. lent to a stress of 9,000 lbs. per square inch on He retained his intellectual and much of his the wrought iron, and 10,200 lbs.on the cast iron, physical vigor to the close of his life, and, or about one quarter more than the passage of though in his eighty-sixth year, came forward the

heaviest freight trains over the bridge can in the summer of 1867 and took an active part produce.

- Natural Magic,

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