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day on which the benefits of the new institutions farewell proclamation that he bad sought the drew closer and made more cordial the ties which for welfare of his people before his own, and that centuries have united the prince and the people of Bavaria. Faithful to the example of my illustrious his heart still glowed with affection for Bavaria ancestors, I also will bear aloft the standard of the and Germany. The twenty years which have constitution; and under its protecting shelter may passed since his abdication have been spent the prosperity of my beloved country increase and by the King in dignified retirement, in the purbecome still more solid, for I find my highest hap- suits of literature and art, and have doubtless piness in that of my people.-Louis.

been happier than those in which he wore the On May 26th a treaty was concluded be

His contributions from his private intween Bavaria and the United States as to the

come to Catholic institutions in the United nationality of emigrants. Its stipulations are States exceed 110,000 florins. More than similar to those of the American treaty upon twenty different institutions, chiefly educathe same subject with the North-German Con- tional, were thus aided by him. federation. (See GERMANY.)

BEACH, MOSES YALE, an American publishBAVARIA, LUDWIG, KARL AUGUST (Louis er and editor, born in Wallingford, Conn., JanI.), Ex-KING OF, born at Munich, August 25, uary 7, 1800 ; died in the same town, July 1786, died at Nice, France, February 29, 1868. 19, 1868. In early boyhood he exhibited He was the son of Maximilian Joseph, King of unusual skill in mechanics, and while attending Bavaria, and was educated at the Universities school, or at home, he was constantly whitof Landshut and Göttingen, and served in the tling out models of machines, or making curicampaign against Austria, in 1809. He had a ous contrivances of wood. When fourteen remarkable taste for the fine arts, and paid years of age he was apprenticed to a cabinetmuch more attention to painting and sculpture maker in Hartford, and, by diligence in perthan to the principles of government. He forming extra tasks, was able to purchase his saved as much as possible from his allowance freedom in his eighteenth year. After being as crown prince, to invest in works of art, and employed as a journeyman in Northampton, built at his own cost the magnificent Glypto- Mass., a short time, he went into business for thek, at Munich. On his accession to the himself, and it was not long before his cabinetthrone after his father's death, October 13, work was reputed to be the best in the country. 1825, he speedily became popular from his lib- Yet his business was unsuccessful, and he reeral schemes of government, economic reforms, moved to Springfield, where he neglected other and his enlightened patronage of letters and interests, to experiment with a gunpowder enart. He opened the first railway in Germany, gine for propelling balloons. Not succeeding and promoted the canal which opened water with this invention, he next attempted to open communication between

the Main and the Dan- steam navigation on the Connecticut River, ube. He removed the University of Landshut between Hartford and Springfield, and would to Munich, reorganized the Academy of Fine have done so, if the state of his affairs had not Arts, and erected the Odeon, Basilica, the Royal obliged him to cease operations before his Palace, the Gate of Victory, and the new Pina- steamer was completed. Others, for adopting cothek at Munich, and the Walhalla at Ratis- his plan, gained much credit, taking a steamer bon. In the sphere of learning he gave great over Enfield Falls, a feat that had been looked encouragement to the prosecution of historical on as impossible. Soon afterward Mr. Beach studies, and attested his taste for poetry, by invented a rag-cutting machine, which has the publication of two volumes, of his own been generally used by paper-mills, yet he recomposition, one entitled “Poems" (1829), the ceived no pecuniary benefit from his machine, other “Companions of the Walhalla ” (1843). because he delayed taking out a patent for it. The ultramontane or clerical party, after a He next removed to Ulster County, N. Y., time, began to gain the ascendency over him, where he became interested in an extensive and the former liberal and constitutional mon- paper-mill, and though amassing a large proparch became a reactionist. In 1831 the ultra- erty in six years, he lost it all during the montanists began to predominate in his coun- seventh. This was the last of his reverses. cils, and within the next ten years the num- In 1835 he came with his family to New York ber of convents was doubled. Behr, Eisen- City, where he bought an interest in The Sun mann, Volkhardt, and other liberals were ex- newspaper, and in a short time became its sole iled or imprisoned. In 1846, however, a change proprietor. The wealth which he acquired in was made; the minister Abel and his successor publishing this paper made him prominent in were both dismissed from office, and the King banking and other financial operations. Presicalled a Liberal to fill the place. The peers dent Polk sent him to Mexico, during the were, however, mostly reactionists. Serious Mexican war, to arrange a treaty of peace. riots ensued in 1848, and the people now be- The negotiations, though satisfactory, were gan to clamor for reforms, and for a special con- broken off by a false report, announcing that vocation of the Chambers (the Bavarian Legis- Santa Anna had annihilated General Taylor's lature). The King refused both requests, and army.

Mr. Beach retired from business in there were strong indications of a revolution. 1857, and up to the time of his death resided On the 21st of March the King abdicated in in his native town, where his liberality and favor of his son Maximilian, protesting in his readiness to aid in all movements for the improvement of the place, and its intellectual and tives passed the Government bill for the continmoral advancement, greatly endeared him to gent of 12,000 men for 1869, being an increase its citizens.

of 2,000 men over the previous year, by sixtyBELGIUM, a kingdom in Europe. King, eight votes against forty-three. The bill proLeopold II., born April 9, 1865; succeeded his posing to divide the contingent into two secfather, Leopold I., on December 10, 1865. The tions, one effective and the other reserve, was only son of the king, Prince Leopold, born adopted, by sixty-six votes against thirty-five, June 12, 1859, died in January, 1869. Heir- after a very stormy sitting. The reduction apparent is now the king's only brother, Count of the time of service to twenty-four months Philip of Flanders, born March 24, 1837, mar- was adopted by eighty-seven votes against ried April 25, 1867, to Princess Maria of Hohen- twenty-one. The Chamber subsequently adoptzollern-Sigmaringen. The area is 11,373 square ed, by a majority of thirty-eight votes, a reormiles. The population was estimated in De- ganization of the regimental lists. Previously cember, 1865, at 4,984,451, but in 1866, accord- (February 22d), M. Lehardy's amendment, proing to the provisional” results of the census posing that the army should be exclusively of that year, it only amounted to 4,839,094. composed of volunteers, had been rejected, by The following cities had above 100,000 inhab- seventy-four against eighteen. itants: Brussels, 163,434 (with eight adjacent Owing to the pressure exercised by France communities, 286,827); Ghent, 116,607; Ant- and other governments, the Government of werp, 123,571; Liege, 101,699.

Belgium has for years expelled a number of The ministry was reorganized on January 3, liberal refugees. In May, the Chamber of 1868, so as to consist of the following mem- Representatives adopted the Government bill, bers: President of the Council and Minister proposing to renew until 1871 the law relating of Finance, Hubert Frère-Orban, appointed to foreigners residing in Belgium. During January 3, 1868; Minister of Justice, Jules Ba- the debate the ministry stated that the exra November 12, 1865; Minister of Foreign pulsion of M. Rogeard took place in conseAffairs, Jules van der Stichelen, January 3, quence of his attacks upon the Belgian Govern1868; Minister of War, General Renard, Jan- ment, and with a view to avoid eventual diffiDary 3, 1868; Minister of the Interior, Eudore culties with France. General Prim and M. Pirmez, January 3, 1868; Minister of Public Vessinier were not expelled, but simply reWorks, Jamar, January 3, 1868. ·

quested to leave Belgium. The budget for 1868, as approved by the BELL, Henry H., U. S. N., a Rear-Admiral Chambers, fixed the revenue at 169,403,280 in the United States naval' service, born in francs; the expenditures at 171,911,650 francs. North Carolina, about 1808; drowned at the The national debt, in 1868, amounted to 717,- mouth of Osaka River, Japan, January 11, 155,214 francs.

1868. Rear-Admiral Bell was appointed a The army, according to the law of April 5th, midshipman from North Carolina, in August, is to be raised, in time of war, to 100,000 men. 1823, and during his more than forty-five years

The exports and imports of Belgium, in of service in the Navy, twenty-five of which 1866 and 1865 were as follows (value in mill- were passed afloat, he saw more severe fighting ions of francs):

than has usually fallen to the lot of our naval

commanders. His first experience, in naval COUNTRIES

warfare, was on board of the Grampus, when

she was engaged in clearing the coast of Cuba Europe... 579.27

611.36 575.73

of pirates. He was connected with the East America. 157.78

India squadron for many years, and command

ed one of the vessels of the squadron which, Africa,

4.44 1.29

in November, 1856, captured and destroyed Australia.

0.10 0.18

the four barrier forts near Canton, China. Total.... 747.35 756.42


Early in the late war he was assigned to the

command of one of the first-rates forming the The amount of shipping during 1866 was as West Gulf squadron, took an active part in the follows: Arrivals, 4,568 vessels, of 1,067,886 capture of New Orleans, and the siege of tons; clearances, 4,478 vessels of 1,029,113 Vicksburg, and in the blockade rendered estons. The merchant navy, on December 31, sential service. For a time, in 1863, he was 1865, consisted of 98 vessels, together of 37,925 in command of the West Gulf squadron, and tons.

when Rear-Admiral Thatcher was ordered to An election for the renewal of one-half of other duty the command of it again devolved the House of Representatives, which, accord- on him. In July, 1865, he was ordered to the ing to the Belgian Constitution, takes place command of the East India squadron, his rank every two years, resulted in the gain of one being then that of commodore. In July, 1866, member by the Government, or Liberal party, he was promoted to be rear-admiral, and, in which has now in the House seventy-three 1867, having served more than forty years in members, against fifty-one belonging to the the navy, he was retired; but Rear-Admiral Catholic party.

S. C. Rowan, who was to have relieved him, On March 13th the Chamber of Representa- had not arrived when he was drowned. He














had been, during his service in the Chinese chester Public Library was due, in a large waters, very active in putting down the measure, to his personal efforts. Chinese and Malayan piratical vessels, which BERRYER, PIERRE ANTOINE, a French ad

so numerous and dangerous in those vocate, politician, and orator, born in Paris, waters. He had gone to the Japanese coast, January 4, 1790; died at Angerville, near Paris

, and anchored in a somewhat rough and unsafé November 29, 1868. His father was an advoroadstead, off the mouth of the Osaka River, cate, but at first intended his son for the church, which he was desirous of entering, but which and placed him at the school of the Oratoriens was closed by a sand-bar, thrown up in a re- at Juille, to be educated for the priesthood. cent violent storm; and, at length, weary of He was a favorite with his teachers from his the delay, set out, accompanied by Flag- intelligence and devotion, though inclined to Lieutenant John H. Reed and thirteen men, in indolence, but no sooner had he arrived at the a boat from the Hartford, to enter the river. age of manhood, than he abandoned theology, The boat was capsized at the entrance of the and began the study of the law, marrying, river, and the admiral, Lieutenant Reed, and when he was only twenty-one years old, a girl ten of the thirteen men, were drowned. of sixteen. He soon entered on the practice

BELL, SAMUEL Dana, LL. D., an eminent of his profession, and his powers as an orator jurist of New Hampshire, born in Frances- and debater were shown not only in the courts town, N. H., October 9, 1798; died in Man- of law, but in his political addresses. His chester, N. H., July 31, 1868. Judge Bell father was one of those liberal royalists who was the son of Samuel Bell, Governor of the had hoped to engraft on the French monarchy State, Senator in Congress, and Justice of the a constitution like that of England; and both Superior Court, and a brother of Dr. John father and son were consistent Liberals, though Bell, James Bell, and Dr. Luther V. Bell. neither of them allowed political feeling to inHe graduated from Harvard University, in the terfere with the duties of an advocate. As class of 1816; read law with George Sul- Napoleon was tottering to his downfall

, Berlivan, of Exeter, Attorney-General of New ryer had the boldness to proclaim his downfall Hampshire, and commenced practice in Mere- at Rennes, and to raise the white cockade. dith. In 1820 he removed to Chester, N. H., This proceeding led to an order from the preand ten years later to Concord. In 1839 he fect for his arrest; but, fearing a too summary removed again, to Manchester, where he re- execution of justice, he escaped to Nantes. He sided till his death. He was a member of the won his first distinction at the bar, by his Legislature about 1825; and, from 1823 to father's side, in contending for the life of the 1828, Solicitor for Rockingham County, and unfortunate Marshal Ney. His eloquence on for several years Clerk of the Legislature. In this occasion assured the successful career of 1830 he was one of the commissioners ap- the young advocate. Cambronne, another of pointed to revise the statutes of the State, and the Bonapartists then accused of treason, imheld the same appointment in the revisions of mediately confided his cause to Berryer, Junior, 1842 and 1867. In 1849 he was appointed and was justified by an acquittal, though BerJustice of the Superior Court, and in 1855, on ryer was himself accused of uttering sedition the reorganization of the court, he was cho- in his speech. He stood this attack firmly; sen Justice of the Supreme Court. In 1859 and the King, admiring his steadiness, granted he was appointed Ohief Justice of the the pardon of General Debelle to his solicitasame court, and resigned August 1, 1864. In tion. In 1826 he defended the Abbé Lamen1861 he was the unsuccessful Democratic nais on a charge of sedition, and obtained his candidate for Congress, in the second New acquittal on one count of the indictment, and Hampshire District. He received the degree the infliction of a very small penalty on the of LL. D. from Dartmouth College in 1854. other. In 1830 Berryer was elected deputy By constant industry and untiring devotion to for the Haute Loire, and made his first appearhis profession, Judge Bell became one of the ance in the Chamber, taking, as might be exmost eminent and profound jurists of New pected, high rank as a speaker. He was opEngland, and by his death the bar of his posed to the Revolution, and favored the sucState, and of the country, sustained a great cession of the young Duc de Bordeaux, under loss. His extensive legal learning was united the regency of his mother, the Duchess do to a character of unspotted integrity. The Berri. He was, in fact, the head of the Legitiamiability of his deportment and disposition, mists, and was therefore suspected of compliand the charm of his conversation, won him á city with the Duchess de Berri in her insurrecmultitude of friends, and universal respect and tion in La Vendée in 1832. Berryer had gone esteem. He was one of the early members of to Nantes with a letter from Chateaubriand, the New Hampshire Historical Society, and urging the duchess to abstain from such a one of the most valuable associates of that or- course as she meditated; and, being naturally ganization. It has been often stated that no apprehensive of an arrest, he determined to go man living was so well versed in early New to Switzerland for a time. He was, however, Hampshire history as he. He was true and apprehended and taken to Nantes. He was liberal to the best interests of the city where tried at Blois on October 16, 1832; and the he resided, and the establishment of the Man- case was seriously damaging to the French

Government. The royalist feelings of Ber- December 2, 1851, bad been effected, he ceased ryer were well known; but the public were to take an active part in politics. He endeavamazed to find that the evidence against him ored to effect a reconciliation between the was a fabrication supported by perjury. Ber- branches of the Bourbons. He was bâtonnier ryer was at once acquitted, and speedily as- of the French bar in 1852, and was elected an sumed his place in the Legislature, from which Academician in 1855, when he did not, as was he demanded the pardon of the duchess, who customary, pay a complimentary visit to the had been at length found and imprisoned. On head of the Government. When Montalemthis event occurring, Chateaubriand published bert was prosecuted, in 1858, for publishing a pamphlet, in which he addressed the duchess, his celebrated “Debate on India in the Engand used the words, “ Votre fils est notre roi.” lish House of Commons," he intrusted his deHe received addresses from a large number of fence to Berryer; and in 1861 Berryer was students. The Government prosecuted him counsel for Miss Patterson in her suit against for sedition, along with the editors of six jour- the representatives of Jerome Bonaparte. He nals in which his reply to the students had ap- allowed himself to be nominated as a candidate peared. Berryer was retained for the defence, in 1863 for the representation of the Bouches and obtained a unanimous verdict of acquittal du Rhône, and was returned along with Thiers for all his clients. In 1834–'35 he successfully and M. Marie. In the Imperial Chamber of defended D'Argenson, De Puyraveau, and Deputies, Berryer did not take a very active Garnier Pages; and in 1836 was presented by part. He spoke in 1867 in favor of the French the French Legitimists with the estate of intervention in Rome, and made an indignant Angerville, which his difficulties, compelled protest against the attacks on the French press him to offer for sale in the following year; but by the Count de Kerveguen. Berryer's latest the party again raised a subscription for him. act in political life was his adhesion to the BauHe paid a visit to Charles X. in his exile shortly din subscription by a public letter dictated before his decease. On the trial of Louis Na- from his bed and addressed to the editor of the poleon for his attempt at Boulogne in 1840, Electeur. It runs as follows: “Sir: On the the prince chose Berryer and Marie as his de- 2d of December, 1851, I moved and obtained fenders, and Berryer made a bold speech, say- from the National Assembly, sitting in the ing it was natural that the prince should desire mairie of the eleventh arrondissement, a deto place himself at the head of the French na- cree of forfeiture and outlawry against the tion as chief mourner for Napoleon, whose re- President of the Republic, inviting citizens to mains were then on their way from St. Helena. resist the violation of the laws if the President His dynasty had been elected by 4,000,000 was guilty. This decree was made as public Frenchmen, and he was the heir to that throne. in Paris as was possible. My colleague, M He must be treated like those of other deposed Baudin, energetically obeyed the orders of the dynasties, and condemned simply to exile. At Assembly; he was a victim of his obedience, the end of the same year France was roused and I feel myself bound to join in the subscripby the success of Sir O. Napier at Acre, and tion opened for the erection of an expiatory the peacefal address of the French ministry monument over his grave." The day when was fiercely debated. Berryer, in his speech Berryer entered the Chamber of Deputies, against it, called on the Chamber to make a Royer Collard said of him: “It is not merely protest which would gladden the spirit of the a talent; it is a power.” After hearing his French people. Berryer was one of the French first great speech in 1830, his friends hailed in deputies who attended the mock court of the hin the advent of a second Mirabeau. All Coant de Chambord in Belgrave Square in critics seem to be agreed that, since that “im1843 ; but he spoke powerfully in his own do- perial voice” fell silent, no other has so domifence and that of 3,000 other French subjects, nated and swayed a French audience as that and in indignant protest against a paragraph of Berryer. "He was more than an orator; of the royal address reflecting on them. Ie he was the living personification of human attacked the ministry in the same year for dis- speech, in its splendor and in its majesty. In avowing the acts of Admiral Dupetit Thouars him all was eloquent—the tone, gesture, attiin seizing Tahiti ; and in 1815 he urged the tude, and look, as well as the inspiration." plea of liberty of conscience against the law to All ear and eye witnesses testify to an impeexile the Jesuits. At the Revolution of 1848 rial something in his manner, which, with the Berryer made no sign, but was chosen deputy words, produced effects that the reading of for the Bouches du Rhône. During the re- these alone, forcible as they are, utterly fails to public he said little, but was opposed to Louis explain. It was only in the last session that Napoleon, and protested against the repeal of with this, and a phrase, he cowed to silence the the law exiling the Bourbons, for the curious noisy majority of the Corps Legislatif. Roureason that the Count de Chambord, a mon- her's petulant hardihood, defiant of Favre and arch kept illegally from his throne, could not Thiers

, was veiled with respect before Berryer, accept permission to enter his own kingdom. before whose silent look and brief contemptBerryer

joined with the party that endeavored nous pause, even Granier Cassagnac himself, for to destroy the power of the President and to once in his boisterous life, sank abashed. His impeach him; but, when the coup d'état of person was good, his features were fine and expressive, his gestures animated, his diction criminal business of a large district. The war was noble, and his voice incomparably sweet brought before him an entirely new class of and sonorous. Then his intellect was of grand questions, affecting national and international proportions, and his speech bore reading as rights; but although beyond the age of threewell as hearing.

score-years-and-ten, the Judge bent himself to BETTS, SAMUEL R., LL.D., one of the ablest the new tasks imposed, and, with a vigor, a of American jurists, born in Richmond, Berk- perseverance, and an ability rarely equalled, shire County, Mass., in 1787; died at New met the great demand of the most trying period Haven, Conn., November 3, 1868. He was of our history, in a manner which was creditthe son of a respectable farmer; and, after a able to himself, and reflected honor upon the thorough early training in his native town, en- country he so patriotically and faithfully tered Williams College, where he graduated served. His decisions upon the neutrality with honor in 1806. After a diligent study of laws, and his judgments on the slave-trade, the law in Hudson, N. Y., he was admitted to are fine specimens of constitutional reasoning the bar, and commenced practice in Sullivan and argument. As a judge, the lawyers who County, N. Y., where he was winning a fair have had the best opportunities of forming an reputation, at the outbreak of the War of 1812, opinion say that Judge Betts never had a supewhen he entered the army, and soon after was rior, and doubt if he had an equal. His bearappointed Judge-Advocate by Governor D. D. ing toward members of the bar was always Tompkins. In 1815 he was elected to Congress gentlemanly and courteous. His judgments for the district comprising Orange and Sullivan were regarded as the best considered on record. Counties. At the close of the term, he declined He conducted a case with coolness, clearness, a reëlection, and devoted himself with great and deliberation, allowing counsel every latiassiduity to the study and practice of his pro- tude that might tend to throw light on the fession. He was for some years District-Attor- matter at issue. And it may be well doubted ney of Orange County. At that time, the bar whether any man on the bench in this country of the State of New York was remarkable for ever possessed the same amount of judicial the numerous eminent legal minds who were ability. He held the place he vacated and engaged in the practice of the profession in the honored for the lengthened period of forty-four courts of the eastern counties. Martin Van years, and up to the day of his death he was Buren, Elisha Williams, Thomas J. Oakley, still the revered and upright judge of that imGeorge Griffin, Ogden Hoffman, Prescott Hall

, portant court, where he pronounced numerous and Thomas Addis Emmet, were the great decisions, which are regarded as text-books of lights of the bar, and with all of them Mr. federal jurisprudence, and in after-vears will Betts was brought in almost constant contact, be looked upon as the highest and soundest and, though younger than most of them, was efforts of legal skill and research. In social soon recognized as their peer in legal attain- and domestic life he was always highly esments and intellectual acumen. After about teemed and beloved; his conversational powers eight years of this practice, Mr. Betts was were unusually fine, his acquaintance with appointed by President Monroe, in 1823, Judge literature and men extensive, his manners of the United States District Court. This po- courteous, and his treatment of all, especially sition he held for the long period of forty-four of the young, such as to endear him to those years, and throughout the whole term presided with whom he came in contact. He did not over it with a dignity, a courtesy, a profundity outlive his interest in passing events, but his of legal knowledge, a carefulness of research, mind was bright and vigorous, even after the and a patience of investigation which made him bodily frame showed signs of weakness and a model jurist in all the great questions brought decay. In May, 1867, having entered upon his before him. To him belongs the high honor eighty-first year, and feeling the infirmities of of having shaped and settled in a great degree age, Judge Betts retired from the bench he had the maritime laws of the United States. The so long honored, and passed the brief remainwhole subjects of salvage, general average, der of his life in the comforts and privacies of wages of seamen, freighting, contracts, charters, his home at New Haven. insurance, and prizes, owe the greater portion BOLIVIA, a republic in South America. of their present condition to the honored Judge, Provisional President since the revolution of who has made the law so perfect and complete December, 1864, General Mariano Melgarejo. on these points, that the best lawyers in New The limits of the republic have not yet been York regard it as a finished code. For the fixed, and the statements of the area therefore first twenty years of his connection with the widely differ. A treaty concluded between District Court, there was never an appeal from Bolivia and Chili, on August 10, 1866, fixed his decisions, and his opinions in his own the 24th degree S. latitude as the dividing court on maritime questions, and in the Circuit line between these two republics. Another Court on patents, have been uniformly upheld. treaty for regulating the frontier between BoEvery kind of question arising out of the crim- livia and Brazil was concluded on March 27, inal law of the United States has been before 1867. By this compact Bolivia resigns her him; he has tried cases of piracy and murder claims to the western bank of the river Paraon the high-seas, and discharged the whole guay, a territory of about 18,000 square leagues.

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