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have conducted their inquiry, and that they re- Episcopal Church to appoint a commission, port, on the assumption that the Irish Church with a view to a reunion of the two churches. will continue by law established and endowed. The Methodist Conference complied with this
The question of effecting a union between request; but the House of Bishops of the Trithe Anglican and other divisions of the Chris- ennial General Convention of the Protestant tian world continued to be the subject of an Episcopal Church, to which a numerouslyearnest discussion. As regards the Eastern signed petition for the appointment of a simiChurches, public opinion both in the Protes- lar commission was presented, contented ittant Episcopal Church of the United States self with the appointment of a General Comand in the Church of England, clearly favors mittee on Christian Unity, without instructing the project of, at least, intercommunion. The the committee as to negotiations with any action of the Triennial Convention of the particular religious denomination. For the American Church has already been referred to. object of promoting a union between the AnIn England the subject was debated at consid- glican, the Eastern, and the Roman Catholic erable length, in the Convocation of Canter. Churches, the “ Association for promoting the bury, on the 4th of July, at which the differ- Unity of Christendom” was founded in ence in the creed of the two churches, and the 1857. In September of 1858—a year after the former and present relations to each other, re- formation of the society—675 members had ceived a thorough review. A committee had been enrolled, and the following numbers submitted a report, declaring the object sought were added to the lists in the years enumerby the movement to be not a fusion of the two ated below respectively: In 1859, 833 membodies or a submission of either to the superior bers; in 1860, 1,060;. in 1861, 1,007; in 1862, authority of the other, or a modification of the 1,393; in 1863, 1,202; in 1864, 1,340; in 1865, services of one to correspond with those of 1,317; in 1866, 1,401; in 1867, 1,647; in Septhe other, but simply the mutual acknowl- tember, 1868, 803; making a total of 12,684. edgment that all churches which are one in The division of these, as given by the Rev. the possession of a true episcopate, one in George F. Lee, D. O. L., who in 1868 retired sacraments, and one in their creed, are, by from the office of general secretary, is interesttheir union in their common Lord, bound to ing. Of the 12,684 members of the society, 1,881 receive one another to full communion in belong to the Roman Catholic Church in variprayers and sacraments as members of the ous countries; 685 are Orientals; 92 are atsame household of faith.”
tached to such uncertain or miscellaneous A new project of this kind was brought for- communities, whose names the secretary was ward in England, in the early part of the year, unwilling to take upon himself to decline; and having for its object a union between thé 10,026 belong to the Church of England and Anglicans and the Wesleyans. The plan was other churches in communion with the same. briefly advocated by an Anglican paper of The names have been obtained by a systematic High-Church tendencies, the Guardian, which circulation of the formal prospectus of the asproposed to the Wesleyans an adhesion to the sociation in English, Latin, French, German, established order of the Church of England, Spanish, and Italian. The following paragraph Episcopal supervision, confinement of the ad- from Dr: Lee's report is indicative of the obministration of the sacraments to persons Epis- jects of the Association: “It has been the copally ordained, with ordination of such Wes- secretary's honor and privilege to correspond leyan ministers as might desire it, who might with a large number of distinguished Catholics retain their itinerancy, and minister in their of many rites, whose private letters to bimself churches as licensed chapels-of-ease, subor- officially have been carefully preserved, as they dinate to the jurisdiction of the parish in may in future throw considerable light on the which they are situated, other Wesleyans to great movement for effecting corporate rebe licensed as lay readers. The Anglicans union, which the late Cardinal Wiseman theowould make no alterations in their services retically inaugurated in 1841, and which the and Prayer Book, but would allow the Wesley- Association for promoting the Unity of Chrisans the use of a set of subsidiary services. The tendom first put in practical shape in 1857.” attention of the Convocation of York, on the The ritualistic controversy continues to oc6th of February, was directed to the subject, cupy a prominent place in all the branches of and the bishops resolved that they would cor- the Anglican Church. The action taken with dially welcome any practical attempt to effect regard to it, by the Triennial General Convena brotherly reconciliation between the Wes- tion of the Protestant Episcopal Church, has leyan body and the Church of England. As already been stated. It was regarded, by both this plan proposed to treat with the Wesleyans parties in the Church, as favorable to the hopes as an inferior body, the latter were not able to of the ritualists. In England, the Royal Comconsider it with a view to adopting it. The mission on Ritualism * presented their second same plan was the subject of considerable discussion in the Protestant Episcopal Church of
* On the appointment of this commission and their first the United States. A number of Anglican Report, see "ANNUAL AMERICAN CYCLOPÆDIA for 1867. clergymen signed a memorial to the Quadren- The recommendations of the commissioners with respect nial General Conference of the Methodist Prayer Book will form the subject of the next report.
report to the Queen. The commissioners sayers intimate that their intention in making that although there have been candlesticks these recommendations is simply to provide a with candles on “the Lord's table” during special facility for restraining variations from a long period in many cathedrals and collegiate established usage, without interfering with the churches and chapels, and also in the chapels general law of the Church as to ornaments or of some colleges, and of some royal and episco- the ordinary remedies now in force. No acpal residences, the instances that have been tion of importance on the subject was taken by adduced to prove that candles have been light- the convocations, but trials were instituted ed as accessories to the Holy Communion are against several prominent ritualists. In the few and much contested; but no sufficient most celebrated of these cases, that of the Rev. evidence has been adduced to prove that at Mr. Mackonochie (Martin vs. Mackonochie"), any time, during the last three centuries, have the decision was against the ritualists. This lighted candles been used in parish churches as decision by the Judicial Committee of the accessories to the celebration of the Holy Com- Privy Council is not only the most important munion, until within the last twenty-five years. which has yet been made in the Church of The use of incense, too, in the public services England on the subject of ritualism, but it is of the Church, during the present century, is expected to involve grave consequences for the very recent, and the instances of its introduc- future of the Church. Mr. Mackonochie was tion very rare; and, so far as the commission- originally charged: 1. With elevating the eleers have any evidence before them, it is at ments during the prayer of consecration. 2. variance with the Church's usage for 300 With kneeling before them during the same years. They are, therefore, of opinion that it prayer. 3. With using lighted candles on the is inexpedient to restrain in the public services communion-table during the celebration of the of the Church all variations from established holy communion, when they were not required usage in respect of lighted candles, and of in- for the purpose of giving light. 4. With using cense. The speedy and inexpensive remedy," incense in the same service. 5. With mixing which the commissioners suggest should be water with the wine. The elevation by Mr. provided for parishioners aggrieved by the in- Mackonochie discontinued before the suit comtroduction of incense and candles, is as fol- menced, and he was admonished not to resume lows: “First, that whensoever it shall be it. The judgment of the Court of Arches confound necessary that order be taken concern- demned the use of incense and of water. It ing the same, the usage of the Church of Eng- admitted, however, the lawfulness of lighted land and Ireland, as above stated to have pre- candles, and considered the kneeling a minor vailed for the last 300 years, shall be deemed point of order, which, if raised at all, should to be the rule of the Church in respect of be referred to the discretion of the bishop. vestments, lights, and incense; and, secondly, The Judicial Committee have now ruled that that parishioners may make formal application kneeling during the prayer of consecration is to the bishop in camera, and the bishop, on contrary to the rubric, and that lighted candles such application, shall be bound to inquire into are not admissible. While giving its decision the matter of the complaint; and if it shall in this particular case, the Court also gave its thereby appear that there has been a variation opinion on several important general principles. from established usage, by the introduction of With respect to the kneeling, the Court observe, vestments, lights, or incense, in the public ser- that the posture of the officiating minister is vices of the Church, he shall take order forth- prescribed by various directions throughout the with for the discontinuance of such variation, communion service. He is directed when to and be enabled to enforce the same summarily.” stand and when to change this posture for that The commissioners also think that the deter- of kneeling. But it is expressly ordered that mination of the bishop on such application the prayer of consecration is to be said by the " should be subject to appeal to the archbishop priest "standing before the table," and there is of the province in camera, whose decision no indication that he is intended to change his thereon shall be final; provided always, that posture during the prayer. To the objection if it should appear to either party that the de- made by the defence, that this was one of those cision of the bishop or archbishop is open to minute details which the rubric could not be question on any legal ground, a case may be held to cover, the Court make the important stated by the party dissatisfied, to be certified answer, that it is not for any minister of the by the bishop or archbishop as correct, and Church, or even for themselves, to assume that then submitted by the said party for the deci- any departure from or violation of the rubric sion of the court of the archbishop without is trivial. The use of lighted candles raised a pleading or evidence, with a right of appeal to question of even greater significance and imthe Privy Council, and with power for the portance. They alleged that they are justified court, if the statement of the case should ap- in adopting any practice which the prayer-book pear to be in any way defective, to refer back does not explicitly condemn-in other words, such case to the bishop or archbishop for that whatever is not expressly abolished is reamendment.” Precautions are suggested to tained as lawful. In this instance they appeal prevent "frivolous applications” from being to certain injunctions issued in the first year of brought before the bishop. The commission- Edward VI., and their counsel even went so far as to quote a constitution made by a council werth, in Prussia; and the Sisterhood of St. held under the Archbishop of Canterbury in Mary. The former comprise United or Full 1322. The court dismissed those references as Sisters, Probationers, and Resident Associates. irrelevant, and lay it down, in direct opposition The superintending lady is styled the First to the principle of the ritualists, that all cere- Sister. The Sisters have charge of St. Luke's monies are abolished which are not expressly Hospital in the city of New York; and at St. retained in the Prayer Book. This they regard John, L. I., have a house for crippled boys and as being placed beyond doubt by Elizabeth's girls. There is also the Parish Sisterhood of act of uniformity, now applicable to the present St. Luke's Hospital, and the Sisterhood of St. Prayer Book, which prohibits any rite, cer- Luke's Hospital, at Cincinnati, Ohio. Dr. emony, order, or form which is eot mentioned Muhlenberg, the pastor and founder of the in the Prayer Book, and declares void all prior Sisterhood, desires it to be understood that usages and ordinances. The opening rubric, “it is distinctively an evangelical association, again, orders that “such ornaments of the not an ecclesiastical organization.” He has Church and of the ministers thereof shall be published a small work entitled “Evangelical retained, and be in use, as were in this Church Sisterhoods,” in which he describes the characof England, by authority of Parliament, in the ter and principle of action of this community, second year of King Edward VI.” The ritual- and the mode in which he proposes to extend ists have argued from this, that wbatever was its operations. The Sisterhood of St. Mary lawful in the designated year of Edward VI. consists of three orders: Sisters living in comis lawful now. The Court, however, now dis- munity and rigidly observing the rules of their tinctly explain that those things only possess order; Associate Sisters, who are unable to live the authority of Parliament which are ex- in community, but who do so whenever they pressly in the named Prayer Book referred to. have the opportunity, and who are bound by It is nothing to the point, that the candles were less strict rules than the Sisters; and Associates lawful at the time when the Prayer Book was who, having domestic ties, are nevertheless issued. They are not prescribed in it, and they desirous of laboring among the poor, and gladly are, therefore, abolished. In the Dominion of avail themselves of the advantages and assistCanada, the Provincial Synod, which met at ance to be derived from working in connection Montreal, adopted a resolution prohibiting the with, and under the guidance of, the Sisters. elevation of the elements, the use of incense, The Sisterhood, which now comprises twenty the mixing of water with wine, the use of the Sisters of the first order, is entirely directed water-bread, of lights on the communion-table, and governed by the Mother Superior. The and the wearing of vestments while saying Right Rev. Bishop Potter is the visitor; the prayers.
Rev. Morgan Dix, Rector of Trinity Parish, is It is commonly stated, that the number of the chaplain. The Sisters occupy three separate monastic and similar institutions in the Church houses, one of which is their home, and where of England is on the increase. According to they also have an educational establishment a statement in the Rock, a Low-Church for young ladies; another where they have an organ, the Order of St. Benedict, over which asylum called The Sheltering Arms, in which the Rev. J. L. Lyne (Father Ignatius) pre- they have at present ninety-four poor children; sides, numbers fifteen thousand Brothers and and the House of Mercy, for fallen women, Sisters. For the daily use of Anglican Bene- where they have at present (January, 1869) dictines a volume has been published, entitled forty-five penitents. The Sisters of St. Mary “The Monastic Breviary for all those Fighting rigidly observe the canonical hours, and on against the World, under the rule of our Most Thursday they have always an early celebraHoly Father Benedict." This Benedictine tion of the Holy Communion. The walls of office is now regularly used at the Monastery their oratory are hung with the Fourteen Staof Laleham, the nunnery at Feltham, the Con- tions of the Cross, and the little altar, which vent of Second Order Sisters in London and in is beautifully vested, has all the proper accesScotland, and at the Convent of Benedictine sories. The work that has been done by the Tertiaries in London, Newcastle, and Norwich. Sisterhood since it was first established, four Among the new religious associations, is a years ago, is highly appreciated by several “Confraternity of the Blessed Sacrament of the bishops, and the Mother Superior is constantly Body and Blood of Christ.” The “Order for receiving applications from all parts to open Intercessory Prayer," of which the Rev. R. branches of the order. Benson is Superior, has a home for the celi- The excitement which has been produced bate clergy at Cowley, near Oxford. In Lon- by the Colenso case has begun to subside. don, the “Sisters of St. John the Evangelist' His standing in the Church was again the subhave been for several years under the patron- ject of a long discussion in the Convocation of age of Bishop Tait, of London, who in 1868 Canterbury. The bishops, in reply to numerwas appointed Archbishop of Canterbury. ous petitions asking them to recognize the validThe city of New York has two Sisterhoods: ity of the sentence of deposition pronounced the Sisterhood of the Holy Communion, estab- by the Bishop of Capetown on Dr. Colenso, delished, in 1845, by the Rev. Dr. Muhlenberg, clared that they were of opinion-1. That subafter the model of the Deaconesses of Kaiser- stantial justice was done to the accused. 2.
That though the sentence, having been pro- and the population, 1,465,000.* The following nounced by a tribunal not acknowledged by table shows the names of the provinces, with the Queen's courts, whether civil or ecclesias- the number of inhabitants, and the name and tical, can claim no legal effect, the Church as a the population of the capital of each State : spiritual body may rightly accept its validity. Only the Bishop of London (now Archbishop
Capital. of Canterbury) declared that he was unable to append his signature to the report of the com
1. River and maritime:
Buenos Ayres.. 450,000 Buenos Ayres 120,000 mittee which had recommended the above
45,000 Santa Fé declaration; and stated his own views to be as Entrerios
107,000 Entrerios 16,000 follows: "1. I consider the trial to have been al- 2. At the foot of the Andes.
Corrientes y Missiones 90,000 Concepcion .. 8,000 together set aside by the decision given by the La Rioja....
40,000 La Rioja 4,000 highest court in the empire, that it was null
97,000 Catamarca 6,000
70,000 San Juan. 20,000 and void in law. 2. I consider that if it had Mendoza
58,000 Mendoza. 10,000 been thought right that a trial of a purely 3. Central:
140,000 Cordova 25,000 spiritual character was to take place, without
68,000 San Luis. 5,000 reference to any binding legal authority on the Santiago.
90.000 Santiago. 6,000 part of the Metropolitan or his Suffragans as
100,000 Tucuman 11,000
4. Northern: sembled in Synod, such trial could only be Salta.
11,800 held in virtue of a compact; and I find no Jujuy
6,900 proof that Bishop Colenso entered into such a
Total.. 1,465,000 compact with Bishop Gray, otherwise than on the supposition that the letters patent were The number of the foreign-born population valid and that Bishop Gray possessed coercive is considerable. The immigration, from 1858 jurisdiction. 3. Independently of my views to 1862, amounted to 28,066, and from 1863 to as to the general invalidity of the trial, I en- 1867 to 64,599; total from 1858 to 1867, 92,665. tertain grave doubts whether, in conducting The immigration of the year 1867 was 17,022, the proceeding, Bishop Gray did not, in several and was larger than in any previous year. Í important points, so far depart from the prin- During the first six months of 1868, the imciples recognized in English courts of justice migration again largely increased, amounting to as to make it highly probable that, if the trial 17,187, chietly from Germany and Italy. had been valid, and had become the subject of The revenue and the expenditures of the appeal on the merits of the case to any well- republic, from 1864 to 1867, were as follows: 1 constituted court ecclesiastical, the sentence
Expenditures. would have been set aside. These difficulties 1864.... 7,005,330 pesos. 6,179,490 pesos. have all along made me feel that the case of
6,876,175 Bishop Colenso cannot be satisfactorily dis
1867......12,040,287 " posed of without fresh proceedings in lieu of those which I understand to have entirely of the customs, which in 1865 constituted 95
The chief sources of revenue are the proceeds failed." The office of Bishop of Natal was accepted by the Rev. Mr. Macrorie, who accom
per cent. of the entire income. The customs on panied the Bishop of Capetown to South Afri- imports
, in 1867, were on an average 23 per ed, and was there to be consecrated as bishop. cent. ad valorem. The public debt, in October,
cent. ad valorem, and those on exports 10 per "ANHALT, a duchy of the North-German 1866, amounted to 32,483,710 pesos. Each of Confederation. Area, 1,026 square miles; popu; the fourteen provinces has its own budget. lation, according to the census of 1867, 197,041 That of the province of Buenos Ayres amounts (in 1864, 193,046 ; increase, 2.07 per cent.). to about 2,000,000 pesos annually. With regard to their religious denominations, the inhabitants were, in 1864, divided as fol- sive of the militia and national guard of Buenos
The army is estimated at 10,700 men, exclulows: 143,305 Evangelicals, 21,265 Lutherans, 27,118 Reformed, 3,156 Catholics, 2,108 Isra- Ayres. The republic has no war-vessels. elites, and 89 members of Free Congregations. Buenos Ayres, during the year 1865, were
The imports of the chief port of the republic, The capital, Dessan, had, in 1867, 16,904 in- valued at 5,420,000 pounds sterling; the exhabitants. In the budget for 1868, the revenue and expenditure are estimated at 3,698,568 ports at 4,400,000; the imports of 1866, at each. The public debt, in 1865, amounted value of 'the aggregate commerce of all the
6,450,000, and the exports at 4,610,000. The to 1,827,593 thalers for the duchy of AnhaltDessau-Göthen, and 1,618,634 thalers for the ports of the republic, in 1866, was estimated at duchy of Anhalt-Bernburg. (See GERMANY.)
16,000,000 pounds sterling. ARGENTINE REPUBLIO, a republic in South America. President, from 1868 to 1874, 1887.
* For further details, see ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for Domingo F. Sarmiento; Vice-President, Adolfo + For other interesting information on immigration and Alsina. The estimates of the area and popula- foreign residents, see ANNUAL CYCLOPEDIA for 1867. tion of the republic greatly vary. According to the year 1866, a law fixed the value of a Spanish silver Behm (Geograph. Jahrbuch, vol. ii., Gotha, peso at 35 paper pesos. 1868), the area is 826,828 English square miles, the ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for 1867.
$ Additional commercial statistics may be found in
The movement of shipping at the port of every day more barbarous, because so must be styled Buenos Ayres, in 1866, was as follows: En
a war that can only end by the annihilation of one of trances, 1,190 vessels, 252,670 tons; clearances, those engaged' in the struggle-a murderous war,
the belligerents, however praiseworthy the heroism of 1,184 vessels, 343,451 tons. Among the arri- since half the combatants have already succumbedvals were 56 vessels from the United States, 35 a fatal war, and I call it so because we are shackled Argentine (7,958 tons) ; 252 English, 193 Ger- to it by a treaty also fatal--not because our ally is an man (40,000 tons); 148 French (59,000 tons).
empire-I am not influenced by similar prejudices, The most important event in the history of the war, until the republic shall fall an exhausted
but because its clauses seem calculated to prolong the republiç, during the year 1868, was the and lifeless victim. election of a new President for the term And yet, Honorable Senators and Representatives, from 1868 to 1874. Although the excitement in stating this, I am far from wishing to lay the blame ran very high, no disturbances took place. events, bound together by the hand of fate, have so
upon any individual person or party—a series of There were three candidates : Señor Elizalde, willed 'it, and the truth is, that if the public powers Minister of Foreign Affairs, a strong partisan of committed an error in 1865, the country accepted it, the alliance with Brazil; General Urquiza, the and assumed its solidarity—it is the law that must chief of the ancient Federalists and supposed Tule where the people does not itself govern, but
allows its delegates to govern. to be opposed to the alliance with Brazil and
But if this be true, not less true is it that the mothe continuance of war; and Domingo F. Sar- ment has arrived when those very public powers, miento, Argentine minister in Washington, should themselves decide upon the question of honor, whose policy, it was known, would chiefly the momentous question for every Argentine heart, consist in the promotion of popular educa- stripes by the brutal and cowardly attack upon our
whether the insult inflicted on the blue and white tion and agriculture. The preliminary elec- men-of-war has not been sufficiently washed off by tions (choice of electors) took place on the the blood of a hundred thousand combatants, or re12th of April; the election of the President by vindicated by the occupation of the enemy's country. the electors on the 12th of July. General At the close of the year it was reported that Urquiza received the votes of two provinces, President Sarmiento was willing to accept the Entrerios and Santa Fé; Elizalde, of three mediation of the United States. provinces, Santiago del Estero, Catamarca, and The Argentine Congress adopted a bill, to Tucuman; no election took place in Corrientes; make the city of Rosario the capital of the seven provinces, Cordova, Mendoza, San Luis, Republic. President Mitre sent the bill back San Juan, Jujuy, Salta, Rioja, cast the entire to Congress, with a recommendation to amend electoral vote for Sarmiento, and, of the electors it by a provision, securing to the national Gorof Buenos Ayres (28), 24 voted for Sarmiento, ernment the necessary jurisdiction for the re3 for Rawson, and 1 for Sarsfield. The follow- gular exercise of its functions in the terriing table gives the aggregate vote for each of tory of its temporary residence, while awaitthe candidates for President and Vice-Presi- ing the transfer to the permanent capital. This dent:
jurisdiction, in the opinion of the President,
should embrace the superintendence of the Sarmiento..
91 | Alsina Elizalde 32 Paunero.
55 police and the direct command of the National Urquiza.. 16 Ocampo.
Guard. Rawson. 3 Alberdi.
ARKANSAS. The general affairs of this Sarsfield. 1 Carreras.
State continued, at the end of 1867, to be man143
aged by the civil authorities, in whose hands Votes lost (12 in Corri- Votes lost....
the administration had been placed by the peoentes and 1 in Jujuy, 13
ple. They proceeded, however, in a provisory Total ...
manner, consistently with their almost absoTotal .... ...156
lute dependence on the military power, to President Sarmiento was installed on the which Congress, by acts passed March 2 and 18th of October, amid great festivities, in which, 23, 1867, subjected Arkansas and the other in particular, the order of Freemasons took once seceded States, until “a republican gorpart, as both President Sarmiento and Ex-Presi- ernment could be legally established" therein. dent Mitre are prominent members of the Concerning the exercise of judicial power, order. For the first time in the history of the the order from headquarters, dated September republic, both the election and the installa- 6, 1867, wherein Major-General Ord enjoined tion of President passed off without the least the courts of the State to suspend proceedings disturbance.
against any offender, if two credible persons The war which the Argentine Republic for made affidavits that he would meet by them some time has been carrying on, conjointly with unfair trial, and to transmit to headquarwith Brazil and Uruguay against Paraguay, con- ters all acts and papers thereunto belonging, tinued throughout the year. But, the oppo- that such offender might be tried by a military sition to the war greatly increasing in strength, commission, was in January, 1868, rather modGovernor Alsina, of Buenos Ayres (now Vice- ified in cases of horse-stealing, which seems to President of the republic), in his message to have been a frequent occurrence in the Fourth the Provincial Diet, thus expressed himself on Military District, as appears from the following the subject :
order of Major-General Gillem, successor to The war with the Paraguayan Government becomes General Ord in that command: