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report to the Queen. The commissioners say ers intimate that their intention in making that although there have been candlesticks these recommendations is simply to provide a with candles on “the Lord's table” during special facility for restraining variations from a long period in many cathedrals and collegiate established usage, without interfering with the churches and chapels, and also in the chapels general law of the Church as to ornaments or of some colleges, and of some royal and episco- the ordinary remedies now in force. No acpal residences, the instances that have been tion of importance on the subject was taken by adduced to prove that candles have been light- the convocations, but trials were instituted ed as socessories to the Holy Communion are against several prominent ritualists. In the few and much contested; but no sufficient most celebrated of these cases, that of the Rev. evidence has been adduced to prove that at Mr. Mackonochie (Martin v8. Mackonochie "), any time, during the last three centuries, have the decision was against the ritualists. This lighted candles been used in parish churches as decision by the Judicial Committee of the accessories to the celebration of the Holy Com- Privy Council is not only the most important munion, until within the last twenty-five years. which has yet been made in the Church of The use of incense, too, in the public services England on the subject of ritualism, but it is of the Church, during the present century, is expected to involve grave consequences for the very recent, and the instances of its introduc- future of the Church. Mr. Mackonochie was tion very rare; and, so far as the commission- originally charged: 1. With elevating the eleers have any evidence before them, it is at ments during the prayer of consecration. 2. variance with the Church's usage for 300 With kneeling before them during the same Fears. They are, therefore, of opinion that it prayer. 3. With using lighted candles on the is inexpedient to restrain in the public services communion-table during the celebration of the of the Church all variations from established holy communion, when they were not required usage in respect of lighted candles, and of in- for the purpose of giving light. 4. With using cense. The “speedy and inexpensive remedy,” incense in the same service. 5. With mixing which the commissioners suggest should be water with the wine. The elevation by Mr. provided for parishioners aggrieved by the in- Mackonochie discontinued before the suit comtroduction of incense and candles, is as fol- menced, and he was admonished not to resume lows: “First, that whensoever it shall be it. The judgment of the Court of Arches confound necessary that order be taken concern- demned the use of incense and of water. It ing the same, the usage of the Church of Eng- admitted, however, the lawfulness of lighted land and Ireland, as above stated to have pre- candles, and considered the kneeling a minor Failed for the last 300 years, shall be deemed point of order, which, if raised at all, should to be the rule of the Church in respect of be referred to the discretion of the bishop. vestments, lights, and incense; and, secondly, The Judicial Committee have now ruled that that parishioners may make formal application kneeling during the prayer of consecration is to the bishop in camera, and the bishop, on contrary to the rubric, and that lighted candles such application, shall be bound to inquire into are not admissible. While giving its decision the matter of the complaint; and if it shall in this particular case, the Court also gave its thereby appear that there has been a variation opinion on several important general principles. from established usage, by the introduction of With respect to the kneeling, the Court observe, vestments, lights, or incense, in the public ser- that the posture of the officiating minister is vices of the Church, he shall take order forth- prescribed by various directions throughout the with for the discontinuance of such variation, communion service. He is directed when to and be enabled to enforce the same summarily.” stand and when to change this posture for that The commissioners also think that the deter- of kneeling. But it is expressly ordered that mination of the bishop on such application the prayer of consecration is to be said by the ** should be subject to appeal to the archbishop priest "standing before the table," and there is of the province in camera, whose decision no indication that he is intended to change his thereon shall be final; provided always, that posture during the prayer. To the objection if it should appear to either party that the de- made by the defence, that this was o of those cision of the bishop or archbishop is open to minute details which the rubric could not be question on any legal ground, a case may be held to cover, the Court make the important stated by the party dissatisfied, to be certified answer, that it is not for any minister of the by the bishop or archbishop as correct, and Church, or even for themselves, to assume that then submitted by the said party for the deci- any departure from or violation of the rubric sion of the court of the archbishop without is trivial. The use of lighted candles raised a pleading or evidence, with a right of appeal to question of even greater significance and imthe Privy Council, and with power for the portance. They alleged that they are justified court, if the statement of the case should ap- in adopting any practice which the prayer-book Pear to be in any way defective, to refer back does not cxplicitly condemn-in other words, such case to the bishop or archbishop for that whatever is not expressly abolished is reamendment.” Precautions are suggested to tained as lawful. In this instance they appeal prevent “frivolous applications” from being to certain injunctions issued in the first year of brought before the bishop. The commission- Edward VI., and their counsel even went so far as to quote a constitution made by a council werth, in Prussia ; and the Sisterhood of St. held under the Archbishop of Canterbury in Mary. The former comprise United or Fall 1322. The court dismissed those references as Sisters, Probationers, and Resident Associates. irrelevant, and lay it down, in direct opposition The superintending lady is styled the First to the principle of the ritualists, that all cere- Sister. The Sisters have charge of St. Luke's monies are abolished which are not expressly Hospital in the city of New York; and at St. retained in the Prayer Book. This they regard John, L. I., have a house for crippléd boys and as being placed beyond doubt by Elizabeth's girls. There is also the Parish Sisterhood of act of uniformity, now applicable to the present St. Luke's Hospital, and the Sisterhood of St. Prayer Book, which prohibits any rite, cer- Luke's Hospital, at Cincinnati, Ohio. Dr. emony, order, or form which is eot mentioned Muhlenberg, the pastor and founder of the in the Prayer Book, and declares void all prior Sisterhood, desires it to be understood that usages and ordinances. The opening rubric, “it is distinctively an evangelical association, again, orders that “such ornaments of the not an ecclesiastical organization.” He has Church and of the ministers thereof shall be published a small work entitled “Evangelical retained, and be in use, as were in this Church Sisterhoods,” in which he describes the characof England, by authority of Parliament, in the ter and principle of action of this community, second year of King Edward VI.” The ritual- and the mode in which he proposes to extend ists have argued from this, that whatever was its operations. The Sisterhood of St. Mary lawful in the designated year of Edward VI. consists of three orders: Sisters living in comis lawful now. The Court, however, now dis- munity and rigidly observing the rules of their tinctly explain that those things only possess order; Associate Sisters, who are unable to live the authority of Parliament which are ex- in community, but who' do so whenever they pressly in the named Prayer Book referred to. have the opportunity, and who are bound by It is nothing to the point, that the candles were less strict rules than the Sisters; and Associates lawful at the time when the Prayer Book was who, having domestic ties, are nevertheless issued. They are not prescribed in it, and they desirous of laboring among the poor, and gladly are, therefore, abolished. In the Dominion of avail themselves of the advantages and assistCanada, the Provincial Synod, which met at ance to be derived from working in connection Montreal, adopted a resolution prohibiting the with, and under the guidance of, the Sisters. elevation of the elements, the use of incense, The Sisterhood, which now comprises twenty the mixing of water with wine, the use of the Sisters of the first order, is entirely directed water-bread, of lights on the communion-table, and governed by the Mother Superior. The and the wearing of vestments while saying Right Rev. Bishop Potter is the visitor; the prayers.

Rev. Morgan Dix, Rector of Trinity Parish, is It is commonly stated, that the number of the chaplain. The Sisters occupy three separate monastic and similar institutions in the Church houses, one of which is their home, and where of England is on the increase. According to they also have an educational establishment a statement in the Rock, a Low-Church for young ladies; another where they have an organ, the Order of St. Benedict, over which asylum called The Sheltering Arms, in which the Rev. J. L. Lyne. (Father Ignatius) pre- they have at present ninety-four poor children; sides, numbers fifteen thousand Brothers and and the House of Mercy, for fallen women, Sisters. For the daily use of Anglican Bene- where they have at present (January, 1869) dictines a volume has been published, entitled forty-five penitents. The Sisters of St. Mary "The Monastic Breviary for all those Fighting rigidly observe the canonical hours, and on against the World, under the rule of our Most Thursday they have always an early celebraHoly Father Benedict.” This Benedictine tion of the Holy Communion. The walls of office is now regularly used at the Monastery their oratory are hung with the Fourteen Staof Laleham, the nunnery at Feltham, the Con- tions of the Cross, and the little altar, which vent of Second Order Sisters in London and in is beautifully vested, has all the proper accesScotland, and at the Convent of Benedictine sories. The work that has been done by the Tertiaries in London, Newcastle, and Norwich. Sisterhood since it was first established, four Among the new religious associations, is a years ago, is highly appreciated by several “Confraternity of the Blessed Sacrament of the bishops, and the Mother Superior is constantly Body and Blood of Christ.”. The “Order for receiving applications from all parts to open Intercessory Prayer,” of which the Rev. R. branches of the order. Benson is Superior, has a home for the celi- The excitement which has been produced bate clergy at Cowley, near Oxford. In Lon- by the Colenso case has begun to subside. don, the “Sisters of St. John the Evangelist” His standing in the Church was again the subhave been for several years under the patron- ject of a long discussion in the Convocation of age of Bishop Tait, of London, who in 1868 Canterbury. The bishops, in reply to numerwas appointed Archbishop of Canterbury. ous petitions asking them to recognize the validThe city of New York has two Sisterhoods: ity of the sentence of deposition pronounced the Sisterhood of the Holy Communion, estab- by the Bishop of Capetown on Dr. Colenso, delished, in 1845, by the Rev. Dr. Muhlenberg, clared that they were of opinion-1. That subafter the model of the Deaconesses of Kaiser- stantial justice was done to the accused. 2.






97.000 Catamarca ..

San Juan


That though the sentence, having been pro- and the population, 1,465,000.* The following nounced by a tribunal not acknowledged by table shows the names of the provinces, with the Queen's courts, whether civil or ecclesias- the number of inhabitants, and the name and tical, can claim no legal effect, the Church as a the population of the capital of each State : spiritual body may rightly accept its validity. Only the Bishop of London (now Archbishop

Capital. of Canterbury) declared that he was unable to append his signature to the report of the com- 1. River and maritime:

Buenos Ayres. 450,000 Buenos Ayres 120,000 mittee which had recommended the above

Santa Fé

45,000 Santa Fé 8,000 declaration; and stated his own views to be as Entrerios

107,000 Entrerios 16,000 follows: "1. I consider the trial to have been al. 2. At the foot of the Andes.

Corrientes y Missiones 90,000 Concepcion .. 8,000 together set aside by the decision given by the La Rioja...

40,000 La Rioja ... 4,000 highest court in the empire, that it was null



70,000 San Juan. 20,000 and void in law. 2. I consider that if it had


58,000 Mendoza. 10,000 been thought right that a trial of a purely 8. Central:


140,000 Cordova spiritual character was to take place, without

25,000 San Luis. 58,000 San Luis

5,000 reference to any binding legal authority on the Santiago.

90,000 Santiago

6,000 part of the Metropolitan or his Suffragans as


100,000 Tucuman 11,000

4. Northern: sembled in Synod, such trial could only be

80,000 Salta..

11,300 held in virtue of a compact; and I find no Jujuy

40,000 Jujuy

6,900 proof that Bishop Colenso entered into such a

Total...... 1,465,000 compact with Bishop Gray, otherwise than on the supposition that the letters patent were The number of the foreign-born population valid and that Bishop Gray possessed coercive is considerable. The immigration, from 1858 jurisdiction. 3. Independently of my views to 1862, amounted to 28,066, and from 1863 to is to the general invalidity of the trial, I en- 1867 to 64,599 ; total from 1858 to 1867, 92,665. tertain grave doubts whether, in conducting The immigration of the year 1867 was 17,022, the proceeding, Bishop Gray did not, in several and was larger than in any previous year. ť important points, so far depart from the prin- During the first six months of 1868, the imciples recognized in English courts of justice migration again largely increased, amounting to as to make it highly probable that, if the trial 17,187, chiefly from Germany and Italy. had been valid, and had become the subject of The revenue and the expenditures of the appeal on the merits of the case to any well- republic, from 1864 to 1867, were as follows: I constituted court ecclesiastical, the sentence

Expenditures. would have been set aside. These difficulties 1864... 7,005,330 pesos.

6,179,490 pesos.

1865.. have all along made me feel that the case of


6,876,175 **

1866... Bishop Colenso cannot be satisfactorily dis


1867......12,040,287 " posed of without fresh proceedings in lieu of those which I understand to have entirely of the customs, which in 1865 constituted 95

The chief sources of revenue are the proceeds failed.” The office of Bishop of Natal was accepted by the Rev. Mr. Macrorie, who accom- per cent. of the entire income. The customs on panied the Bishop of Capetown to South Afri: imports, in 1867, were on an average 23 per ca, and was there to be consecrated as bishop. cent. ad valorem. The public debt, in October,

cent. ad valorem, and those on exports 10 per "ANHALT, a duchy of the North-German 1866, amounted to 32,483,710 pesos. Each of Confederation. Area, 1,026 square miles; popu- the fourteen provinces has its own budget. lation, according to the census of 1867, 197,041 That of the province of Buenos Ayres amounts (in 1864, 193,046; increase, 2.07 per cent.). to about 2,000,000 pesos annually. With regard to their religious denominations, the inhabitants were, in 1864, divided as fol- sive of the militia and national guard of Buenos

The army is estimated at 10,700 men, exclulows: 143,305 Evangelicals, 21,265 Lutherans, 27,118 Reformed, 3,156 Catholics, 2,108 Isra- Ayres. The republic has no war-vessels. elites, and 89 members of Free Congregations. Buenos Ayres, during th

The imports of the chief port of the republic, The capital, Dessau, had, in 1867, 16,904 in- valued at 5,420,000 pounds sterling; the ex

year 1865, were habitants. In the budget for 1868, the revenue and expenditure are estimated at 3,698,558 ports at 4,400,000; the imports of 1866, at each. The public debt, in 1865, amounted 6,450,000, and the exports at 4,610,000. The to 1,827,593 thalers for the duchy of Anhalt- value of the aggregate commerce of all the Dessau-Göthen, and 1,618,634 thalers for the ports of the republic, in 1866, was estimated at

16,000,000 pounds sterling. duchy of Anhalt-Bernburg. (See GERMANY.)

South America. President, from 1868 to 1874, 1867.

*For further details, see ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA for Domingo F. Sarmiento; Vice-President, Adolfo + For other interesting information on immigration and Alsina. The estimates of the area and popula-foreigme residents

, see ANNUAL CYCLOPEDIA for 1867.

of tion of the republic greatly vary. According to the year 1866, a law fixed the value of a Spanish silver Behm (Geograph. Jahrbuch, vol. ii., Gotha, peso at 2 paper pesos. 1868), the area is 826,828 English square miles, the ANNUAL CYCLOPEDIA for 1867.

$ Additional commercial statistics may be found in




The movement of shipping at the port of every day more barbarous, because so must be styled Buenos Ayres, in 1866, was as follows: En

a war that can only end by the annihilation of one of trances, 1,190 vessels, 252,670 tons; clearances,

the belligerents, however praiseworthy the heroism of 1,184 vessels, 343,451 tons. Among the arri- since half the combatants have already succumbed

those engaged in the struggle-a murderous war, vals were 56 vessels from the United States, 35 a fatal war, and I call it so because we are shackled Argentine (7,958 tons); 252 English, 193 Ger- to it by a treaty also fatal—not because our ally is an man (40,000 tons); 148 French (59,000 tons).

empire-I am not influenced by similar prejudices,

but because its clauses seem calculated to prolong The most important event in the history of

the war, until the republic shall fall an exhausted the republic, during the year 1868, was the and lifeless victim. election of a new President for the term And yet, Honorable Senators and Representatives, from 1868 to 1874. Although the excitement in stating this, I am far from wishing to lay the blame ran very high, no disturbances took place. events, bound together by the hand of fate, have so

upon any individual person or party—a series of There were three candidates : Señor Elizalde, willed 'it, and the truth is, that if the public powers Minister of Foreign Affairs, a strong partisan of committed an error in 1865, the country accepted it, the alliance with Brazil; General Urquiza, the and assumed its solidarity—it is the law that must chief of the ancient Federalists and supposed rule where the people does not itself govern, but

allows its delegates to govern. to be opposed to the alliance with Brazil and

But if this be true, not less true is it that the mothe continuance of war; and Domingo F. Sar- ment has arrived when those very public powers, miento, Argentine minister in Washington, should themselves decide upon the question of honor, whose policy, it was known, would chiefly the momentous question for every Argentine heart, consist in the promotion of popular educa- whether the insult inflicted on the blue and white tion and agriculture. The preliminary elec-men-of-war has not been sufficiently washed off by tions (choice of electors) took place on the the blood of a hundred thousand combatants, or re12th of April; the election of the President by vindicated by the occupation of the enemy's country. the electors on the 12th of July. General At the close of the year it was reported that Urquiza received the votes of two provinces, President Sarmiento was willing to accept the Entrerios and Santa Fé; Elizalde, of three mediation of the United States. provinces, Santiago del Estero, Catamarca, and The Argentine Congress adopted a bill, to Tucuman; no election took place in Corrientes; make the city of Rosario the capital of the seven provinces, Cordova, Mendoza, San Luis, Republic. President Mitre sent the bill back San Juan, Jujuy, Salta, Rioja, cast the entire to Congress, with a recommendation to amend electoral vote for Sarmiento, and, of the electors it by a provision, securing to the national Govof Buenos Ayres (28), 24 voted for Sarmiento, ernment the necessary jurisdiction for the re3 for Rawson, and 1 for Sarsfield. The follow- gular exercise of its functions in the terriing table gives the aggregate vote for each of tory of its temporary residence, while awaitthe candidates for President and Vice-Presi- ing the transfer to the permanent capital. This dent:

jurisdiction, in the opinion of the President, Sarmiento.....

should embrace the superintendence of the 91 Alsina Elizalde 32 Paunero..


police and the direct command of the National Urquiza.. 16 Ocampo.

Guard. Rawson. 3 Alberdi.

ARKANSAS. The general affairs of this Sarsfield. 1 Carreras..

State continued, at the end of 1867, to be man

aged by the civil authorities, in whose bands Votes lost (12 in Corri- Votes lost......

the administration had been placed by the peoentes and 1 in Jujuy, 13

ple. They proceeded, however, in a provisory Total


manner, consistently with their almost absoTotal ........ ....156

lute dependence on the military power, to President Sarmiento was installed on the which Congress, by acts passed March 2 and 18th of October, amid great festivities, in which, 23, 1867, subjected Arkansas and the other in particular, the order of Freemasons took once seceded States, until "a republican govpart, as both President Sarmiento and Ex-Presi- ernment could be legally established" therein.' dent Mitre are prominent members of the Concerning the exercise of judicial power, order. For the first time in the history of the the order from headquarters, dated September republic, both the election and the installa- 6, 1867, wherein Major-General Ord enjoined tion of President passed off without the least the courts of the State to suspend proceedings disturbance.

against any offender, if two credible persons The war which the Argentine Republic for made affidavits that he would meet by them some time has been carrying on, conjointly with unfair trial, and to transmit to headquarwith Brazil and Uruguay against Paraguay, con- ters all acts and papers thereunto belonging, tinued throughout the year. But, the oppo- that such offender might be tried by a military sition to the war greatly increasing in strength, commission, was in January, 1868, rather modGovernor Alsina, of Buenos Ayres (now Vice- ified in cases of horse-stealing, which seems to President of the republic), in his message to have been a frequent occurrence in the Fourth the Provincial Diet, thus expressed himself on Military District, as appears from the following the subject :

order of Major-General Gillem, successor to The war with the Paraguayan Government becomes General Ord in that command:







General Orders, No. 3.

sas, however, was the preparation of a new HEADQUARTERS FOURTH MILITARY DISTRIOT, State constitution, intended to correspond MISSISSIPPI AND ARKANSAS,

with the Reconstruction Acts of Congress, HOLLY SPRINGS, Miss., January 9, 1868. 1. General order No. 3, series of 1867, from these mentioned above, as it vitally affected the poheadquarters, is hereby so modified and 'amended as litical and social condition of her inhabitants. to restore to the civil tribunals, properly having cog- The matter being naturally of the highest imnizance under the respective statute laws of the States portance to them, and they being divided conof Mississippi and Arkansas, entire jurisdiction in all cerning it into quite opposite parties, though ordinary eases of horse-stealing, heretofore made triable under the provisions of that order before military not in equal numbers, every man in Arkansas commission. In case, however, any person charged took eager part in the struggle for carrying or with the crime of horse-stealing, and indicted

there- defeating the measure; which contention, and for, shall make oath before a judicial officer that, by the reciprocal efforts against each other to obreason of service in the army of the United States, or tain victory, so engrossed, if not wholly abrace or color, he cannot have an impartial trial at the sorbed, the people, that the ordinary affairs of hands of the civil authorities—then all action in the the State were now little cared for, and alcase shall be suspended, and the case reported at lowed to remain in comparative neglect, exonce to the nearest military post commander, who cept in so far as they could be used as means will cause an immediate investigation to be made by to serve in the present contest. an oficer of all the facts thereof. Should there be no military post within, say, fifty miles of the point, the For the purpose of assembling the convencase will be reported to the sub-district commander, tion to frame a new State constitution, to be who will order the investigation.

submitted to the people for ratification or reIf

, in the opinion of the officer making the investi- jection, an order was issued by General Ord, the civil tribunal having cognizance, he will officially on December 5, 1867, in which, after stating notify the proper civil officer; the suspension of the that, in the election just closed, the people of proceedings will cease from that time, and the case Arkansas had decided by a majority of votes will proceed in due course.

in favor of holding a convention, he fixed the But if, in the opinion of the investigating officer: 7th day of January, 1868, for the delegates to facts of his reasons for his belief will be forwarded at ly, and began their work. As they belonged, civil authorities, a full and explicit report of all the assemble at Little Rock. They met accordingonce to these headquarters, for the consideration and however, to opposite parties, called Democrats, further orders of the district commander. 2. The cases of all citizen prisoners, now in con

Conservatives, and Republicans, the latter finement under military guard, awaiting trial on the being in a large majority, the debate during charge of horse-stealing, will be at once investigated the session, which lasted about six weeks, was by the respective commanding officers of the posts at warm throughout; the subjects of dispute which they are confined, and special report made to among the members were, whether the new the sub-district commander of all cases which, in constitution should be framed and submitted their judgment, will receive impartial justice at the to the people in general for their ratification or bands of the civil authorities having cognizance.

The sub-district commanders are hereby authorized rejection, and also every provision offered to to give the necessary orders and instructions, to cause be inserted in it. Most prominent among the all such cases to be returned to civil jurisdiction with latter were the measures relating to the nethe least possible delay and expense. A report of the action taken

in each case will be forwarded by groes, as, the extending to them the elective the sub-district commander for file at these head- franchise; the necessity of the whites' and quarters.

negroes' children attending one common school By order of Brevet Maj.-Gen. ALVAN C. GILLEM. together; and the clause forbidding intermar

0. D. GREENE, Assistant Adjutant-General. riage between the two races. By a subsequent order, issued in the same It seems not out of place to notice here the month, General Gillem' allowed the State sentiments entertained by the negroes of Arcourts to have cognizance and proceed undis- kansas (and the same apparently prevail among turbed in other matters also, which his prede- those of the other Southern States) concerning cessor had taken away from them, as follows: the Government of the United States, their General Orders, No. 6.

own right to vote as citizens, their ability to HEADQUARTERS FOURTH MILITARY DISTRIOT,

use such right properly, their native intelliMISSISSIPPI AND ARKANSAS,

gence and capacity, as well as that of the white VICESBURG, Miss., January 27, 1868. men in general, and other things regarding the Circulars Nos. 19, 22, and 24, series of 1867, from relations between the two races under one these headquarters, are hereby revoked—without prejudice, however, to any action which may have from White County, styled in the reports as

common government. Mr. Cypert, a delegate Hereafter, all questions arising from settlements of Conservative, and of note in the convention, crops, and generally the relations of debtors and having offered, in its fifth sitting, an ordinance ereditors of civil suitors, will be left to the proper “to adopt and submit to the people for their civil courts-except such cases affecting the rights of ratification, as the constitution of the State of freedmen, or others, as by acts of Congress are spe- Arkansas, the same as now in force, being that cially committed to the care of the Bureau of Refugees, adopted on the

18th day of March, 1864,” and Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands. By order of Brevet Maj.-Gen. ALVAN C. GILLEM. having, in the course of debate thereupon, said JOHN TYLER, A. A. A. G.

that he was a friend to the negroes, had The great event of the year 1868, in Arkan served in the Freedmen's Bureau, was glad they


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